Kurukshetra Magazine May 2022 - 1 Notes | Study Monthly Yojana & Kurukshetra Magazine (English) - Current Affairs

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 Page 1


A Journal on Rural Development 
Vol. 70  No. 7  Pages  52
May  2022
Kurukshetra
Kurukshetra seeks to carry the message of Rural Development to all people. It serves as a forum for free, frank and serious discussion on the problems of Rural 
Development with special focus on Rural Uplift.
The views expressed by the authors in the articles are their own. They do not necessarily reflect the views of the Government or the organisations they work for.
The readers are requested to verify the claims in the advertisements regarding career guidance books/institutions. Kurukshetra does not own responsibility. Maps 
used  are for illustration & study purpose and may not strictly conform to the official map. Images, graphics and illustrations, wherever used, are mostly sourced from 
government channels and are indicative in nature. Final  Editing rights will vest with Kurukshetra Team.
Sales Emporia : ? Delhi - BM (I/c), Publications Division, CGO Complex, Soochna Bhavan, Lodhi Road, New Delhi-110003 (011-24365609); 
Hall No. 196, Old Secretariat, Delhi 110054 (011-23890205) ? Kolkata - BM (I/c),  Publications Division, 8, Esplanade East, Kolkata-700069 
(033-22482576) ? Mumbai - BM (I/c), Publications Division, 701, C-Wing, 7th Floor, Kendriya Sadan, Belapur, Navi Mumbai-400614 
(022-27570686) ? Chennai - BM (I/c), Publications Division, ‘A’ Wing, Rajaji Bhawan, Besant Nagar, Chennai - 600090 (044-24917673)  
? Thiruvananthapuram - BM, Publications Division, Press Road, Near Govt. Press, Thiruvananthpuram - 6950001 (0471-2330650)  
? Hyderabad - BM, Publications Division, Room No. 204, 2nd Floor, C.G.O. Towers, Kavadiguda, Hyderabad-500080 (040-27535383)   
? Bengaluru - BM (I/c), Sales Unit,  Floor, ‘F’ Wing, Kendriya Sadan, Koramangala, Bengaluru - 560034 (080-25537244)  
? Patna - BM, Publications Division, Bihar State Co-operative, Bank Building, Ashoka Rajpath, Patna-800004 (0612-2675823)  
? Lucknow - BM, Publications Division, Hall No. 1, 2nd Floor, Kendriya Bhawan, sector – H, Aliganj, Lucknow - 226024 (0522-2325455)  
? Ahmedabad -  Sales Unit, Publications Division, 4-C, Neptune Tower, 4th Floor, Nr HP Petrol Pump, Nehru Bridge Corner, Ashram Road, 
Ahmedabad Gujarat -380009 (079-26588669)  ? Guwahati - Publications Division, Assam Khadi and Village Industries Board, Ground 
Floor, MRD Road, Chandmari, Guwahati - 781003 (0361- 2668237/2664613)
CONTENT
? PMGSY - Changing Nature of India’s 
Rural Roads   
Dr. K. K. Tripathy and  
Dr. Sneha Kumari  5
EDITOR 
Shiela  Chaudhary 
Pankhuri Awasthi
JOINT DIRECTOR (PRODUCTION)
D.K.C. Hrudhainath
COVER DESIGN
Rajender Kumar
EDITORIAL OFFICE
Room No. 653,  
Publications Division,  
Soochna Bhawan, C.G.O. Complex,  
Lodhi Road,  New Delhi-110003 
Phone : 011-24362859  
Email : kurukshetrajournal@gmail.com
For Subscription Enquiries,  
Grievances,  Renewals and Agency  
Information, Please Contact:
Journals Unit 
Publications Division, Room No. 779,  
Soochna Bhawan, C.G.O. Complex,  
Lodhi Road, New Delhi-110 003
(Monday-Friday, 9:30 AM-6:00 PM)
TELE : 24367453  FAX: 24365610
Email : pdjucir@gmail.com
Website : publicationsdivision.nic.in
@publicationsdivision
@DPD_India
@dpd_India
For Online Sale, please log on to  
bharatkosh.gov.in/product, and for  
e-books, please visit Google Play,  
Kobo or Amazon.
Subscription* :
Inland
1 Year : `  230
2 Years : ` 430
3 Years : ` 610
Abroad (Air Mail)
One Year
` 530 (SAARC Countries)
` 730 (Other Countries)
* Revised from April 2016  
   Issue Onwards
? Connecting Rural Health Services
Urvashi Prasad and Sanyam Kapur  12
? BharatNet: Bringing Broadband to 
Rural India  
B S Purkayastha 16
? Socio-economic Impacts of National 
Highways  
Dr. Debabrata Samanta 24
? Railway Connectivity  
Dr. Amiya Kumar Mohapatra and 
Dr. Pradeepta Kumar Samanta 29
? Transforming Rural Connectivity   
Partha Pratim Sahu   35
? Rural Youth- Shaping New India 
Tripti Nath  39
? Digital Technologies for Development 
Bhakti Jain 44
Page 2


A Journal on Rural Development 
Vol. 70  No. 7  Pages  52
May  2022
Kurukshetra
Kurukshetra seeks to carry the message of Rural Development to all people. It serves as a forum for free, frank and serious discussion on the problems of Rural 
Development with special focus on Rural Uplift.
The views expressed by the authors in the articles are their own. They do not necessarily reflect the views of the Government or the organisations they work for.
The readers are requested to verify the claims in the advertisements regarding career guidance books/institutions. Kurukshetra does not own responsibility. Maps 
used  are for illustration & study purpose and may not strictly conform to the official map. Images, graphics and illustrations, wherever used, are mostly sourced from 
government channels and are indicative in nature. Final  Editing rights will vest with Kurukshetra Team.
