Page 1 Materials Science & Metallurgy Part III Course M16 Materials Modelling H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia Lecture 11: Irreversible Processes Thermodynamics generally deals with measurable properties of materials, formulated on the basis of equilibrium. Thus, properties such as entropy and free energy are, on an appropriate scale, static and time–invariant during equilibrium. There are other parameters not relevant to the discussion of equilibrium: thermal conductivity, di?usivity and viscosity, but which are interesting because they can describe a second kind of time–independence, that of the steady– state (Denbigh, 1955). Thus, the concentration pro?le does not change during steady–state di?usion, even though energy is being dissipated by the di?usion. The thermodynamics of irreversible processes deals with systems which are not at equilibrium but are nevertheless stationary. The theory in e?ect uses thermodynamics to deal with kinetic phenomena. There is nevertheless, a distinction between the thermodynamics of irreversible processes and kinetics (Denbigh). The former applies strictly to the steady–state, whereas there is no such restriction on kinetic theory. Reversibility A process whose direction can be changed by an in?nitesimal alteration in the external con- ditions is called reversible. Consider the example illustrated in Fig. 1, which deals with the response of an ideal gas contained at uniform pressure within a cylinder, any change being achieved by the motion of the piston. For any starting point on the P/V curve, if the applica- tion of an in?nitesimal force causes the piston to move slowly to an adjacent position still on the curve, then the process is reversible since energy has not been dissipated. The removal of the in?nitesimal force will cause the system to revert to its original state. On the other hand, if there is friction during the motion of the piston, then deviations occur from the P/V curve as illustrated by the cycle in Fig. 1. An in?nitesimal force cannot move the piston because energy is dissipated due to friction (as given by the area within the cycle). Suchaprocess, which involves the dissipation of energy, isclassi?edasirreversiblewithrespect to an in?nitesimal change in the external conditions. More generally, reversibility means that it is possible to pass from one state to another with- out appreciable deviation from equilibrium. Real processes are not reversible so equilibrium thermodynamics can only be used approximately, though the same thermodynamics de?nes whether or not a process can occur spontaneously without ambiguity. For irreversible processes the equations of classical thermodynamics become inequalities. For example, at the equilibrium melting temperature, the free energies of the liquid and solid are identical (G liquid = G solid ) but not so below that temperature (G liquid > G solid ). Such inequalities are much more di?cult to deal with though they indicate the natural direction of change. For steady–state processes however, the thermodynamic framework for irreversible processes as developed by Onsager is particularly useful in approximating relationships even though the system is not at equilibrium. The Linear Laws At equilibrium there is no change in entropy or free energy. An irreversible process dissipates energyandentropyiscreatedcontinuously. IntheexampleillustratedinFig.1, thedissipation Page 2 Materials Science & Metallurgy Part III Course M16 Materials Modelling H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia Lecture 11: Irreversible Processes Thermodynamics generally deals with measurable properties of materials, formulated on the basis of equilibrium. Thus, properties such as entropy and free energy are, on an appropriate scale, static and time–invariant during equilibrium. There are other parameters not relevant to the discussion of equilibrium: thermal conductivity, di?usivity and viscosity, but which are interesting because they can describe a second kind of time–independence, that of the steady– state (Denbigh, 1955). Thus, the concentration pro?le does not change during steady–state di?usion, even though energy is being dissipated by the di?usion. The thermodynamics of irreversible processes deals with systems which are not at equilibrium but are nevertheless stationary. The theory in e?ect uses thermodynamics to deal with kinetic phenomena. There is nevertheless, a distinction between the thermodynamics of irreversible processes and kinetics (Denbigh). The former applies strictly to the steady–state, whereas there is no such restriction on kinetic theory. Reversibility A process whose direction can be changed by an in?nitesimal alteration in