Lecture 12 - National Rural Employment Guarantee Act Notes | EduRev

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: Lecture 12 - National Rural Employment Guarantee Act Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


NPTEL – Humanities and Social Sciences – Indian Society : Issues and Problems 
 
Joint initiative of IITs and IISc – Funded by MHRD                                                   Page 1 of 3 
Module 2  Illiteracy, Poverty, Unemployment and 
Population Growth 
Lecture 12 
National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 
Employment is a fundamental pre-requisite to raise per capita income and eradicate 
household poverty. Poor employment opportunity is one of the key reasons for the 
endurance of poverty in India. After independence and particularly from the Fifth 
Five Year Plan onwards, Government of India has initiated several rural development 
programmes for raising rural employment for the alleviation of rural poverty. National 
Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) is one amongst them. 
It is pertinent to note here that three articles of the constitution of India have bearing 
on the right to work and these are listed in the Directive Principles of State Policy. 
These three articles are: (i) Article 39 envisage that the state to direct its policy 
towards securing for all its citizens, men and women, the right to an adequate means 
of livelihood. (ii) Article 41 enjoins the state to make effective provision for securing 
the right to work, to education and to public assistance in case of unemployment, old 
age, sickness and disablement and in any other of undeserved want, all within the 
economic capacity of the state. (iii) Article 43 direct the state to secure for all its 
citizens, work, living wage conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and 
full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities. Unemployment is a 
cause of poverty and generation of employment is central to eradicate poverty from 
rural India. 
The NREGS was launched in 2004 in 200 backward districts and later on extended  to 
the entire district in the country in 2008. The National Rural Employment Grantee Act 
(NREGS) (herein after referred as NREGS) was enacted in 2005 on NREGA aims at 
to provide a minimum guaranteed wage employment of 100 days in every financial 
year to rural households with unemployed adult members prepared to do unskilled 
manual work. The scheme is a strategic attempt to fight the conundrums of poverty 
and unemployment, which are intrinsically interlinked. The NREGS indirectly aims at 
making employment as a human right.The NREGS is now called as Mahatma Gandhi 
NREGS. 
 
Page 2


NPTEL – Humanities and Social Sciences – Indian Society : Issues and Problems 
 
Joint initiative of IITs and IISc – Funded by MHRD                                                   Page 1 of 3 
Module 2  Illiteracy, Poverty, Unemployment and 
Population Growth 
Lecture 12 
National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 
Employment is a fundamental pre-requisite to raise per capita income and eradicate 
household poverty. Poor employment opportunity is one of the key reasons for the 
endurance of poverty in India. After independence and particularly from the Fifth 
Five Year Plan onwards, Government of India has initiated several rural development 
programmes for raising rural employment for the alleviation of rural poverty. National 
Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) is one amongst them. 
It is pertinent to note here that three articles of the constitution of India have bearing 
on the right to work and these are listed in the Directive Principles of State Policy. 
These three articles are: (i) Article 39 envisage that the state to direct its policy 
towards securing for all its citizens, men and women, the right to an adequate means 
of livelihood. (ii) Article 41 enjoins the state to make effective provision for securing 
the right to work, to education and to public assistance in case of unemployment, old 
age, sickness and disablement and in any other of undeserved want, all within the 
economic capacity of the state. (iii) Article 43 direct the state to secure for all its 
citizens, work, living wage conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and 
full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities. Unemployment is a 
cause of poverty and generation of employment is central to eradicate poverty from 
rural India. 
The NREGS was launched in 2004 in 200 backward districts and later on extended  to 
the entire district in the country in 2008. The National Rural Employment Grantee Act 
(NREGS) (herein after referred as NREGS) was enacted in 2005 on NREGA aims at 
to provide a minimum guaranteed wage employment of 100 days in every financial 
year to rural households with unemployed adult members prepared to do unskilled 
manual work. The scheme is a strategic attempt to fight the conundrums of poverty 
and unemployment, which are intrinsically interlinked. The NREGS indirectly aims at 
making employment as a human right.The NREGS is now called as Mahatma Gandhi 
NREGS. 
 
NPTEL – Humanities and Social Sciences – Indian Society : Issues and Problems 
 
Joint initiative of IITs and IISc – Funded by MHRD                                                   Page 2 of 3 
Salient features of the NREGS 
? At least 100 days of employment for at least one able-bodied person in every 
rural household 
? Minimum wages on rate prevailing in states as per Minimum Wage Act- 
? 1948 and Centre to step in if wages go up beyond minimum or less than 
rupees 60. 
? Panchayats to finalize, approve, implement and monitor the projects. The 
scheme shall not permit engaging any contractor for implementation of the 
projects 
? The task under the scheme shall be performed by using manual labour and not 
machines 
? A minimum of 33 per cent reservation to be made for women, where the 
number of applicant is very large 
? The scheme will ensure transparency and accountability at all level of 
implementation and 
? All accounts and records relating to the scheme shall be made available for 
public scrutiny. 
Strategies of the NREGS 
? Central government meets the cost towards the payment of wage, three fourth 
of material costs and certain percentage of administrative cost; 
? The state governments meet the cost towards unemployed allowances, one 
fourth of material cost and administrative cost; 
? Adult members of rural households submit their name, age and address with 
photos to gram yanchayats for registration; 
? Block is the basic unit of implementation of NREGS 
? Gram panchayats are the main implementing agencies and 
? Gram sabha is the main work identifying body. 
Some of the mandatory facilities at NREGS are given below: 
? Drinking water facilities for the workers of NREGS Case Studies on 
Programme 
? Provision of shade near the work sites Planning and Management 
? Provision of medical aid 
Page 3


