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# Lecture 4 - Properties of Systems Notes | EduRev

## : Lecture 4 - Properties of Systems Notes | EduRev

``` Page 1

Module 1 : Signals in Natural Domain
Lecture 4 : Properties of Systems
Objectives
In this lecture you will learn the following
We shall look at different system properties like
memory
linearityshift-invariance
stability
causality
We shall even deduce some theorems based on the above properties.
Memory:
Memory is a property relevant only to systems whose input and output signals have the same independent variable. A system is said
to be memoryless if its output for each value of the independent variable is dependent only on the  input signal at that
value of independent variable. For example the system with description : y(t) = 5x(t) ( y(t) is the output signal corresponding to
input signal x(t) ) is memoryless. In the physical world a resistor can be considered to be a memoryless system (with voltage considered
to be the input signal, current the output signal).
By definition, a system that does not have this property is said to have memory.
How can we identify if a system has memory?
For a memoryless system, changing the input at any instant can change the output only at that instant. If, in some case, a change in
input signal at some instant changes the output at some other instant, we can be sure that the system has memory.
Note: Consider a system whose output Y(t) depends on input X(t) as:  Y(t)   =  X(t-5)  + { X(t) - X(t-5) }
While at first glance, the system might appear to have memory, it does not. This brings us to the idea that given the description of a
system, it need not at all be the most economical one. The same system may have more than one description.
Examples:
Assume y[n] and y(t) are respectively outputs corresponding to input signals x[n] and x(t)
1. The identity system y(t) = x(t) is of-course Memoryless
2. System with description y[n] = x[n-5] has memory. The input at any "instant" depends on the input 5 "instants" earlier.
3. System with description
also has memory. The output at any instant depends on all past and present inputs.

Linearity:
Now we come to one of the most important and revealing properties systems may have - Linearity. Basically, the principle of linearity is
equivalent to the principle of superposition, i.e. a system can be said to be linear if, for any two input signals, their linear combination
yields as output the same linear combination of the corresponding output signals.
Definition:
(It is not necessary for the input and output signals to have the same independent variable for linearity to make sense. The definition for
systems with input and/or output signal being discrete-time is similar.)
Example of linearity
A capacitor, an inductor, a resistor or any combination of these are all linear systems, if we consider the voltage applied across them as
an input signal, and the current through them as an output signal. This is because these simple passive circuit components follow the
principle of superposition within their ranges of operation.
Page 2

Module 1 : Signals in Natural Domain
Lecture 4 : Properties of Systems
Objectives
In this lecture you will learn the following
We shall look at different system properties like
memory
linearityshift-invariance
stability
causality
We shall even deduce some theorems based on the above properties.
Memory:
Memory is a property relevant only to systems whose input and output signals have the same independent variable. A system is said
to be memoryless if its output for each value of the independent variable is dependent only on the  input signal at that
value of independent variable. For example the system with description : y(t) = 5x(t) ( y(t) is the output signal corresponding to
input signal x(t) ) is memoryless. In the physical world a resistor can be considered to be a memoryless system (with voltage considered
to be the input signal, current the output signal).
By definition, a system that does not have this property is said to have memory.
How can we identify if a system has memory?
For a memoryless system, changing the input at any instant can change the output only at that instant. If, in some case, a change in
input signal at some instant changes the output at some other instant, we can be sure that the system has memory.
Note: Consider a system whose output Y(t) depends on input X(t) as:  Y(t)   =  X(t-5)  + { X(t) - X(t-5) }
While at first glance, the system might appear to have memory, it does not. This brings us to the idea that given the description of a
system, it need not at all be the most economical one. The same system may have more than one description.
Examples:
Assume y[n] and y(t) are respectively outputs corresponding to input signals x[n] and x(t)
1. The identity system y(t) = x(t) is of-course Memoryless
2. System with description y[n] = x[n-5] has memory. The input at any "instant" depends on the input 5 "instants" earlier.
3. System with description
also has memory. The output at any instant depends on all past and present inputs.

Linearity:
Now we come to one of the most important and revealing properties systems may have - Linearity. Basically, the principle of linearity is
equivalent to the principle of superposition, i.e. a system can be said to be linear if, for any two input signals, their linear combination
yields as output the same linear combination of the corresponding output signals.