the external con- ditions is called reversible. Consider the example illustrated in Fig. 1, which deals with the response of an ideal gas contained at uniform pressure within a cylinder, any change being achieved by the motion of the piston. For any starting point on the P/V curve, if the applica- tion of an in?nitesimal force causes the piston to move slowly to an adjacent position still on the curve, then the process is reversible since energy has not been dissipated. The removal of the in?nitesimal force will cause the system to revert to its original state. On the other hand, if there is friction during the motion of the piston, then deviations occur from the P/V curve as illustrated by the cycle in Fig. 1. An in?nitesimal force cannot move the piston because energy is dissipated due to friction (as given by the area within the cycle). Suchaprocess, which involves the dissipation of energy, isclassi?edasirreversiblewithrespect to an in?nitesimal change in the external conditions. More generally, reversibility means that it is possible to pass from one state to another with- out appreciable deviation from equilibrium. Real processes are not reversible so equilibrium thermodynamics can only be used approximately, though the same thermodynamics de?nes whether or not a process can occur spontaneously without ambiguity. For irreversible processes the equations of classical thermodynamics become inequalities. For example, at the equilibrium melting temperature, the free energies of the liquid and solid are identical (G liquid = G solid ) but not so below that temperature (G liquid > G solid ). Such inequalities are much more di?cult to deal with though they indicate the natural direction of change. For steady–state processes however, the thermodynamic framework for irreversible processes as developed by Onsager is particularly useful in approximating relationships even though the system is not at equilibrium. The Linear Laws At equilibrium there is no change in entropy or free energy. An irreversible process dissipates energyandentropyiscreatedcontinuously. IntheexampleillustratedinFig.1, thedissipation Fig. 1: The curve represents the variation in pressure within the cylinder as the volume of the ideal gas is altered by positioning the frictionless piston. The cycle represents the dissipation of energy when the motion of the piston causes friction. was due to friction; di?usion ahead of a moving interface is dissipative. The rate at which energy is dissipated is the product of the temperature and the rate of entropy production (i.e. Ts) with: Ts =JX (1) whereJ isageneralised?uxofsomekind,andX ageneralisedforce. Inthecaseofanelectrical current, the heat dissipation is the product of the current (J) and the electromotive force (X). As long as the ?ux–force sets can be expressed as in equation 1, the ?ux must naturally depend in some way on the force. It may then be written as a function J{X} of the force X. At equilibrium, the force is zero. If J{X} is expanded in a Taylor series about equilibrium (X = 0), we get J{X} = 8 X 0 a n X n = 8 X 0 f (n) {0} n! X n =J{0}+J 0 {0} X 1! +J 00 {0} X 2 2! ... Note that J{0} = 0 since that represents equilibrium. If the high order terms are neglected then we see that J ?X. This is a key result from the theory, that the forces and their conjugate ?uxes are linearly related (J ? X) whenever the dissipation can be written as in equation 1, at least when the deviations from equilibrium are not large. Some examples of forces and ?uxes in the context of the present theory are given in Table 1. Page 3 Materials Science & Metallurgy Part III Course M16 Materials Modelling H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia Lecture 11: Irreversible Processes Thermodynamics generally deals with measurable properties of materials, formulated on the basis of equilibrium. Thus, properties such as entropy and free energy are, on an appropriate scale, static and time–invariant during equilibrium. There are other parameters not relevant to the discussion of equilibrium: thermal conductivity, di?usivity and viscosity, but which are interesting because they can describe a second kind of time–independence, that of the steady– state (Denbigh, 1955). Thus, the concentration pro?le does not change during steady–state di?usion, even though energy is being dissipated by the di?usion. The thermodynamics of irreversible processes deals with systems which are not at equilibrium but are nevertheless stationary. The theory in e?ect uses thermodynamics to deal with kinetic phenomena. There is nevertheless, a distinction between the thermodynamics of irreversible processes and kinetics (Denbigh). The former applies strictly to the