1. In 1947, the Indian Civil Service (ICS) was replaced by IAS, and the lndian Police (IP) was replaced by IPS and were recognised by the Constitution as all-India services. In 1966, the Indian Forest Service was established as the third all-India service.
2. The All-India Services Act of 1951 authorised the Central government to make rules in consultation with the state governments for the regulation of recruitment and service conditions of the members of all- India services. The members of these services are recruited and trained by the Central government but are assigned to different states for work.
Safeguards to Civil Servants
Article 311 places two restrictions on the above "doctrine of pleasure'. In other words, it provides two safeguards to civil servants against any arbitrary dismissal from their posts:
1. A civil servant cannot be dismissed or removed by an authority subordinate to that by which he was appointed.
2. A civil servant cannot be dismissed or removed or reduced in rank except after an inquiry in which he has been informed of the charges against him and given a reasonable opportunity of being heard in respect of those charges.