Definition:
(It is not necessary for the input and output signals to have the same independent variable for linearity to make sense. The definition for
systems with input and/or output signal being discrete-time is similar.)
Example of linearity
A capacitor, an inductor, a resistor or any combination of these are all linear systems, if we consider the voltage applied across them as
an input signal, and the current through them as an output signal. This is because these simple passive circuit components follow the
principle of superposition within their ranges of operation.
Additivity and Homogeneity:
Linearity can be thought of as consisting of two properties:
Additivity
A system is said to be additive if for any two input signals x
1
(t) and x
2
(t),
i.e. the output corresponding to the sum of any two inputs is the sum of the two outputs.
Homogeneity (Scaling)
A system is said to be homogenous if, for any input signal X(t),
i.e. scaling any input signal scales the output signal by the same factor.
To say a system is linear is equivalent to saying the system obeys both additivity and homogeneity.
a) We shall first prove homogeneity and additivity imply linearity.
b) To prove linearity implies homogeneity and additivity.
This is easy; put both constants equal to 1 in the definition to get additivity; one of them to 0 to get homogeneity.
Additivity and homogeneity are independent properties.
We can prove this by finding examples of systems which are additive but not homogeneous, and vice versa.
Again, y(t) is the response of the system to the input x(t).
Example of a system which is additive but not homogeneous:
[ It is homogeneous for real constants but not complex ones - consider  ]
Example of a system which is homogeneous but not additive:
[From this example can you generalize to a class of such systems?]
Examples of Linearity:
Assume y[n] and y(t) are respectively outputs corresponding to input signals x[n] and x(t)
1) System with description y(t) = t . x(t) is linear.
Consider any two input signals, x
1
(t) and x
2
(t), with corresponding outputs y
1
(t) and y
2
(t).
a and b are arbitrary constants. The output corresponding to a.x
1
(t) + b.x
2
(t) is
= t (a.x
1
(t) + b.x
2
(t))
= t.a.x
1
(t) + t.b.x
2
(t), which is the same linear combination of y
1
(t) and y
2
(t).
Hence proved.
2) The system with description is not linear.
See for yourself that the system is neither additive, nor homogenous.
Show for yourself that systems with the following descriptions are linear:
Page 3

Module 1 : Signals in Natural Domain
Lecture 4 : Properties of Systems
Objectives
In this lecture you will learn the following
We shall look at different system properties like
memory
linearityshift-invariance
stability
causality
We shall even deduce some theorems based on the above properties.
Memory:
Memory is a property relevant only to systems whose input and output signals have the same independent variable. A system is said
to be memoryless if its output for each value of the independent variable is dependent only on the  input signal at that
value of independent variable. For example the system with description : y(t) = 5x(t) ( y(t) is the output signal corresponding to
input signal x(t) ) is memoryless. In the physical world a resistor can be considered to be a memoryless system (with voltage considered
to be the input signal, current the output signal).
By definition, a system that does not have this property is said to have memory.
How can we identify if a system has memory?
For a memoryless system, changing the input at any instant can change the output only at that instant. If, in some case, a change in
input signal at some instant changes the output at some other instant, we can be sure that the system has memory.
Note: Consider a system whose output Y(t) depends on input X(t) as:  Y(t)   =  X(t-5)  + { X(t) - X(t-5) }
While at first glance, the system might appear to have memory, it does not. This brings us to the idea that given the description of a
system, it need not at all be the most economical one. The same system may have more than one description.
Examples:
Assume y[n] and y(t) are respectively outputs corresponding to input signals x[n] and x(t)
1. The identity system y(t) = x(t) is of-course Memoryless
2. System with description y[n] = x[n-5] has memory. The input at any "instant" depends on the input 5 "instants" earlier.
3. System with description
also has memory. The output at any instant depends on all past and present inputs.

Linearity:
Now we come to one of the most important and revealing properties systems may have - Linearity. Basically, the principle of linearity is
equivalent to the principle of superposition, i.e. a system can be said to be linear if, for any two input signals, their linear combination
yields as output the same linear combination of the corresponding output signals.