steady–state, whereas there is no such restriction on kinetic theory. Reversibility A process whose direction can be changed by an in?nitesimal alteration in the external con- ditions is called reversible. Consider the example illustrated in Fig. 1, which deals with the response of an ideal gas contained at uniform pressure within a cylinder, any change being achieved by the motion of the piston. For any starting point on the P/V curve, if the applica- tion of an in?nitesimal force causes the piston to move slowly to an adjacent position still on the curve, then the process is reversible since energy has not been dissipated. The removal of the in?nitesimal force will cause the system to revert to its original state. On the other hand, if there is friction during the motion of the piston, then deviations occur from the P/V curve as illustrated by the cycle in Fig. 1. An in?nitesimal force cannot move the piston because energy is dissipated due to friction (as given by the area within the cycle). Suchaprocess, which involves the dissipation of energy, isclassi?edasirreversiblewithrespect to an in?nitesimal change in the external conditions. More generally, reversibility means that it is possible to pass from one state to another with- out appreciable deviation from equilibrium. Real processes are not reversible so equilibrium thermodynamics can only be used approximately, though the same thermodynamics de?nes whether or not a process can occur spontaneously without ambiguity. For irreversible processes the equations of classical thermodynamics become inequalities. For example, at the equilibrium melting temperature, the free energies of the liquid and solid are identical (G liquid = G solid ) but not so below that temperature (G liquid > G solid ). Such inequalities are much more di?cult to deal with though they indicate the natural direction of change. For steady–state processes however, the thermodynamic framework for irreversible processes as developed by Onsager is particularly useful in approximating relationships even though the system is not at equilibrium. The Linear Laws At equilibrium there is no change in entropy or free energy. An irreversible process dissipates energyandentropyiscreatedcontinuously. IntheexampleillustratedinFig.1, thedissipation Fig. 1: The curve represents the variation in pressure within the cylinder as the volume of the ideal gas is altered by positioning the frictionless piston. The cycle represents the dissipation of energy when the motion of the piston causes friction. was due to friction; di?usion ahead of a moving interface is dissipative. The rate at which energy is dissipated is the product of the temperature and the rate of entropy production (i.e. Ts) with: Ts =JX (1) whereJ isageneralised?uxofsomekind,andX ageneralisedforce. Inthecaseofanelectrical current, the heat dissipation is the product of the current (J) and the electromotive force (X). As long as the ?ux–force sets can be expressed as in equation 1, the ?ux must naturally depend in some way on the force. It may then be written as a function J{X} of the force X. At equilibrium, the force is zero. If J{X} is expanded in a Taylor series about equilibrium (X = 0), we get J{X} = 8 X 0 a n X n = 8 X 0 f (n) {0} n! X n =J{0}+J 0 {0} X 1! +J 00 {0} X 2 2! ... Note that J{0} = 0 since that represents equilibrium. If the high order terms are neglected then we see that J ?X. This is a key result from the theory, that the forces and their conjugate ?uxes are linearly related (J ? X) whenever the dissipation can be written as in equation 1, at least when the deviations from equilibrium are not large. Some examples of forces and ?uxes in the context of the present theory are given in Table 1. Force Flux e.m.f. = ?f ?z Electrical Current - 1 T ?T ?z Heat ?ux - ?µ i ?z Di?usion ?ux Stress Strain rate Table 1: Examples of forces and their conjugate ?uxes. z is distance, f is the electrical potential in Volts, and µ is a chemical potential. “e.m.f.” stands for electromotive force. Multiple Irreversible Processes There are many circumstances in which a number of irreversible processes occur together. In a ternary Fe–Mn–C alloy, the di?usion ?ux of carbon depends not only on the gradient of carbon, but also on that of manganese. Thus, a uniform distribution of carbon will tend to become inhomogeneous in the presence of a manganese concentration gradient. Similarly, the ?ux of heat may not depend on the temperature gradient alone; heat can be driven also by an electromotive force (Peltier e?ect)†. Electromigration involves di?usion driven by an elec- tromotive force. When there is more then one dissipative process, the total energy dissipation rate can still be written Ts = X i J i