Sales Emporia : ? Delhi - BM (I/c), Publications Division, CGO Complex, Soochna Bhavan, Lodhi Road, New Delhi-110003 (011-24365609); 
Hall No. 196, Old Secretariat, Delhi 110054 (011-23890205) ? Kolkata - BM (I/c),  Publications Division, 8, Esplanade East, Kolkata-700069 
(033-22482576) ? Mumbai - BM (I/c), Publications Division, 701, C-Wing, 7th Floor, Kendriya Sadan, Belapur, Navi Mumbai-400614 
(022-27570686) ? Chennai - BM (I/c), Publications Division, ‘A’ Wing, Rajaji Bhawan, Besant Nagar, Chennai - 600090 (044-24917673)  
? Thiruvananthapuram - BM, Publications Division, Press Road, Near Govt. Press, Thiruvananthpuram - 6950001 (0471-2330650)  
? Hyderabad - BM, Publications Division, Room No. 204, 2nd Floor, C.G.O. Towers, Kavadiguda, Hyderabad-500080 (040-27535383)   
? Bengaluru - BM (I/c), Sales Unit,  Floor, ‘F’ Wing, Kendriya Sadan, Koramangala, Bengaluru - 560034 (080-25537244)  
? Patna - BM, Publications Division, Bihar State Co-operative, Bank Building, Ashoka Rajpath, Patna-800004 (0612-2675823)  
? Lucknow - BM, Publications Division, Hall No. 1, 2nd Floor, Kendriya Bhawan, sector – H, Aliganj, Lucknow - 226024 (0522-2325455)  
? Ahmedabad -  Sales Unit, Publications Division, 4-C, Neptune Tower, 4th Floor, Nr HP Petrol Pump, Nehru Bridge Corner, Ashram Road, 
Ahmedabad Gujarat -380009 (079-26588669)  ? Guwahati - Publications Division, Assam Khadi and Village Industries Board, Ground 
Floor, MRD Road, Chandmari, Guwahati - 781003 (0361- 2668237/2664613)
CONTENT
? PMGSY - Changing Nature of India’s 
Rural Roads   
Dr. K. K. Tripathy and  
Dr. Sneha Kumari  5
EDITOR 
Shiela  Chaudhary 
Pankhuri Awasthi
JOINT DIRECTOR (PRODUCTION)
D.K.C. Hrudhainath
COVER DESIGN
Rajender Kumar
EDITORIAL OFFICE
Room No. 653,  
Publications Division,  
Soochna Bhawan, C.G.O. Complex,  
Lodhi Road,  New Delhi-110003 
Phone : 011-24362859  
Email : kurukshetrajournal@gmail.com
For Subscription Enquiries,  
Grievances,  Renewals and Agency  
Information, Please Contact:
Journals Unit 
Publications Division, Room No. 779,  
Soochna Bhawan, C.G.O. Complex,  
Lodhi Road, New Delhi-110 003
(Monday-Friday, 9:30 AM-6:00 PM)
TELE : 24367453  FAX: 24365610
Email : pdjucir@gmail.com
Website : publicationsdivision.nic.in
@publicationsdivision
@DPD_India
@dpd_India
For Online Sale, please log on to  
bharatkosh.gov.in/product, and for  
e-books, please visit Google Play,  
Kobo or Amazon.
Subscription* :
Inland
1 Year : `  230
2 Years : ` 430
3 Years : ` 610
Abroad (Air Mail)
One Year
` 530 (SAARC Countries)
` 730 (Other Countries)
* Revised from April 2016  
   Issue Onwards
? Connecting Rural Health Services
Urvashi Prasad and Sanyam Kapur  12
? BharatNet: Bringing Broadband to 
Rural India  
B S Purkayastha 16
? Socio-economic Impacts of National 
Highways  
Dr. Debabrata Samanta 24
? Railway Connectivity  
Dr. Amiya Kumar Mohapatra and 
Dr. Pradeepta Kumar Samanta 29
? Transforming Rural Connectivity   
Partha Pratim Sahu   35
? Rural Youth- Shaping New India 
Tripti Nath  39
? Digital Technologies for Development 
Bhakti Jain 44
Kurukshetra      May  2022 4
India is traditionally an agrarian economy. Nearly, 69 percent of its population 
still resides in the villages. The penetration level of the new technologies and 
ICT platforms is continuously increasing in rural areas, thus enhancing the rural 
connectivity. Access to digital as well as physical infrastructure like roads, railways, 
airports, hospitals, etc. can be transformative, helping citizens to improve 
their livelihoods and enabling businesses to flourish. The government is taking 
numerous steps to connect the rural areas with the rest of country to achieve the 
vision of Aatma Nirbhar Bharat. Therefore, the theme of this issue of Kurukshetra 
is dedicated to Rural Connectivity.
A good road infrastructure connects the rural areas with the nearby urban 
or semi-urban areas and ensures a quick flow of services and goods to meet 
emerging demands. It ensures a competitive advantage and helps in improving the 
inventory, storage, supply chain, and operations management. The article titled 
PMGSY - Changing Nature of India’s Rural Roads affirms the role of PMGSY to 
connect rural India as since the inception of the PMGSY scheme, more than 6.80 
lakh km of roads have been constructed connecting around 1.6 lakh habitations 
with an expenditure of 2.69 lakh crore. The pace of construction of rural roads 
under PMGSY has seen massive growth during the last seven years and emphasis 
has been given to new technology like green technology. 
The article Transforming Rural Connectivity states that rural connectivity 
programme requires a robust service enterprise framework with public and 
private stakeholders at the very core. There is a need to create a vibrant 4P model 
i.e. Public-Private-Panchayat Partnerships for inclusive and sustainable rural 
development through rural connectivity.
Access to healthcare services is critical to good health, yet rural residents 
face a variety of access barriers. The article Connecting Rural Health Services 
highlights the need and ways to strengthen the rural health services in India as it 
plays a crucial role directly and indirectly creating the linkages between people in 
rural and urban areas.
Railways is considered as ‘Lifeline of India’ and helps in enhancing people’s 
capabilities, choices and quality of life. The article Railway Connectivity throws 
light upon the fact that ‘Railway Infrastructure’ is considered as an important 
contributing factor for regional, social, economic development of a country like 
India. It helps in the creation of employment, enhances connectivity, improves 
accessibility, increases production, facilitates trade and commerce and is overall 
considered as an engine of progress and a great source of national integration.