Definition:
(It is not necessary for the input and output signals to have the same independent variable for linearity to make sense. The definition for
systems with input and/or output signal being discrete-time is similar.)
Example of linearity
A capacitor, an inductor, a resistor or any combination of these are all linear systems, if we consider the voltage applied across them as
an input signal, and the current through them as an output signal. This is because these simple passive circuit components follow the
principle of superposition within their ranges of operation.
Additivity and Homogeneity:
Linearity can be thought of as consisting of two properties:
Additivity
A system is said to be additive if for any two input signals x
1
(t) and x
2
(t),
i.e. the output corresponding to the sum of any two inputs is the sum of the two outputs.
Homogeneity (Scaling)
A system is said to be homogenous if, for any input signal X(t),
i.e. scaling any input signal scales the output signal by the same factor.
To say a system is linear is equivalent to saying the system obeys both additivity and homogeneity.
a) We shall first prove homogeneity and additivity imply linearity.
b) To prove linearity implies homogeneity and additivity.
This is easy; put both constants equal to 1 in the definition to get additivity; one of them to 0 to get homogeneity.
Additivity and homogeneity are independent properties.
We can prove this by finding examples of systems which are additive but not homogeneous, and vice versa.
Again, y(t) is the response of the system to the input x(t).
Example of a system which is additive but not homogeneous:
[ It is homogeneous for real constants but not complex ones - consider  ]
Example of a system which is homogeneous but not additive:
[From this example can you generalize to a class of such systems?]
Examples of Linearity:
Assume y[n] and y(t) are respectively outputs corresponding to input signals x[n] and x(t)
1) System with description y(t) = t . x(t) is linear.
Consider any two input signals, x
1
(t) and x
2
(t), with corresponding outputs y
1
(t) and y
2
(t).
a and b are arbitrary constants. The output corresponding to a.x
1
(t) + b.x
2
(t) is
= t (a.x
1
(t) + b.x
2
(t))
= t.a.x
1
(t) + t.b.x
2
(t), which is the same linear combination of y
1
(t) and y
2
(t).
Hence proved.
2) The system with description is not linear.
See for yourself that the system is neither additive, nor homogenous.
Show for yourself that systems with the following descriptions are linear:
Shift Invariance
This is another important property applicable to systems with the same independent variable for the input and output signal. We shall
first define the property for continuous time systems and the definition for discrete time systems will follow naturally.
Definition:Say, for a system, the input signal x(t) gives rise to an output signal y(t). If the input signal x(t - t
0
) gives rise to output
y(t - t
0
), for every t
0
, and every possible input signal, we say the system is shift invariant.
i.e. for every permissible x(t) and every t
0
In other words, for a shift invariant system, shifting the input signal shifts the output signal by the same offset.
Note this is not to be expected from every system. x(t) and x(t - t
0
) are different (related by a shift, but different) input signals and a
system, which simply maps one set of signals to another, need not at all map x(t) and x(t - t
0
) to output signal also shift by t
0
A system that does not satisfy this property is said to be shift variant.
Examples of Shift Invariance:
Assume y[n] and y(t) are respectively outputs corresponding to input signals x[n] and x(t)
Page 4

Module 1 : Signals in Natural Domain
Lecture 4 : Properties of Systems
Objectives
In this lecture you will learn the following
We shall look at different system properties like
memory
linearityshift-invariance
stability
causality
We shall even deduce some theorems based on the above properties.
Memory:
Memory is a property relevant only to systems whose input and output signals have the same independent variable. A system is said
to be memoryless if its output for each value of the independent variable is dependent only on the  input signal at that
value of independent variable. For example the system with description : y(t) = 5x(t) ( y(t) is the output signal corresponding to
input signal x(t) ) is memoryless. In the physical world a resistor can be considered to be a memoryless system (with voltage considered
to be the input signal, current the output signal).
By definition, a system that does not have this property is said to have memory.
How can we identify if a system has memory?
For a memoryless system, changing the input at any instant can change the output only at that instant. If, in some case, a change in
input signal at some instant changes the output at some other instant, we can be sure that the system has memory.