X i . (2) In general, if there is more than one irreversible process occurring, it is found experimentally that each ?ow J i is related not only to its conjugate force X i , but also is related linearly to all other forces present. Thus, J i =M ij X j (3) with i, j = 1,2,3.... Therefore, a given ?ux depends on all the forces causing the dissipation of energy. Onsager Reciprocal Relations Equilibrium in real systems is always dynamic on a microscopic scale. It seems obvious that to maintain equilibrium under these dynamic conditions, a process and its reverse must occur at the same rate on the microscopic scale. The consequence is that provided the forces and ?uxes are chosen from the dissipation equation and are independent, M ij = M ji . This is known as the Onsager theorem, or the Onsager reciprocal relations. It applies to systems near equilibrium when the properties of interest have even parity, and assuming that the ?uxes and their corresponding forces are independent. An exception occurs with magnetic ?elds in which case there is a sign di?erence M ij =-M ji (Miller, 1960). † In the Peltier e?ect, the two junctions of a thermocouple are kept at the same temperature but the passage of an electrical current causes one of the junctions to absorb heat and the other to liberate the same quantity of heat. This Peltier heat is found to be proportional to the current. Page 4 Materials Science & Metallurgy Part III Course M16 Materials Modelling H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia Lecture 11: Irreversible Processes Thermodynamics generally deals with measurable properties of materials, formulated on the basis of equilibrium. Thus, properties such as entropy and free energy are, on an appropriate scale, static and time–invariant during equilibrium. There are other parameters not relevant to the discussion of equilibrium: thermal conductivity, di?usivity and viscosity, but which are interesting because they can describe a second kind of time–independence, that of the steady– state (Denbigh, 1955). Thus, the concentration pro?le does not change during steady–state di?usion, even though energy is being dissipated by the di?usion. The thermodynamics of irreversible processes deals with systems which are not at equilibrium but are nevertheless stationary. The theory in e?ect uses thermodynamics to deal with kinetic phenomena. There is nevertheless, a distinction between the thermodynamics of irreversible processes and kinetics (Denbigh). The former applies strictly to the steady–state, whereas there is no such restriction on kinetic theory. Reversibility A process whose direction can be changed by an in?nitesimal alteration in the external con- ditions is called reversible. Consider the example illustrated in Fig. 1, which deals with the response of an ideal gas contained at uniform pressure within a cylinder, any change being achieved by the motion of the piston. For any starting point on the P/V curve, if the applica- tion of an in?nitesimal force causes the piston to move slowly to an adjacent position still on the curve, then the process is reversible since energy has not been dissipated. The removal of the in?nitesimal force will cause the system to revert to its original state. On the other hand, if there is friction during the motion of the piston, then deviations occur from the P/V curve as illustrated by the cycle in Fig. 1. An in?nitesimal force cannot move the piston because energy is dissipated due to friction (as given by the area within the cycle). Suchaprocess, which involves the dissipation of energy, isclassi?edasirreversiblewithrespect to an in?nitesimal change in the external conditions. More generally, reversibility means that it is possible to pass from one state to another with- out appreciable deviation from equilibrium. Real processes are not reversible so equilibrium thermodynamics can only be used approximately, though the same thermodynamics de?nes whether or not a process can occur spontaneously without ambiguity. For irreversible processes the equations of classical thermodynamics become inequalities. For example, at the equilibrium melting temperature, the free energies of the liquid and solid are identical (G liquid = G solid ) but not so below that temperature (G liquid > G solid ). Such inequalities are much more di?cult to deal with though they indicate the natural direction of change. For steady–state processes however, the thermodynamic framework for irreversible processes as developed by Onsager is particularly useful in approximating relationships even though the system is not at equilibrium. The Linear Laws At equilibrium there is no change in entropy or free energy. An irreversible process dissipates