Like Railways, other physical infrastructures like roads have multiplier effect 
on economic development of the region and standard of living of people. According 
to the article Socio-economic Impacts of National Highways on Rural People, 
the impact of National highways on connecting people have been tremendous.  
Development of Highways have a direct impact in the form of enhancement of 
spatial connectivity, which increase mobility of people and freight and it reduces 
the cost of provision as well as the cost of use of road infrastructure.
The article titled BharatNet: Bringing Broadband to Rural India emphasises on 
the need of internet connections to bring the rural areas at par with metropolitan 
cities. 
We wish our readers a happy reading.
Page 3


A Journal on Rural Development 
Vol. 70  No. 7  Pages  52
May  2022
Kurukshetra
Kurukshetra seeks to carry the message of Rural Development to all people. It serves as a forum for free, frank and serious discussion on the problems of Rural 
Development with special focus on Rural Uplift.
The views expressed by the authors in the articles are their own. They do not necessarily reflect the views of the Government or the organisations they work for.
The readers are requested to verify the claims in the advertisements regarding career guidance books/institutions. Kurukshetra does not own responsibility. Maps 
used  are for illustration & study purpose and may not strictly conform to the official map. Images, graphics and illustrations, wherever used, are mostly sourced from 
government channels and are indicative in nature. Final  Editing rights will vest with Kurukshetra Team.
Sales Emporia : ? Delhi - BM (I/c), Publications Division, CGO Complex, Soochna Bhavan, Lodhi Road, New Delhi-110003 (011-24365609); 
Hall No. 196, Old Secretariat, Delhi 110054 (011-23890205) ? Kolkata - BM (I/c),  Publications Division, 8, Esplanade East, Kolkata-700069 
(033-22482576) ? Mumbai - BM (I/c), Publications Division, 701, C-Wing, 7th Floor, Kendriya Sadan, Belapur, Navi Mumbai-400614 
(022-27570686) ? Chennai - BM (I/c), Publications Division, ‘A’ Wing, Rajaji Bhawan, Besant Nagar, Chennai - 600090 (044-24917673)  
? Thiruvananthapuram - BM, Publications Division, Press Road, Near Govt. Press, Thiruvananthpuram - 6950001 (0471-2330650)  
? Hyderabad - BM, Publications Division, Room No. 204, 2nd Floor, C.G.O. Towers, Kavadiguda, Hyderabad-500080 (040-27535383)   
? Bengaluru - BM (I/c), Sales Unit,  Floor, ‘F’ Wing, Kendriya Sadan, Koramangala, Bengaluru - 560034 (080-25537244)  
? Patna - BM, Publications Division, Bihar State Co-operative, Bank Building, Ashoka Rajpath, Patna-800004 (0612-2675823)  
? Lucknow - BM, Publications Division, Hall No. 1, 2nd Floor, Kendriya Bhawan, sector – H, Aliganj, Lucknow - 226024 (0522-2325455)  
? Ahmedabad -  Sales Unit, Publications Division, 4-C, Neptune Tower, 4th Floor, Nr HP Petrol Pump, Nehru Bridge Corner, Ashram Road, 
Ahmedabad Gujarat -380009 (079-26588669)  ? Guwahati - Publications Division, Assam Khadi and Village Industries Board, Ground 
Floor, MRD Road, Chandmari, Guwahati - 781003 (0361- 2668237/2664613)
CONTENT
? PMGSY - Changing Nature of India’s 
Rural Roads   
Dr. K. K. Tripathy and  
Dr. Sneha Kumari  5
EDITOR 
Shiela  Chaudhary 
Pankhuri Awasthi
JOINT DIRECTOR (PRODUCTION)
D.K.C. Hrudhainath
COVER DESIGN
Rajender Kumar
EDITORIAL OFFICE
Room No. 653,  
Publications Division,  
Soochna Bhawan, C.G.O. Complex,  
Lodhi Road,  New Delhi-110003 
Phone : 011-24362859  
Email : kurukshetrajournal@gmail.com
For Subscription Enquiries,  
Grievances,  Renewals and Agency  
Information, Please Contact:
Journals Unit 
Publications Division, Room No. 779,  
Soochna Bhawan, C.G.O. Complex,  
Lodhi Road, New Delhi-110 003
(Monday-Friday, 9:30 AM-6:00 PM)
TELE : 24367453  FAX: 24365610
Email : pdjucir@gmail.com
Website : publicationsdivision.nic.in
@publicationsdivision
@DPD_India
@dpd_India
For Online Sale, please log on to  
bharatkosh.gov.in/product, and for  
e-books, please visit Google Play,  
Kobo or Amazon.
Subscription* :
Inland
1 Year : `  230
2 Years : ` 430
3 Years : ` 610
Abroad (Air Mail)
One Year
` 530 (SAARC Countries)
` 730 (Other Countries)
* Revised from April 2016  
   Issue Onwards
? Connecting Rural Health Services
Urvashi Prasad and Sanyam Kapur  12
? BharatNet: Bringing Broadband to 
Rural India  
B S Purkayastha 16
? Socio-economic Impacts of National 
Highways  
Dr. Debabrata Samanta 24
? Railway Connectivity  
Dr. Amiya Kumar Mohapatra and 
Dr. Pradeepta Kumar Samanta 29
? Transforming Rural Connectivity   
Partha Pratim Sahu   35
? Rural Youth- Shaping New India 
Tripti Nath  39
? Digital Technologies for Development 
Bhakti Jain 44
Kurukshetra      May  2022 4
India is traditionally an agrarian economy. Nearly, 69 percent of its population 
still resides in the villages. The penetration level of the new technologies and 
ICT platforms is continuously increasing in rural areas, thus enhancing the rural 
connectivity. Access to digital as well as physical infrastructure like roads, railways, 
airports, hospitals, etc. can be transformative, helping citizens to improve 
their livelihoods and enabling businesses to flourish. The government is taking 
numerous steps to connect the rural areas with the rest of country to achieve the 
vision of Aatma Nirbhar Bharat. Therefore, the theme of this issue of Kurukshetra 
is dedicated to Rural Connectivity.
