Page 1 Module 5 : MODERN PHYSICS Lecture 25 : Compton Effect Objectives In this course you will learn the following Scattering of radiation from an electron (Compton effect). Compton effect provides a direct confirmation of particle nature of radiation. Why photoelectric effect cannot be exhited by a free electron. Compton Effect Photoelectric effect provides evidence that energy is quantized. In order to establish the particle nature of radiation, it is necessary that photons must carry momentum. In 1922, Arthur Compton studied the scattering of x-rays of known frequency from graphite and looked at the recoil electrons and the scattered x-rays. According to wave theory, when an electromagnetic wave of frequency is incident on an atom, it would cause electrons to oscillate. The electrons would absorb energy from the wave and re-radiate electromagnetic wave of a frequency . The frequency of scattered radiation would depend on the amount of energy absorbed from the wave, i.e. on the intensity of incident radiation and the duration of the exposure of electrons to the radiation and not on the frequency of the incident radiation. Compton found that the wavelength of the scattered radiation does not depend on the intensity of incident radiation but it depends on the angle of scattering and the wavelength of the incident beam. The wavelength of the radiation scattered at an angle is given by .where is the rest mass of the electron. The constant is known as the Compton wavelength of the electron and it has a value 0.0024 nm. The spectrum of radiation at an angle consists of two peaks, one at and the other at . Compton effect can be explained by assuming that the incoming radiation is a beam of particles with Page 2 Module 5 : MODERN PHYSICS Lecture 25 : Compton Effect Objectives In this course you will learn the following Scattering of radiation from an electron (Compton effect). Compton effect provides a direct confirmation of particle nature of radiation. Why photoelectric effect cannot be exhited by a free electron. Compton Effect Photoelectric effect provides evidence that energy is quantized. In order to establish the particle nature of radiation, it is necessary that photons must carry momentum. In 1922, Arthur Compton studied the scattering of x-rays of known frequency from graphite and looked at the recoil electrons and the scattered x-rays. According to wave theory, when an electromagnetic wave of frequency is incident on an atom, it would cause electrons to oscillate. The electrons would absorb energy from the wave and re-radiate electromagnetic wave of a frequency . The frequency of scattered radiation would depend on the amount of energy absorbed from the wave, i.e. on the intensity of incident radiation and the duration of the exposure of electrons to the radiation and not on the frequency of the incident radiation. Compton found that the wavelength of the scattered radiation does not depend on the intensity of incident radiation but it depends on the angle of scattering and the wavelength of the incident beam. The wavelength of the radiation scattered at an angle is given by .where is the rest mass of the electron. The constant is known as the Compton wavelength of the electron and it has a value 0.0024 nm. The spectrum of radiation at an angle consists of two peaks, one at and the other at . Compton effect can be explained by assuming that the incoming radiation is a beam of particles with Energy Momentum In arriving at the last relationship, we use the energy - momentum relation of the special theory of relativity , according to which, where is the rest mass of a particle. Since photons are massless ( ), we get . Compton's observation is consistent with what we expect if photons, considered as particles, collide with electrons in an elastic collision. Derivation of Compton's Formula Consider a photon of energy and momentum colliding elastically with an electron at rest. Let the direction of incoming photon be along the x-axis. After scattering, the photon moves along a direction making an angle with the x-axis while the scattered electron moves making an angle . Let the magnitude of the momentum of the scattered electron be while that of the scattered photon be . See the animation Conservation of Momentum x-direction : (1) y-direction : (2) Page 3 Module 5 : MODERN PHYSICS Lecture 25 : Compton Effect Objectives In this course you will learn the following Scattering of radiation from an electron (Compton effect). Compton effect provides a direct confirmation of particle nature of radiation. Why photoelectric effect cannot be exhited by a free electron. Compton Effect Photoelectric effect provides evidence that energy is quantized. In order to establish the particle nature of radiation, it is necessary that photons must carry momentum. In 1922, Arthur Compton studied the scattering of x-rays of known frequency from graphite and looked at the recoil electrons and the scattered x-rays. According to wave theory, when an electromagnetic wave of frequency is incident on an atom, it would cause electrons to oscillate. The electrons would absorb energy from the wave and re-radiate electromagnetic wave of a frequency . The frequency of scattered radiation would depend on the amount of energy absorbed from the wave, i.e. on the intensity of incident radiation and the duration of the exposure of electrons to the radiation and not on the frequency of the incident radiation. Compton found that the wavelength of the scattered radiation does not depend on the intensity of incident radiation but it depends on the angle of scattering and the wavelength