energyandentropyiscreatedcontinuously. IntheexampleillustratedinFig.1, thedissipation Fig. 1: The curve represents the variation in pressure within the cylinder as the volume of the ideal gas is altered by positioning the frictionless piston. The cycle represents the dissipation of energy when the motion of the piston causes friction. was due to friction; di?usion ahead of a moving interface is dissipative. The rate at which energy is dissipated is the product of the temperature and the rate of entropy production (i.e. Ts) with: Ts =JX (1) whereJ isageneralised?uxofsomekind,andX ageneralisedforce. Inthecaseofanelectrical current, the heat dissipation is the product of the current (J) and the electromotive force (X). As long as the ?ux–force sets can be expressed as in equation 1, the ?ux must naturally depend in some way on the force. It may then be written as a function J{X} of the force X. At equilibrium, the force is zero. If J{X} is expanded in a Taylor series about equilibrium (X = 0), we get J{X} = 8 X 0 a n X n = 8 X 0 f (n) {0} n! X n =J{0}+J 0 {0} X 1! +J 00 {0} X 2 2! ... Note that J{0} = 0 since that represents equilibrium. If the high order terms are neglected then we see that J ?X. This is a key result from the theory, that the forces and their conjugate ?uxes are linearly related (J ? X) whenever the dissipation can be written as in equation 1, at least when the deviations from equilibrium are not large. Some examples of forces and ?uxes in the context of the present theory are given in Table 1. Force Flux e.m.f. = ?f ?z Electrical Current - 1 T ?T ?z Heat ?ux - ?µ i ?z Di?usion ?ux Stress Strain rate Table 1: Examples of forces and their conjugate ?uxes. z is distance, f is the electrical potential in Volts, and µ is a chemical potential. “e.m.f.” stands for electromotive force. Multiple Irreversible Processes There are many circumstances in which a number of irreversible processes occur together. In a ternary Fe–Mn–C alloy, the di?usion ?ux of carbon depends not only on the gradient of carbon, but also on that of manganese. Thus, a uniform distribution of carbon will tend to become inhomogeneous in the presence of a manganese concentration gradient. Similarly, the ?ux of heat may not depend on the temperature gradient alone; heat can be driven also by an electromotive force (Peltier e?ect)†. Electromigration involves di?usion driven by an elec- tromotive force. When there is more then one dissipative process, the total energy dissipation rate can still be written Ts = X i J i X i . (2) In general, if there is more than one irreversible process occurring, it is found experimentally that each ?ow J i is related not only to its conjugate force X i , but also is related linearly to all other forces present. Thus, J i =M ij X j (3) with i, j = 1,2,3.... Therefore, a given ?ux depends on all the forces causing the dissipation of energy. Onsager Reciprocal Relations Equilibrium in real systems is always dynamic on a microscopic scale. It seems obvious that to maintain equilibrium under these dynamic conditions, a process and its reverse must occur at the same rate on the microscopic scale. The consequence is that provided the forces and ?uxes are chosen from the dissipation equation and are independent, M ij = M ji . This is known as the Onsager theorem, or the Onsager reciprocal relations. It applies to systems near equilibrium when the properties of interest have even parity, and assuming that the ?uxes and their corresponding forces are independent. An exception occurs with magnetic ?elds in which case there is a sign di?erence M ij =-M ji (Miller, 1960). † In the Peltier e?ect, the two junctions of a thermocouple are kept at the same temperature but the passage of an electrical current causes one of the junctions to absorb heat and the other to liberate the same quantity of heat. This Peltier heat is found to be proportional to the current. References Christian, J. W., (1975) Theory of Transformations in Metals and Alloys, 2nd ed., Pt.1, Perg- amon Press, Oxford. Cook, H. E. and Hilliard, J., (1969) Journal of Applied Physics, 40, 2191. Darken, L. S., (1949) TMS–AIME, 180, 430. Denbigh, K. G., (1955) Thermodynamics of the Steady State, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, U.S.A. Einstein, A., (1905) Ann. Phys., 17, 549. Hartley, G. S., (1931) Transactions Faraday Soc., 27, 10. Kirkaldy, J. S., (1970) Advances in Materials Research, 4, 55. Miller, D. G., (1960) Chem. Rev., 60, 15. Onsager, L., (1931) Physical Review, 37, 405. Onsager, L., (1931) Physical Review, 38, 2265. Onsager, L., (1945–46) Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 46, 241.Read More

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