Note: Consider a system whose output Y(t) depends on input X(t) as:  Y(t)   =  X(t-5)  + { X(t) - X(t-5) }
While at first glance, the system might appear to have memory, it does not. This brings us to the idea that given the description of a
system, it need not at all be the most economical one. The same system may have more than one description.
Examples:
Assume y[n] and y(t) are respectively outputs corresponding to input signals x[n] and x(t)
1. The identity system y(t) = x(t) is of-course Memoryless
2. System with description y[n] = x[n-5] has memory. The input at any "instant" depends on the input 5 "instants" earlier.
3. System with description
also has memory. The output at any instant depends on all past and present inputs.

Linearity:
Now we come to one of the most important and revealing properties systems may have - Linearity. Basically, the principle of linearity is
equivalent to the principle of superposition, i.e. a system can be said to be linear if, for any two input signals, their linear combination
yields as output the same linear combination of the corresponding output signals.
Definition:
(It is not necessary for the input and output signals to have the same independent variable for linearity to make sense. The definition for
systems with input and/or output signal being discrete-time is similar.)
Example of linearity
A capacitor, an inductor, a resistor or any combination of these are all linear systems, if we consider the voltage applied across them as
an input signal, and the current through them as an output signal. This is because these simple passive circuit components follow the
principle of superposition within their ranges of operation.
Additivity and Homogeneity:
Linearity can be thought of as consisting of two properties:
Additivity
A system is said to be additive if for any two input signals x
1
(t) and x
2
(t),
i.e. the output corresponding to the sum of any two inputs is the sum of the two outputs.
Homogeneity (Scaling)
A system is said to be homogenous if, for any input signal X(t),
i.e. scaling any input signal scales the output signal by the same factor.
To say a system is linear is equivalent to saying the system obeys both additivity and homogeneity.
a) We shall first prove homogeneity and additivity imply linearity.
b) To prove linearity implies homogeneity and additivity.
This is easy; put both constants equal to 1 in the definition to get additivity; one of them to 0 to get homogeneity.
Additivity and homogeneity are independent properties.
We can prove this by finding examples of systems which are additive but not homogeneous, and vice versa.
Again, y(t) is the response of the system to the input x(t).
Example of a system which is additive but not homogeneous:
[ It is homogeneous for real constants but not complex ones - consider  ]
Example of a system which is homogeneous but not additive:
[From this example can you generalize to a class of such systems?]
Examples of Linearity:
Assume y[n] and y(t) are respectively outputs corresponding to input signals x[n] and x(t)
1) System with description y(t) = t . x(t) is linear.
Consider any two input signals, x
1
(t) and x
2
(t), with corresponding outputs y
1
(t) and y
2
(t).
a and b are arbitrary constants. The output corresponding to a.x
1
(t) + b.x
2
(t) is
= t (a.x
1
(t) + b.x
2
(t))
= t.a.x
1
(t) + t.b.x
2
(t), which is the same linear combination of y
1
(t) and y
2
(t).
Hence proved.
2) The system with description is not linear.
See for yourself that the system is neither additive, nor homogenous.
Show for yourself that systems with the following descriptions are linear:
Shift Invariance
This is another important property applicable to systems with the same independent variable for the input and output signal. We shall
first define the property for continuous time systems and the definition for discrete time systems will follow naturally.
Definition:Say, for a system, the input signal x(t) gives rise to an output signal y(t). If the input signal x(t - t
0
) gives rise to output
y(t - t
0
), for every t
0
, and every possible input signal, we say the system is shift invariant.
i.e. for every permissible x(t) and every t
0
In other words, for a shift invariant system, shifting the input signal shifts the output signal by the same offset.
Note this is not to be expected from every system. x(t) and x(t - t
0
) are different (related by a shift, but different) input signals and a
system, which simply maps one set of signals to another, need not at all map x(t) and x(t - t
0
) to output signal also shift by t
0
A system that does not satisfy this property is said to be shift variant.
Examples of Shift Invariance:
Assume y[n] and y(t) are respectively outputs corresponding to input signals x[n] and x(t)
Stability
Let us learn about one more important system property known as stability. Most of us are familiar with the word stability, which
intuitively means resistance to change or displacement. Broadly speaking a stable system is a one in which small inputs lead to
predictable responses that do not diverge, i.e. are bounded. To get the qualitative idea let us consider the following physical example.
