Local Illumination Notes

: Local Illumination Notes

 Page 1


1
Greg Humphreys
CS445: Intro Graphics
University of Virginia, Fall 2004
Raster Graphics and Color
Overview
• Display hardware
? How are images displayed?
• Raster graphics systems
? How are imaging systems organized?
• Color models
? How can we describe and represent colors?
Overview
• Display hardware
? How are images displayed?
• Raster graphics systems
? How are imaging systems organized?
• Color models
? How can we describe and represent colors?
Display Hardware
• Video display devices
? Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)
? Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)
? Plasma panels
? Thin-film electroluminescent displays
? Light-emitting diodes (LED)
• Hard-copy devices
? Ink-jet printer
? Laser printer
? Film recorder
? Electrostatic printer
? Pen plotter
Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)
Figure 2.4 from H&B 
Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)
Figure 2.16 from H&B 
Page 2


1
Greg Humphreys
CS445: Intro Graphics
University of Virginia, Fall 2004
Raster Graphics and Color
Overview
• Display hardware
? How are images displayed?
• Raster graphics systems
? How are imaging systems organized?
• Color models
? How can we describe and represent colors?
Overview
• Display hardware
? How are images displayed?
• Raster graphics systems
? How are imaging systems organized?
• Color models
? How can we describe and represent colors?
Display Hardware
• Video display devices
? Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)
? Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)
? Plasma panels
? Thin-film electroluminescent displays
? Light-emitting diodes (LED)
• Hard-copy devices
? Ink-jet printer
? Laser printer
? Film recorder
? Electrostatic printer
? Pen plotter
Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)
Figure 2.4 from H&B 
Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)
Figure 2.16 from H&B 
2
Display Hardware
• Video display devices
» Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)
» Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)
? Plasma panels
? Thin-film electroluminescent displays
? Light-emitting diodes (LED)
• Hard-copy devices
? Ink-jet printer
? Laser printer
? Film recorder
? Electrostatic printer
? Pen plotter
Overview
• Display hardware
? How are images displayed?
• Raster graphics systems
? How are imaging systems organized?
• Color models
? How can we describe and represent colors?
Raster Graphics Systems
Display
Processor
System
Memory
CPU
Frame
Buffer
Monitor
Video
Controller
System Bus
I/O Devices
Figure 2.29 from H&B 
Frame Buffer
Frame
Buffer
Figure 1.2 from FvDFH 
Frame Buffer Refresh
Figure 1.3 from FvDFH 
Refresh rate is usually 60-120 Hz
DAC
Direct Color Framebuffer
• Store the actual intensities of R, G, and B individually
in the framebuffer
• 24 bits per pixel = 8 bits red, 8 bits green, 8 bits blue
•  16 bits per pixel = ? bits red, ? bits green, ? bits blue
Page 3


