# Linear Momentum, Angular Momentum and Kinetic Energy of Rigid Bodies (Part - 2) Civil Engineering (CE) Notes | EduRev

## Civil Engineering (CE) : Linear Momentum, Angular Momentum and Kinetic Energy of Rigid Bodies (Part - 2) Civil Engineering (CE) Notes | EduRev

The document Linear Momentum, Angular Momentum and Kinetic Energy of Rigid Bodies (Part - 2) Civil Engineering (CE) Notes | EduRev is a part of the Civil Engineering (CE) Course Introduction to Dynamics and Vibrations- Notes, Videos, MCQs.
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6.4.1 Deriving the linear momentum formula

By definition We ca re-write this as follows: (we used the definition of the COM to get the last result)

6.4.2 Deriving the angular momentum formula

Start with the definition: Note that ri =rG + di and recall the relative velocity formula vi −vG = ω × (ri− rG) = ω ×di .  This means we can re-write the angular momentum as  Note that Finally, recall the dreaded triple cross product formula

a × b × c= (a ⋅ c)b − (a ⋅b)c

This means that

di × ω× di = (di ⋅ di )ω − di (di ⋅ ω)

We can expand this out   This shows that Finally collecting terms gives the required answer  6.4.3 Deriving the kinetic energy formula We can use vi −vG = ω × (ri− rG) = ω ×di  Recall that and expand the dot product of two cross products using the formula

(a × b) ⋅ (c × d) = (a ⋅c)(b ⋅ d) − (b ⋅ c)(a ⋅d)

This shows that

(ω x di) • (ω x di) = (ω • ω)(di • di) - (w • di)2   = ω ⋅IG ω

6.4.5 Calculating the center of mass and inertia of a general rigid body

It is not hard to extend the results for a system of N particles to a general rigid body. We simply regard the body to be made up of an infinite number of vanishingly small particles, and take the limit of the sums as the particle volume goes to zero. The sums all turn into integrals.

3D problems:  For a body with mass density ρ (mass per unit volume) we have that

• The total mass is • The position of the center of mass is • The mass moment of inertia about the center of mass is  where d = r − rG

For 2D problems: We know the COM must lie in the i,j plane and we don’t need to calculate the whole matrix.

For a body with mass per unit area µ we can therefore use the formulas • The total mass is • The position of the center of mass is • The mass moment of inertia about the center of mass is where d = r − rG

Example 1: To show how to use these, let’s calculate the total mass, center of mass, and mass moment of inertia of a rectangular prism with faces perpendicular to the i, j,k axes: First the total mass (sort of trivial) Now the COM  And finally the mass moment of inertia    Example 2: As a second example, let’s calculate the mass moment of inertia of a cylinder with mass density ρ , length L and radius a.  (We know the COM is at the center and we know the total mass so we won’t bother calculating those). We have to do the integral with polar coordinates  Now note that d =r cosθ dy = r sinθ dz = z .  We can have Mupad do the dirty work:

[reset() :

[ds := r*cos(q): dy := r*sin(q): dz := z:   Example 3: Let’s finish up with a 2D example. Find the mass, center of mass, and out of plane mass moment of inertia of the triangle shown in the figure. The total mass is The position of the COM is The 2D mass moment of inertia is  This is all a big pain, and you may be contemplating a life of crime instead of an engineering career.   Fortunately, it is very rare to have to do these sorts of integrals in practice, because all the integrals for common shapes have already been done. You can google most of them. The tables below give a short list of all the objects we will encounter in this course.

Table of mass moment of inertia tensors for selected 3D objects

 PrismM = ρ abc  Solid CylinderM = πρ a2L  Solid ConeM =π/h ρα2h  Solid SphereM = 4/3 πρα3  Solid EllipsoidM =4/3 πραbc  Hollow CylinderM = πρ (b2 − a2)L  Table of mass moment of inertia about perpendicular axis for selected 2D objects

 Square IGzz = M/12 (α2 + b2) Disk IGzz = M/2R2 Thin ring IGzz = -MR2 Hollow disk IGzz = M/2 (α2 + b2) Slender rod IGzz =  M/12 L2 Triangular Plate M/18 (α2 + b2)

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## Introduction to Dynamics and Vibrations- Notes, Videos, MCQs

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