of the incident beam. The wavelength of the radiation scattered at an angle is given by .where is the rest mass of the electron. The constant is known as the Compton wavelength of the electron and it has a value 0.0024 nm. The spectrum of radiation at an angle consists of two peaks, one at and the other at . Compton effect can be explained by assuming that the incoming radiation is a beam of particles with Energy Momentum In arriving at the last relationship, we use the energy - momentum relation of the special theory of relativity , according to which, where is the rest mass of a particle. Since photons are massless ( ), we get . Compton's observation is consistent with what we expect if photons, considered as particles, collide with electrons in an elastic collision. Derivation of Compton's Formula Consider a photon of energy and momentum colliding elastically with an electron at rest. Let the direction of incoming photon be along the x-axis. After scattering, the photon moves along a direction making an angle with the x-axis while the scattered electron moves making an angle . Let the magnitude of the momentum of the scattered electron be while that of the scattered photon be . See the animation Conservation of Momentum x-direction : (1) y-direction : (2) From Eqns. (1) and (2), we get (3) Conservation of Energy : (relativistic effect) If the rest mass of the electron is taken to be , the initial energy is and the final energy is . Thus (4) From Eqn. (4), we get, on squaring, Thus, On substituting expression (3) for in the above equation, we get Recalling and and on simplification, we get Using , we get Compton's formula is known as the Compton Wavelength of an electron. Page 4 Module 5 : MODERN PHYSICS Lecture 25 : Compton Effect Objectives In this course you will learn the following Scattering of radiation from an electron (Compton effect). Compton effect provides a direct confirmation of particle nature of radiation. Why photoelectric effect cannot be exhited by a free electron. Compton Effect Photoelectric effect provides evidence that energy is quantized. In order to establish the particle nature of radiation, it is necessary that photons must carry momentum. In 1922, Arthur Compton studied the scattering of x-rays of known frequency from graphite and looked at the recoil electrons and the scattered x-rays. According to wave theory, when an electromagnetic wave of frequency is incident on an atom, it would cause electrons to oscillate. The electrons would absorb energy from the wave and re-radiate electromagnetic wave of a frequency . The frequency of scattered radiation would depend on the amount of energy absorbed from the wave, i.e. on the intensity of incident radiation and the duration of the exposure of electrons to the radiation and not on the frequency of the incident radiation. Compton found that the wavelength of the scattered radiation does not depend on the intensity of incident radiation but it depends on the angle of scattering and the wavelength of the incident beam. The wavelength of the radiation scattered at an angle is given by .where is the rest mass of the electron. The constant is known as the Compton wavelength of the electron and it has a value 0.0024 nm. The spectrum of radiation at an angle consists of two peaks, one at and the other at . Compton effect can be explained by assuming that the incoming radiation is a beam of particles with Energy Momentum In arriving at the last relationship, we use the energy - momentum relation of the special theory of relativity , according to which, where is the rest mass of a particle. Since photons are massless ( ), we get . Compton's observation is consistent with what we expect if photons, considered as particles, collide with electrons in an elastic collision. Derivation of Compton's Formula Consider a photon of energy and momentum colliding elastically with an electron at rest. Let the direction of incoming photon be along the x-axis. After scattering, the photon moves along a direction making an angle with the x-axis while the scattered electron moves making an angle . Let the magnitude of the momentum of the scattered electron be while that of the scattered photon be . See the animation Conservation of Momentum x-direction : (1) y-direction : (2) From Eqns. (1) and (2), we get (3) Conservation of Energy : (relativistic effect) If the rest mass of the electron is taken to be , the initial energy is and the final energy is . Thus (4) From Eqn. (4), we get, on squaring, Thus, On substituting expression (3) for in the above equation, we get Recalling and and on simplification, we get Using , we get Compton's formula is known as the Compton Wavelength of an electron. Exercise 1 Show that the angle by which the electron is scattered is related to the scattering angle of the photon by Exercise 2 Is Compton effect easier to observe with I.R., visible, UV or X-rays ? In a Compton scattering experiment the scattered electron moves in the same direction as that of the incident photon. In which direction does the photon scatter ? (Answer : X-rays, .) Exercise 3 A 200 MeV photon strikes a stationary proton (rest mass 931 MeV) and is back scattered. Find the kinetic energy of the proton after the scattering. (Ans. 60 MeV) Page 5 Module 5 : MODERN PHYSICS Lecture 25 : Compton Effect Objectives In this course you will learn the following Scattering of radiation from an electron (Compton effect). Compton effect provides a direct confirmation of particle nature of radiation. Why photoelectric effect cannot be exhited by a free electron. Compton Effect Photoelectric effect provides