A good road infrastructure connects the rural areas with the nearby urban 
or semi-urban areas and ensures a quick flow of services and goods to meet 
emerging demands. It ensures a competitive advantage and helps in improving the 
inventory, storage, supply chain, and operations management. The article titled 
PMGSY - Changing Nature of India’s Rural Roads affirms the role of PMGSY to 
connect rural India as since the inception of the PMGSY scheme, more than 6.80 
lakh km of roads have been constructed connecting around 1.6 lakh habitations 
with an expenditure of 2.69 lakh crore. The pace of construction of rural roads 
under PMGSY has seen massive growth during the last seven years and emphasis 
has been given to new technology like green technology. 
The article Transforming Rural Connectivity states that rural connectivity 
programme requires a robust service enterprise framework with public and 
private stakeholders at the very core. There is a need to create a vibrant 4P model 
i.e. Public-Private-Panchayat Partnerships for inclusive and sustainable rural 
development through rural connectivity.
Access to healthcare services is critical to good health, yet rural residents 
face a variety of access barriers. The article Connecting Rural Health Services 
highlights the need and ways to strengthen the rural health services in India as it 
plays a crucial role directly and indirectly creating the linkages between people in 
rural and urban areas.
Railways is considered as ‘Lifeline of India’ and helps in enhancing people’s 
capabilities, choices and quality of life. The article Railway Connectivity throws 
light upon the fact that ‘Railway Infrastructure’ is considered as an important 
contributing factor for regional, social, economic development of a country like 
India. It helps in the creation of employment, enhances connectivity, improves 
accessibility, increases production, facilitates trade and commerce and is overall 
considered as an engine of progress and a great source of national integration.
Like Railways, other physical infrastructures like roads have multiplier effect 
on economic development of the region and standard of living of people. According 
to the article Socio-economic Impacts of National Highways on Rural People, 
the impact of National highways on connecting people have been tremendous.  
Development of Highways have a direct impact in the form of enhancement of 
spatial connectivity, which increase mobility of people and freight and it reduces 
the cost of provision as well as the cost of use of road infrastructure.
The article titled BharatNet: Bringing Broadband to Rural India emphasises on 
the need of internet connections to bring the rural areas at par with metropolitan 
cities. 
We wish our readers a happy reading.
Kurukshetra      May  2022 5
ndia lives in more than 6.5 lakh villages 
where 69 percent (89 crore) of her 
population is rural. The country’s 650 
plus rural districts have 14.5 crore 
farmer households. The prime occupations of 
the rural population are – cultivation, agricultural 
labour, rural artisanry, retail business/small 
services, etc. The large size and share of the 
rural population, their prevalent socio-economic 
situations and the desired levels of quality of life 
demands an all-round improvement in the rural 
infrastructure. Improved infrastructure is the 
key to achieve the objectives of an equitable and 
inclusive growth with social justice. The country, 
during the last seven decades of planning and 
Dr. K. K. Tripathy and Dr. Sneha Kumari
The PMGSY roads are known for their construction quality and durability. To ensure quality in the construction of rural roads, 
vigorous quality control measures are followed, backed by independent quality checks and measurements. The inbuilt clause 
of five years of maintenance within the construction contract also helped in the maintenance of the newly created assets. 
Since all the eligible rural habitations have been connected, it is required now to strengthen and widen its ambit further 
to include major link routes which connect habitations to agricultural and rural markets, higher secondary schools and 
hospitals/health centres.
PMGSY - Changing Nature of India’s Rural Roads 
I
coordination, has devised and launched a series 
of strategic approaches to economic growth. The 
country’s economists, planners and policy makers 
have always visualised a vibrant rural India and 
advocated persistent improvement and expansion 
of rural socio-economic infrastructure. 
A strong rural road infrastructure ensures 
economic development through reduced cost of 
production and logistics, increased productivity, 
improved economies of scale, enhanced 
employment and improvement in public and 
private investments in rural farm and non-farm 
activities. It has its own systemic linkage effects 
and it provides better avenues of marketing of 
Page 4


A Journal on Rural Development 
Vol. 70  No. 7  Pages  52
May  2022
Kurukshetra
Kurukshetra seeks to carry the message of Rural Development to all people. It serves as a forum for free, frank and serious discussion on the problems of Rural 
Development with special focus on Rural Uplift.
The views expressed by the authors in the articles are their own. They do not necessarily reflect the views of the Government or the organisations they work for.
The readers are requested to verify the claims in the advertisements regarding career guidance books/institutions. Kurukshetra does not own responsibility. Maps 
used  are for illustration & study purpose and may not strictly conform to the official map. Images, graphics and illustrations, wherever used, are mostly sourced from 
government channels and are indicative in nature. Final  Editing rights will vest with Kurukshetra Team.