NPTEL – Humanities and Social Sciences – Indian Society : Issues and Problems 
 
Joint initiative of IITs and IISc – Funded by MHRD                                                   Page 1 of 3 
Module 2  Illiteracy, Poverty, Unemployment and 
Population Growth 
Lecture 12 
National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 
Employment is a fundamental pre-requisite to raise per capita income and eradicate 
household poverty. Poor employment opportunity is one of the key reasons for the 
endurance of poverty in India. After independence and particularly from the Fifth 
Five Year Plan onwards, Government of India has initiated several rural development 
programmes for raising rural employment for the alleviation of rural poverty. National 
Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) is one amongst them. 
It is pertinent to note here that three articles of the constitution of India have bearing 
on the right to work and these are listed in the Directive Principles of State Policy. 
These three articles are: (i) Article 39 envisage that the state to direct its policy 
towards securing for all its citizens, men and women, the right to an adequate means 
of livelihood. (ii) Article 41 enjoins the state to make effective provision for securing 
the right to work, to education and to public assistance in case of unemployment, old 
age, sickness and disablement and in any other of undeserved want, all within the 
economic capacity of the state. (iii) Article 43 direct the state to secure for all its 
citizens, work, living wage conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and 
full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities. Unemployment is a 
cause of poverty and generation of employment is central to eradicate poverty from 
rural India. 
The NREGS was launched in 2004 in 200 backward districts and later on extended  to 
the entire district in the country in 2008. The National Rural Employment Grantee Act 
(NREGS) (herein after referred as NREGS) was enacted in 2005 on NREGA aims at 
to provide a minimum guaranteed wage employment of 100 days in every financial 
year to rural households with unemployed adult members prepared to do unskilled 
manual work. The scheme is a strategic attempt to fight the conundrums of poverty 
and unemployment, which are intrinsically interlinked. The NREGS indirectly aims at 
making employment as a human right.The NREGS is now called as Mahatma Gandhi 
NREGS. 
 
NPTEL – Humanities and Social Sciences – Indian Society : Issues and Problems 
 
Joint initiative of IITs and IISc – Funded by MHRD                                                   Page 2 of 3 
Salient features of the NREGS 
? At least 100 days of employment for at least one able-bodied person in every 
rural household 
? Minimum wages on rate prevailing in states as per Minimum Wage Act- 
? 1948 and Centre to step in if wages go up beyond minimum or less than 
rupees 60. 
? Panchayats to finalize, approve, implement and monitor the projects. The 
scheme shall not permit engaging any contractor for implementation of the 
projects 
? The task under the scheme shall be performed by using manual labour and not 
machines 
? A minimum of 33 per cent reservation to be made for women, where the 
number of applicant is very large 
? The scheme will ensure transparency and accountability at all level of 
implementation and 
? All accounts and records relating to the scheme shall be made available for 
public scrutiny. 
Strategies of the NREGS 
? Central government meets the cost towards the payment of wage, three fourth 
of material costs and certain percentage of administrative cost; 
? The state governments meet the cost towards unemployed allowances, one 
fourth of material cost and administrative cost; 
? Adult members of rural households submit their name, age and address with 
photos to gram yanchayats for registration; 
? Block is the basic unit of implementation of NREGS 
? Gram panchayats are the main implementing agencies and 
? Gram sabha is the main work identifying body. 
Some of the mandatory facilities at NREGS are given below: 
? Drinking water facilities for the workers of NREGS Case Studies on 
Programme 
? Provision of shade near the work sites Planning and Management 
? Provision of medical aid 
NPTEL – Humanities and Social Sciences – Indian Society : Issues and Problems 
 
Joint initiative of IITs and IISc – Funded by MHRD                                                   Page 3 of 3 
? Provision of cr2che, if more than five children below six are present at an 
NREGS worksites. 
Gender Related Provisions 
? Equal wage to both male and female worker employed in NREGS work 
? No gender discrimination in employment and wage 
? Priority in allocation of work to women and at least 33 per cent of the NREGS 
worker in a particular work should be women 
Permissible Works 
? Water conservation activities: (a) digging of ponds and (b) de-silting of  ponds 
? Small check dam other harvesting structure 
? Afforestation in common land waste land areas 
? Construction of minor irrigation canals 
? Repair of minor irrigation facility to SCs and STs 
? De-silting of old canals 
? De-silting of traditional open well 
? Land development of common waste areas 
? DrainageMa1la.h to drain extra water in water logged flood affected areas 
? Construction of embankment for flood control 
? Repair of embankment for flood control connecting road to village main road 
? Any other work which may be notified by the central government in 
consultation with the state government 
Now NREGA is known as The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment 
Guarantee Act Which aims at enhancing the livelihood security of people in rural 
areas by guaranteeing hundred days of wage-employment in a financial year to a rural 
household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work. 
References 
http://nrega.nic.in/netnrega/home.aspx 
Questions 
1. What was the main aim of NREGA? 
2. Discuss the salient features of NREGA. 
3. What are the strategies of NREGS? 
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