evidence that energy is quantized. In order to establish the particle nature of radiation, it is necessary that photons must carry momentum. In 1922, Arthur Compton studied the scattering of x-rays of known frequency from graphite and looked at the recoil electrons and the scattered x-rays. According to wave theory, when an electromagnetic wave of frequency is incident on an atom, it would cause electrons to oscillate. The electrons would absorb energy from the wave and re-radiate electromagnetic wave of a frequency . The frequency of scattered radiation would depend on the amount of energy absorbed from the wave, i.e. on the intensity of incident radiation and the duration of the exposure of electrons to the radiation and not on the frequency of the incident radiation. Compton found that the wavelength of the scattered radiation does not depend on the intensity of incident radiation but it depends on the angle of scattering and the wavelength of the incident beam. The wavelength of the radiation scattered at an angle is given by .where is the rest mass of the electron. The constant is known as the Compton wavelength of the electron and it has a value 0.0024 nm. The spectrum of radiation at an angle consists of two peaks, one at and the other at . Compton effect can be explained by assuming that the incoming radiation is a beam of particles with Energy Momentum In arriving at the last relationship, we use the energy - momentum relation of the special theory of relativity , according to which, where is the rest mass of a particle. Since photons are massless ( ), we get . Compton's observation is consistent with what we expect if photons, considered as particles, collide with electrons in an elastic collision. Derivation of Compton's Formula Consider a photon of energy and momentum colliding elastically with an electron at rest. Let the direction of incoming photon be along the x-axis. After scattering, the photon moves along a direction making an angle with the x-axis while the scattered electron moves making an angle . Let the magnitude of the momentum of the scattered electron be while that of the scattered photon be . See the animation Conservation of Momentum x-direction : (1) y-direction : (2) From Eqns. (1) and (2), we get (3) Conservation of Energy : (relativistic effect) If the rest mass of the electron is taken to be , the initial energy is and the final energy is . Thus (4) From Eqn. (4), we get, on squaring, Thus, On substituting expression (3) for in the above equation, we get Recalling and and on simplification, we get Using , we get Compton's formula is known as the Compton Wavelength of an electron. Exercise 1 Show that the angle by which the electron is scattered is related to the scattering angle of the photon by Exercise 2 Is Compton effect easier to observe with I.R., visible, UV or X-rays ? In a Compton scattering experiment the scattered electron moves in the same direction as that of the incident photon. In which direction does the photon scatter ? (Answer : X-rays, .) Exercise 3 A 200 MeV photon strikes a stationary proton (rest mass 931 MeV) and is back scattered. Find the kinetic energy of the proton after the scattering. (Ans. 60 MeV) Reason for the unshifted peak in the spectrum When a photon strikes an atom (say carbon atom in a graphite crystal), it may scatter from a loosely bound electron, which is essentially free. In this case there is a measurable shift in the wavelength of the scattered photon. It is also likely that the photon scatters from an electron that is tightly bound to an atom. In such a case, the mass appearing in Compton's formula must be replaced by the mass of the carbon atom itself, which is approximately 20,000 times heavier than an electron. The maximum wavelength shift of the photon for scattering from a free electron is twice the Compton wavelength of an electron, i.e. nm. In case of scattering from the carbon atom, the maximum wavelength shift is approximately nm, which is very small. Thus we find an intensity maximum at an wavelength which is essentially equal to that of the incident wavelength. A free electron cannot absorb a photon and increase its energy as doing so would violate energy- momentum conservation. Consider a free electron at rest which absorbs a photon of energy (and momentum ). The final energy of the electron would be . According to relativistic principle, if the momentum of the electron is , the total energy is given by . When the electron absorbs the incident photon, the momentum of the photon would be transferred to the electron. Since the electron was initially at rest (i.e. with zero momentum), its final momentum is . Thus we have which simplifies to , which is not possible. The reason why an electron bound to an atom can absorb a photon ( as in Compton effect) is that the electron can share some of the resulting momentum with the ion which has a much larger mass Example 11 A photon of wavelength 6000 nm collides with an electron at rest. After scattering, the wavelength of the scattered photon is found to change by exactly one Compton wavelength. Calculate (i) the angle by which the photon is scattered, (ii) the angle by which the electron is scattered and (iii) the change in the energy of the electron due to scattering. Solution : Since the change in wavelength is one Compton wavelength, , i.e. . Thus the photon is scattered at right angles to the incident direction. Initial momentum of the photon is The final momentum of the photon is Thus the final momentum of the electron is . The angle that theRead More

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