Sales Emporia : ? Delhi - BM (I/c), Publications Division, CGO Complex, Soochna Bhavan, Lodhi Road, New Delhi-110003 (011-24365609); 
Hall No. 196, Old Secretariat, Delhi 110054 (011-23890205) ? Kolkata - BM (I/c),  Publications Division, 8, Esplanade East, Kolkata-700069 
(033-22482576) ? Mumbai - BM (I/c), Publications Division, 701, C-Wing, 7th Floor, Kendriya Sadan, Belapur, Navi Mumbai-400614 
(022-27570686) ? Chennai - BM (I/c), Publications Division, ‘A’ Wing, Rajaji Bhawan, Besant Nagar, Chennai - 600090 (044-24917673)  
? Thiruvananthapuram - BM, Publications Division, Press Road, Near Govt. Press, Thiruvananthpuram - 6950001 (0471-2330650)  
? Hyderabad - BM, Publications Division, Room No. 204, 2nd Floor, C.G.O. Towers, Kavadiguda, Hyderabad-500080 (040-27535383)   
? Bengaluru - BM (I/c), Sales Unit,  Floor, ‘F’ Wing, Kendriya Sadan, Koramangala, Bengaluru - 560034 (080-25537244)  
? Patna - BM, Publications Division, Bihar State Co-operative, Bank Building, Ashoka Rajpath, Patna-800004 (0612-2675823)  
? Lucknow - BM, Publications Division, Hall No. 1, 2nd Floor, Kendriya Bhawan, sector – H, Aliganj, Lucknow - 226024 (0522-2325455)  
? Ahmedabad -  Sales Unit, Publications Division, 4-C, Neptune Tower, 4th Floor, Nr HP Petrol Pump, Nehru Bridge Corner, Ashram Road, 
Ahmedabad Gujarat -380009 (079-26588669)  ? Guwahati - Publications Division, Assam Khadi and Village Industries Board, Ground 
Floor, MRD Road, Chandmari, Guwahati - 781003 (0361- 2668237/2664613)
CONTENT
? PMGSY - Changing Nature of India’s 
Rural Roads   
Dr. K. K. Tripathy and  
Dr. Sneha Kumari  5
EDITOR 
Shiela  Chaudhary 
Pankhuri Awasthi
JOINT DIRECTOR (PRODUCTION)
D.K.C. Hrudhainath
COVER DESIGN
Rajender Kumar
EDITORIAL OFFICE
Room No. 653,  
Publications Division,  
Soochna Bhawan, C.G.O. Complex,  
Lodhi Road,  New Delhi-110003 
Phone : 011-24362859  
Email : kurukshetrajournal@gmail.com
For Subscription Enquiries,  
Grievances,  Renewals and Agency  
Information, Please Contact:
Journals Unit 
Publications Division, Room No. 779,  
Soochna Bhawan, C.G.O. Complex,  
Lodhi Road, New Delhi-110 003
(Monday-Friday, 9:30 AM-6:00 PM)
TELE : 24367453  FAX: 24365610
Email : pdjucir@gmail.com
Website : publicationsdivision.nic.in
@publicationsdivision
@DPD_India
@dpd_India
For Online Sale, please log on to  
bharatkosh.gov.in/product, and for  
e-books, please visit Google Play,  
Kobo or Amazon.
Subscription* :
Inland
1 Year : `  230
2 Years : ` 430
3 Years : ` 610
Abroad (Air Mail)
One Year
` 530 (SAARC Countries)
` 730 (Other Countries)
* Revised from April 2016  
   Issue Onwards
? Connecting Rural Health Services
Urvashi Prasad and Sanyam Kapur  12
? BharatNet: Bringing Broadband to 
Rural India  
B S Purkayastha 16
? Socio-economic Impacts of National 
Highways  
Dr. Debabrata Samanta 24
? Railway Connectivity  
Dr. Amiya Kumar Mohapatra and 
Dr. Pradeepta Kumar Samanta 29
? Transforming Rural Connectivity   
Partha Pratim Sahu   35
? Rural Youth- Shaping New India 
Tripti Nath  39
? Digital Technologies for Development 
Bhakti Jain 44
Kurukshetra      May  2022 4
India is traditionally an agrarian economy. Nearly, 69 percent of its population 
still resides in the villages. The penetration level of the new technologies and 
ICT platforms is continuously increasing in rural areas, thus enhancing the rural 
connectivity. Access to digital as well as physical infrastructure like roads, railways, 
airports, hospitals, etc. can be transformative, helping citizens to improve 
their livelihoods and enabling businesses to flourish. The government is taking 
numerous steps to connect the rural areas with the rest of country to achieve the 
vision of Aatma Nirbhar Bharat. Therefore, the theme of this issue of Kurukshetra 
is dedicated to Rural Connectivity.
A good road infrastructure connects the rural areas with the nearby urban 
or semi-urban areas and ensures a quick flow of services and goods to meet 
emerging demands. It ensures a competitive advantage and helps in improving the 
inventory, storage, supply chain, and operations management. The article titled 
PMGSY - Changing Nature of India’s Rural Roads affirms the role of PMGSY to 
connect rural India as since the inception of the PMGSY scheme, more than 6.80 
lakh km of roads have been constructed connecting around 1.6 lakh habitations 
with an expenditure of 2.69 lakh crore. The pace of construction of rural roads 
under PMGSY has seen massive growth during the last seven years and emphasis 
has been given to new technology like green technology. 
The article Transforming Rural Connectivity states that rural connectivity 
programme requires a robust service enterprise framework with public and 
private stakeholders at the very core. There is a need to create a vibrant 4P model 
i.e. Public-Private-Panchayat Partnerships for inclusive and sustainable rural 
development through rural connectivity.
Access to healthcare services is critical to good health, yet rural residents 
face a variety of access barriers. The article Connecting Rural Health Services 
highlights the need and ways to strengthen the rural health services in India as it 
plays a crucial role directly and indirectly creating the linkages between people in 
rural and urban areas.
Railways is considered as ‘Lifeline of India’ and helps in enhancing people’s 
capabilities, choices and quality of life. The article Railway Connectivity throws 
light upon the fact that ‘Railway Infrastructure’ is considered as an important 
contributing factor for regional, social, economic development of a country like 
India. It helps in the creation of employment, enhances connectivity, improves 
accessibility, increases production, facilitates trade and commerce and is overall 
considered as an engine of progress and a great source of national integration.
Like Railways, other physical infrastructures like roads have multiplier effect 
on economic development of the region and standard of living of people. According 
to the article Socio-economic Impacts of National Highways on Rural People, 
the impact of National highways on connecting people have been tremendous.  
Development of Highways have a direct impact in the form of enhancement of 
spatial connectivity, which increase mobility of people and freight and it reduces 
the cost of provision as well as the cost of use of road infrastructure.
The article titled BharatNet: Bringing Broadband to Rural India emphasises on 
the need of internet connections to bring the rural areas at par with metropolitan 
cities. 
We wish our readers a happy reading.