Example
Consider an ideal mechanical spring (elongation proportional to tension). If we consider tension in the spring as a function of time as the
input signal and elongation as a function of time to be the output signal, it would appear intuitively that the system is stable. A small
tension leads only to a finite elongation.
There are various ideas/notions about stability not all of which are equivalent. We shall now introduce the notion of BIBO Stability, i.e.
BOUNDED INPUT-BOUNDED OUTPUT STABILITY.
Statement:
Note: This should be true for all bound inputs x(t)
It is not necessary for the input and output signal to have the same independent variable for this property to make sense. It is valid for
continuous time, discrete time and hybrid systems.
Examples
Consider systems with the following descriptions. y(t) is the output signal corresponding to the input signal x(t).
Page 5

Module 1 : Signals in Natural Domain
Lecture 4 : Properties of Systems
Objectives
In this lecture you will learn the following
We shall look at different system properties like
memory
linearityshift-invariance
stability
causality
We shall even deduce some theorems based on the above properties.
Memory:
Memory is a property relevant only to systems whose input and output signals have the same independent variable. A system is said
to be memoryless if its output for each value of the independent variable is dependent only on the  input signal at that
value of independent variable. For example the system with description : y(t) = 5x(t) ( y(t) is the output signal corresponding to
input signal x(t) ) is memoryless. In the physical world a resistor can be considered to be a memoryless system (with voltage considered
to be the input signal, current the output signal).
By definition, a system that does not have this property is said to have memory.
How can we identify if a system has memory?
For a memoryless system, changing the input at any instant can change the output only at that instant. If, in some case, a change in
input signal at some instant changes the output at some other instant, we can be sure that the system has memory.
Note: Consider a system whose output Y(t) depends on input X(t) as:  Y(t)   =  X(t-5)  + { X(t) - X(t-5) }
While at first glance, the system might appear to have memory, it does not. This brings us to the idea that given the description of a
system, it need not at all be the most economical one. The same system may have more than one description.
Examples:
Assume y[n] and y(t) are respectively outputs corresponding to input signals x[n] and x(t)
1. The identity system y(t) = x(t) is of-course Memoryless
2. System with description y[n] = x[n-5] has memory. The input at any "instant" depends on the input 5 "instants" earlier.
3. System with description
also has memory. The output at any instant depends on all past and present inputs.

Linearity:
Now we come to one of the most important and revealing properties systems may have - Linearity. Basically, the principle of linearity is
equivalent to the principle of superposition, i.e. a system can be said to be linear if, for any two input signals, their linear combination
yields as output the same linear combination of the corresponding output signals.
Definition:
(It is not necessary for the input and output signals to have the same independent variable for linearity to make sense. The definition for
systems with input and/or output signal being discrete-time is similar.)
Example of linearity
A capacitor, an inductor, a resistor or any combination of these are all linear systems, if we consider the voltage applied across them as
an input signal, and the current through them as an output signal. This is because these simple passive circuit components follow the
principle of superposition within their ranges of operation.
Additivity and Homogeneity:
Linearity can be thought of as consisting of two properties:
Additivity
A system is said to be additive if for any two input signals x
1
(t) and x
2
(t),
i.e. the output corresponding to the sum of any two inputs is the sum of the two outputs.
Homogeneity (Scaling)
A system is said to be homogenous if, for any input signal X(t),
i.e. scaling any input signal scales the output signal by the same factor.
To say a system is linear is equivalent to saying the system obeys both additivity and homogeneity.
a) We shall first prove homogeneity and additivity imply linearity.
b) To prove linearity implies homogeneity and additivity.
This is easy; put both constants equal to 1 in the definition to get additivity; one of them to 0 to get homogeneity.
Additivity and homogeneity are independent properties.
We can prove this by finding examples of systems which are additive but not homogeneous, and vice versa.
Again, y(t) is the response of the system to the input x(t).
Example of a system which is additive but not homogeneous:
[ It is homogeneous for real constants but not complex ones - consider  ]
Example of a system which is homogeneous but not additive:
[From this example can you generalize to a class of such systems?]