Kurukshetra      May  2022 5
ndia lives in more than 6.5 lakh villages 
where 69 percent (89 crore) of her 
population is rural. The country’s 650 
plus rural districts have 14.5 crore 
farmer households. The prime occupations of 
the rural population are – cultivation, agricultural 
labour, rural artisanry, retail business/small 
services, etc. The large size and share of the 
rural population, their prevalent socio-economic 
situations and the desired levels of quality of life 
demands an all-round improvement in the rural 
infrastructure. Improved infrastructure is the 
key to achieve the objectives of an equitable and 
inclusive growth with social justice. The country, 
during the last seven decades of planning and 
Dr. K. K. Tripathy and Dr. Sneha Kumari
The PMGSY roads are known for their construction quality and durability. To ensure quality in the construction of rural roads, 
vigorous quality control measures are followed, backed by independent quality checks and measurements. The inbuilt clause 
of five years of maintenance within the construction contract also helped in the maintenance of the newly created assets. 
Since all the eligible rural habitations have been connected, it is required now to strengthen and widen its ambit further 
to include major link routes which connect habitations to agricultural and rural markets, higher secondary schools and 
hospitals/health centres.
PMGSY - Changing Nature of India’s Rural Roads 
I
coordination, has devised and launched a series 
of strategic approaches to economic growth. The 
country’s economists, planners and policy makers 
have always visualised a vibrant rural India and 
advocated persistent improvement and expansion 
of rural socio-economic infrastructure. 
A strong rural road infrastructure ensures 
economic development through reduced cost of 
production and logistics, increased productivity, 
improved economies of scale, enhanced 
employment and improvement in public and 
private investments in rural farm and non-farm 
activities. It has its own systemic linkage effects 
and it provides better avenues of marketing of 
Kurukshetra      May  2022 6
farm and non-farm products and services are 
facilitated in a rural set up. Infrastructure is also 
considered as one of the five inherent pillars of the 
Aatma Nirbhar Bharat in addition to the economy, 
system, vibrant demography and demand.
Need of Rural Connectivity
Market access and business sustainability are 
positively correlated with connectivity . The modern-
day rural transformation is largely driven by the 
improvements in the rural-urban transportation 
and connectivity to markets. The occupations 
of rural areas will become viable, profitable and 
acceptable only when there is an all-weather rural 
connectivity. Improved transportation networks 
help in connecting markets for smooth and timely 
transactions of commodities and services. Poor 
road connectivity not only limits market access of 
marketable products and services but also reduces 
competitive advantages. The benefits of enhanced 
agriculture productivity are often wasted due to 
lack of proper market linkages.
Figure 1: Need for Rural Connectivity
standards of community health and education and 
improved quality of life of people. 
Rural Road Growth
The country has the second-largest road 
network in the world. There is a consistent effort 
to connect rural communities for ensuring them 
basic amenities and the necessary markets. 
The road network has not only helped to place 
and transport goods and services to the right 
destination at the right time, but it has also 
supported sustaining their livelihood. Rural road 
transportation has gradually increased over the 
years with the improvement in investments in 
projects connecting the villages with cities and 
towns. Table 1 shows that the growth of rural 
roads have expanded over the years 
Table 1 : Growth of Rural Roads
Category Rural Road 
Length 
(Km)
Total Road 
Length 
(Km)
Percent Share 
of Rural Roads 
to Total 
1950-51 2,06,408 3,99,942 51.6
1960-61 1,97,194 5,24,478 37.6
1970-71 3,54,530 9,14,979 38.7
1980-81 6,28,865 14,85,421 42.3
1990-91 12,60,430 23,27,362 54.2
2000-01 19,72,016 33,73,520 58.5
2010-11 27,49,804 46,76,838 58.8
2014-15 33,37,255 54,72,144 61
2015-16 39,35,337 56,03,293 70.2
2016-17 41,66,576 58,97,671 70.6
2017-18 
(Provisional)
44,09,582 62,15,797 70.9
2018-19 
(Provisional)
45,41,631 63,71,847 71.2
Source: Annual Report 2021-22, Ministry of Road Transport 
and Highways 
Rural roads are constructed through various 
schemes/ interventions of multiple institutions 
viz. Panchayati Raj Institutions, (Zila Parishad, 
Panchayat Samiti, Gram Panchayat), Pradhan 
Mantri Gram Sadak Y ojana (PMGSY) and State Public 
Works Departments. Roads in the rural sector are 
the core of rural development. Roads have helped 
in promoting access to economic and social 
services, thereby generating increased agricultural 
productivity, non-agriculture employment as well 
as non-agricultural productivity, which in turn 
Figure 1 shows the need for rural connectivity. 
A good road infrastructure connects the rural 
areas with the nearby urban or semi-urban areas 
and ensures a quick flow of services and goods to 
meet emerging demands. It ensures a competitive 
advantage and helps in improving the inventory, 
storage, supply chain, and operations management. 
The competitive advantage is measured in terms 
of efficient supply of natural resources, significant 
reduction of harmful elements, creation of 
diversified and sector-specific jobs, improved 
Page 5


A Journal on Rural Development 
Vol. 70  No. 7  Pages  52
May  2022
Kurukshetra
Kurukshetra seeks to carry the message of Rural Development to all people. It serves as a forum for free, frank and serious discussion on the problems of Rural 
Development with special focus on Rural Uplift.
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CONTENT
? PMGSY - Changing Nature of India’s 
Rural Roads   
Dr. K. K. Tripathy and  
Dr. Sneha Kumari  5
EDITOR 
Shiela  Chaudhary 
Pankhuri Awasthi
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   Issue Onwards
? Connecting Rural Health Services
Urvashi Prasad and Sanyam Kapur  12
? BharatNet: Bringing Broadband to 
Rural India  
B S Purkayastha 16
? Socio-economic Impacts of National 
Highways  
Dr. Debabrata Samanta 24
? Railway Connectivity  
Dr. Amiya Kumar Mohapatra and 
Dr. Pradeepta Kumar Samanta 29
? Transforming Rural Connectivity   
Partha Pratim Sahu   35
? Rural Youth- Shaping New India 
Tripti Nath  39
? Digital Technologies for Development 
Bhakti Jain 44
Kurukshetra      May  2022 4
India is traditionally an agrarian economy. Nearly, 69 percent of its population 
still resides in the villages. The penetration level of the new technologies and 
ICT platforms is continuously increasing in rural areas, thus enhancing the rural 
connectivity. Access to digital as well as physical infrastructure like roads, railways, 
airports, hospitals, etc. can be transformative, helping citizens to improve 
their livelihoods and enabling businesses to flourish. The government is taking 
numerous steps to connect the rural areas with the rest of country to achieve the 
vision of Aatma Nirbhar Bharat. Therefore, the theme of this issue of Kurukshetra 
is dedicated to Rural Connectivity.
A good road infrastructure connects the rural areas with the nearby urban 
or semi-urban areas and ensures a quick flow of services and goods to meet 
emerging demands. It ensures a competitive advantage and helps in improving the 
inventory, storage, supply chain, and operations management. The article titled 
PMGSY - Changing Nature of India’s Rural Roads affirms the role of PMGSY to 
connect rural India as since the inception of the PMGSY scheme, more than 6.80 
lakh km of roads have been constructed connecting around 1.6 lakh habitations 
with an expenditure of 2.69 lakh crore. The pace of construction of rural roads 
under PMGSY has seen massive growth during the last seven years and emphasis 
has been given to new technology like green technology. 
The article Transforming Rural Connectivity states that rural connectivity 
programme requires a robust service enterprise framework with public and 
private stakeholders at the very core. There is a need to create a vibrant 4P model 
i.e. Public-Private-Panchayat Partnerships for inclusive and sustainable rural 
development through rural connectivity.
Access to healthcare services is critical to good health, yet rural residents 
face a variety of access barriers. The article Connecting Rural Health Services 
highlights the need and ways to strengthen the rural health services in India as it 
plays a crucial role directly and indirectly creating the linkages between people in 
rural and urban areas.
Railways is considered as ‘Lifeline of India’ and helps in enhancing people’s 
capabilities, choices and quality of life. The article Railway Connectivity throws 
light upon the fact that ‘Railway Infrastructure’ is considered as an important 
contributing factor for regional, social, economic development of a country like 
India. It helps in the creation of employment, enhances connectivity, improves 
accessibility, increases production, facilitates trade and commerce and is overall 
considered as an engine of progress and a great source of national integration.
Like Railways, other physical infrastructures like roads have multiplier effect 
on economic development of the region and standard of living of people. According 
to the article Socio-economic Impacts of National Highways on Rural People, 
the impact of National highways on connecting people have been tremendous.  
Development of Highways have a direct impact in the form of enhancement of 
spatial connectivity, which increase mobility of people and freight and it reduces 
the cost of provision as well as the cost of use of road infrastructure.
The article titled BharatNet: Bringing Broadband to Rural India emphasises on 
the need of internet connections to bring the rural areas at par with metropolitan 
cities. 
We wish our readers a happy reading.
Kurukshetra      May  2022 5
ndia lives in more than 6.5 lakh villages 
where 69 percent (89 crore) of her 
population is rural. The country’s 650 
plus rural districts have 14.5 crore 
farmer households. The prime occupations of 
the rural population are – cultivation, agricultural 
labour, rural artisanry, retail business/small 
services, etc. The large size and share of the 
rural population, their prevalent socio-economic 
situations and the desired levels of quality of life 
demands an all-round improvement in the rural 
infrastructure. Improved infrastructure is the 
key to achieve the objectives of an equitable and 
inclusive growth with social justice. The country, 
during the last seven decades of planning and 
Dr. K. K. Tripathy and Dr. Sneha Kumari
The PMGSY roads are known for their construction quality and durability. To ensure quality in the construction of rural roads, 
vigorous quality control measures are followed, backed by independent quality checks and measurements. The inbuilt clause 
of five years of maintenance within the construction contract also helped in the maintenance of the newly created assets. 
Since all the eligible rural habitations have been connected, it is required now to strengthen and widen its ambit further 
to include major link routes which connect habitations to agricultural and rural markets, higher secondary schools and 
hospitals/health centres.
PMGSY - Changing Nature of India’s Rural Roads 
I
coordination, has devised and launched a series 
of strategic approaches to economic growth. The 
country’s economists, planners and policy makers 
have always visualised a vibrant rural India and 
advocated persistent improvement and expansion 
of rural socio-economic infrastructure. 
A strong rural road infrastructure ensures 
economic development through reduced cost of 
production and logistics, increased productivity, 
improved economies of scale, enhanced 
employment and improvement in public and 
private investments in rural farm and non-farm 
activities. It has its own systemic linkage effects 
and it provides better avenues of marketing of 
Kurukshetra      May  2022 6
farm and non-farm products and services are 
facilitated in a rural set up. Infrastructure is also 
considered as one of the five inherent pillars of the 
Aatma Nirbhar Bharat in addition to the economy, 
system, vibrant demography and demand.
Need of Rural Connectivity
Market access and business sustainability are 
positively correlated with connectivity . The modern-
day rural transformation is largely driven by the 
improvements in the rural-urban transportation 
and connectivity to markets. The occupations 
of rural areas will become viable, profitable and 
acceptable only when there is an all-weather rural 
connectivity. Improved transportation networks 
help in connecting markets for smooth and timely 
transactions of commodities and services. Poor 
road connectivity not only limits market access of 
marketable products and services but also reduces 
competitive advantages. The benefits of enhanced 
agriculture productivity are often wasted due to 
lack of proper market linkages.
Figure 1: Need for Rural Connectivity
standards of community health and education and 
improved quality of life of people. 
Rural Road Growth
The country has the second-largest road 
network in the world. There is a consistent effort 
to connect rural communities for ensuring them 
basic amenities and the necessary markets. 