Examples of Linearity:
Assume y[n] and y(t) are respectively outputs corresponding to input signals x[n] and x(t)
1) System with description y(t) = t . x(t) is linear.
Consider any two input signals, x
1
(t) and x
2
(t), with corresponding outputs y
1
(t) and y
2
(t).
a and b are arbitrary constants. The output corresponding to a.x
1
(t) + b.x
2
(t) is
= t (a.x
1
(t) + b.x
2
(t))
= t.a.x
1
(t) + t.b.x
2
(t), which is the same linear combination of y
1
(t) and y
2
(t).
Hence proved.
2) The system with description is not linear.
See for yourself that the system is neither additive, nor homogenous.
Show for yourself that systems with the following descriptions are linear:
Shift Invariance
This is another important property applicable to systems with the same independent variable for the input and output signal. We shall
first define the property for continuous time systems and the definition for discrete time systems will follow naturally.
Definition:Say, for a system, the input signal x(t) gives rise to an output signal y(t). If the input signal x(t - t
0
) gives rise to output
y(t - t
0
), for every t
0
, and every possible input signal, we say the system is shift invariant.
i.e. for every permissible x(t) and every t
0
In other words, for a shift invariant system, shifting the input signal shifts the output signal by the same offset.
Note this is not to be expected from every system. x(t) and x(t - t
0
) are different (related by a shift, but different) input signals and a
system, which simply maps one set of signals to another, need not at all map x(t) and x(t - t
0
) to output signal also shift by t
0
A system that does not satisfy this property is said to be shift variant.
Examples of Shift Invariance:
Assume y[n] and y(t) are respectively outputs corresponding to input signals x[n] and x(t)
Stability
Let us learn about one more important system property known as stability. Most of us are familiar with the word stability, which
intuitively means resistance to change or displacement. Broadly speaking a stable system is a one in which small inputs lead to
predictable responses that do not diverge, i.e. are bounded. To get the qualitative idea let us consider the following physical example.
Example
Consider an ideal mechanical spring (elongation proportional to tension). If we consider tension in the spring as a function of time as the
input signal and elongation as a function of time to be the output signal, it would appear intuitively that the system is stable. A small
tension leads only to a finite elongation.
There are various ideas/notions about stability not all of which are equivalent. We shall now introduce the notion of BIBO Stability, i.e.
BOUNDED INPUT-BOUNDED OUTPUT STABILITY.
Statement:
Note: This should be true for all bound inputs x(t)
It is not necessary for the input and output signal to have the same independent variable for this property to make sense. It is valid for
continuous time, discrete time and hybrid systems.
Examples
Consider systems with the following descriptions. y(t) is the output signal corresponding to the input signal x(t).
CONCLUSION
BIBO Stable system : In a BIBO stable system, every bounded input is assured to give a bounded output. An unbounded input can
give us either a bounded or an unbounded output, i.e. nothing can be said for sure.
BIBO Unstable system: In a BIBO unstable system, there exists at least one bounded input for which output is unbounded. Again,
nothing can be said about the system's response to an unbounded input.
Causality
Causality refers to cause and effect relationship (the effect follows the cause). In a causal system, the value of the output signal at any
instant depends only on "past" and "present" values of the input signal (i.e. only on values of the input signal at "instants" less than or
equal to that "instant"). Such a system is often referred to as being non-anticipative, as the system output does not anticipate future
values of the input (remember again the reference to time is merely symbolic). As you might have realized, causality as a property is
relevant only for systems whose input and output signals have the same independent variable. Further, this independent variable
must be ordered (it makes no sense to talk of "past" and "future" when the independent variable is not ordered).
What this means mathematically is that If two inputs to a causal (continuous-time) system are identical up to some time to, the
corresponding outputs must also be equal up to this same time (we'll define the property for continuous-time systems; the definition for
discrete-time systems will then be obvious).
Definition
Let x
1
(t) and x
2
(t) be two input signals to a system and y
1
(t) and y
2
(t) be their respective outputs.
The system is said to be causal if and only if:

This of course is only another way of stating what we said before: for any t
0
: y( t
0
) depends only on values of x(t) for t <= t
0
As an example of the behavior of causal systems, consider the figure below:
```
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