The road network has not only helped to place 
and transport goods and services to the right 
destination at the right time, but it has also 
supported sustaining their livelihood. Rural road 
transportation has gradually increased over the 
years with the improvement in investments in 
projects connecting the villages with cities and 
towns. Table 1 shows that the growth of rural 
roads have expanded over the years 
Table 1 : Growth of Rural Roads
Category Rural Road 
Length 
(Km)
Total Road 
Length 
(Km)
Percent Share 
of Rural Roads 
to Total 
1950-51 2,06,408 3,99,942 51.6
1960-61 1,97,194 5,24,478 37.6
1970-71 3,54,530 9,14,979 38.7
1980-81 6,28,865 14,85,421 42.3
1990-91 12,60,430 23,27,362 54.2
2000-01 19,72,016 33,73,520 58.5
2010-11 27,49,804 46,76,838 58.8
2014-15 33,37,255 54,72,144 61
2015-16 39,35,337 56,03,293 70.2
2016-17 41,66,576 58,97,671 70.6
2017-18 
(Provisional)
44,09,582 62,15,797 70.9
2018-19 
(Provisional)
45,41,631 63,71,847 71.2
Source: Annual Report 2021-22, Ministry of Road Transport 
and Highways 
Rural roads are constructed through various 
schemes/ interventions of multiple institutions 
viz. Panchayati Raj Institutions, (Zila Parishad, 
Panchayat Samiti, Gram Panchayat), Pradhan 
Mantri Gram Sadak Y ojana (PMGSY) and State Public 
Works Departments. Roads in the rural sector are 
the core of rural development. Roads have helped 
in promoting access to economic and social 
services, thereby generating increased agricultural 
productivity, non-agriculture employment as well 
as non-agricultural productivity, which in turn 
Figure 1 shows the need for rural connectivity. 
A good road infrastructure connects the rural 
areas with the nearby urban or semi-urban areas 
and ensures a quick flow of services and goods to 
meet emerging demands. It ensures a competitive 
advantage and helps in improving the inventory, 
storage, supply chain, and operations management. 
The competitive advantage is measured in terms 
of efficient supply of natural resources, significant 
reduction of harmful elements, creation of 
diversified and sector-specific jobs, improved 
Kurukshetra      May  2022 7
expands rural growth opportunities and real 
income in the hands of the people. 
Basic Road Statistics of the Ministry of Road 
Transport and Highways as presented within the 
Annual Report 2021-22 provides data about the 
total road length in the country and the category-
wise breakups. The total road length in the country 
has increased impressively from 3.99 lakh km in 
1951 to 63.71 lakh km in 2019 at a compound 
annual growth rate of 4.2 percent. The percentage 
of surfaced road length to the total road was 64.65 
in 2019. As on 31.03.2019, the total road length 
in the country was 63,71,847 km out of which 
rural road length was 45,41,631 km. The share of 
the rural roads was the highest at 71.27 percent, 
followed by district roads (9.94 percent), urban 
roads (8.5 percent), State highways (2.82 percent) 
and National Highways (2.08 percent) of the total 
road network in the country.
PMGSY and All-Weather Rural Connectivity 
‘Rural Roads’ is a State subject. The Pradhan 
Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY), as a part of 
the poverty reduction strategy of the Government 
of India, was implemented on 25 December 
2000. This was conceived as a one-time special 
intervention to provide road connectivity by 
way of a single all-weather road to the eligible 
unconnected habitations as per core-network 
with a population size of 500+ in plain areas. For 
Table 2: Performance of PMGSY since Inception
SN Indicator PMGSY I PMGSY II PMGSY III Total
1 Number of Road Works sanctioned 1,64,804 6,700 9,972 1,81,476
2 Road Length Sanctioned (Km) 6,45,599.2 49,884.9 77,128.69 7,72,612.79
3 Number of Bridge works sanctioned 7,520 765 708 8,993
4 Number of Road Works Completed 1,59,473 5,629 1,491 1,66,593
5 Number of Bridge Works Completed 5,724 535 56 6,315
6 Road Length Completed (in Km) 6,11,302.7 46,022.6 23,840 6,81,165.3
Source: 22
nd
 Report of the Standing Committee on Rural Development & Panchayati Raj, Demand for Grants (2022-23), Ministry 
of Rural Development
special category States viz. Arunachal Pradesh, 
Assam, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, 
Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, 
Tripura, and Uttarakhand and identified areas 
under the Desert Development Programme, 
Schedule V tribal areas and selected tribal and 
backward districts as identified by the Ministry 
of Home Affairs, the aim is to connect eligible 
unconnected habitations with a population of 250 
persons and above. In respect to most intensive 
integrated action plan (IAP) blocks as identified 
by the Ministry of Home Affairs, the unconnected 
habitations with a population of 100 and above 
have been included under PMGSY. The scheme 
allows for the upgradation of the existing roads in 
those districts where all the eligible habitations of 
the designated population size have been provided 
with all-weather road connectivity. 
The Government of India has identified a total 
of 1,78,184 habitations in the population size of 
250 plus and 500 plus for coverage under PMGSY. 
While States have provided connectivity to 16,086 
such habitations out of their own resources, 
4,722 habitations have either been dropped 
from the original target list or were not found to 
be feasible for implementation. So far, 1,57,376 
habitations have been covered under PMGSY and 
the remaining are proposed for completion by 
September 2022. The status of implementation of 
PMGSY since inception may be seen in Table 2.
Table 2 shows that so far 1.81 lakh number of 
road works sanctioned under PMGSY out of which 
1.66 lakh (91.7 percent) got completed. Out of 
the total sanctioned road length of 7.72 lakh km, 
88.2 percent (6.81 lakh km) have been completed. 
Similarly, 8,993 bridge works were sanctioned 
under PMGSY out of which 70.2 percent (6,315) 
got completed. The Union Cabinet had approved 
in December 2016 the implementation of a Road 
Connectivity Project on Left-Wing Extremism Areas 
(RCPLWEA) as a separate vertical. This initiative 
envisaged providing connectivity to aspirational 
districts expediting development in backward 
areas of the nation. 
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