1
Greg Humphreys
CS445: Intro Graphics
University of Virginia, Fall 2004
Raster Graphics and Color
Overview
• Display hardware
? How are images displayed?
• Raster graphics systems
? How are imaging systems organized?
• Color models
? How can we describe and represent colors?
Overview
• Display hardware
? How are images displayed?
• Raster graphics systems
? How are imaging systems organized?
• Color models
? How can we describe and represent colors?
Display Hardware
• Video display devices
? Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)
? Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)
? Plasma panels
? Thin-film electroluminescent displays
? Light-emitting diodes (LED)
• Hard-copy devices
? Ink-jet printer
? Laser printer
? Film recorder
? Electrostatic printer
? Pen plotter
Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)
Figure 2.4 from H&B 
Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)
Figure 2.16 from H&B 
2
Display Hardware
• Video display devices
» Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)
» Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)
? Plasma panels
? Thin-film electroluminescent displays
? Light-emitting diodes (LED)
• Hard-copy devices
? Ink-jet printer
? Laser printer
? Film recorder
? Electrostatic printer
? Pen plotter
Overview
• Display hardware
? How are images displayed?
• Raster graphics systems
? How are imaging systems organized?
• Color models
? How can we describe and represent colors?
Raster Graphics Systems
Display
Processor
System
Memory
CPU
Frame
Buffer
Monitor
Video
Controller
System Bus
I/O Devices
Figure 2.29 from H&B 
Frame Buffer
Frame
Buffer
Figure 1.2 from FvDFH 
Frame Buffer Refresh
Figure 1.3 from FvDFH 
Refresh rate is usually 60-120 Hz
DAC
Direct Color Framebuffer
• Store the actual intensities of R, G, and B individually
in the framebuffer
• 24 bits per pixel = 8 bits red, 8 bits green, 8 bits blue
•  16 bits per pixel = ? bits red, ? bits green, ? bits blue
3
Color Lookup Framebuffer
• Store indices (usually 8 bits) in framebuffer
• Display controller looks up the R,G,B values before
triggering the electron guns
Color indices
DAC
Color CRT
Figure 2.8 from H&B 
Overview
• Display hardware
? How are images displayed?
• Raster graphics systems
? How are imaging systems organized?
» Color models
? How can we describe and represent colors?
Specifying Color
• Color perception usually involves three quantities:
? Hue: Distinguishes between colors like red, green, blue, etc
? Saturation: How far the color is from a gray of equal
intensity
? Lightness: The perceived intensity of a reflecting object
• Sometimes lightness is called brightness if the object
is emitting light instead of reflecting it.
• In order to use color precisely in computer graphics,
we need to be able to specify and measure colors.
How Do Artists Do It?
• Artists often specify color as tints, shades, and tones of
saturated (pure) pigments
• Tint: Adding white to a pure pigment, decreasing saturation
• Shade: Adding black to a pure pigment, decreasing lightness
• Tone: Adding white and black to a pure pigment
White
Pure Color
Black
Grays
Tints
Shades
Tones
HSV Color Model
Figure 15.16&15.17 from H&B 
 H         S         V         Color    
    0 1.0 1.0 Red
120 1.0 1.0 Green
240 1.0 1.0 Blue
 * 0.0 1.0 White
 * 0.0 0.5 Gray
 * * 0.0 Black
  60 1.0 1.0 ?
270 0.5 1.0 ?
270 0.0 0.7 ?
Page 4


1
Greg Humphreys
CS445: Intro Graphics
University of Virginia, Fall 2004
Raster Graphics and Color
Overview
• Display hardware
? How are images displayed?
• Raster graphics systems
? How are imaging systems organized?
• Color models
? How can we describe and represent colors?
Overview
• Display hardware
? How are images displayed?
• Raster graphics systems
? How are imaging systems organized?
• Color models
? How can we describe and represent colors?
Display Hardware
• Video display devices
? Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)
? Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)
? Plasma panels
? Thin-film electroluminescent displays
? Light-emitting diodes (LED)
• Hard-copy devices
? Ink-jet printer
? Laser printer
? Film recorder
? Electrostatic printer
? Pen plotter
Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)
Figure 2.4 from H&B 
Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)
Figure 2.16 from H&B 
2
Display Hardware
• Video display devices
» Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)
» Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)
? Plasma panels
? Thin-film electroluminescent displays
? Light-emitting diodes (LED)
• Hard-copy devices
? Ink-jet printer
? Laser printer
? Film recorder
? Electrostatic printer
? Pen plotter
Overview
• Display hardware
? How are images displayed?
• Raster graphics systems
? How are imaging systems organized?
• Color models
? How can we describe and represent colors?
Raster Graphics Systems
Display
Processor
System
Memory
CPU
Frame
Buffer
Monitor
Video
Controller
System Bus
I/O Devices
Figure 2.29 from H&B 
Frame Buffer
Frame
Buffer
Figure 1.2 from FvDFH 
Frame Buffer Refresh
Figure 1.3 from FvDFH 
Refresh rate is usually 60-120 Hz
DAC
Direct Color Framebuffer
• Store the actual intensities of R, G, and B individually
in the framebuffer
• 24 bits per pixel = 8 bits red, 8 bits green, 8 bits blue
•  16 bits per pixel = ? bits red, ? bits green, ? bits blue
3
Color Lookup Framebuffer
• Store indices (usually 8 bits) in framebuffer
• Display controller looks up the R,G,B values before
triggering the electron guns
Color indices
DAC
Color CRT
Figure 2.8 from H&B 
Overview
• Display hardware
? How are images displayed?
• Raster graphics systems
? How are imaging systems organized?
» Color models
? How can we describe and represent colors?
Specifying Color
• Color perception usually involves three quantities:
? Hue: Distinguishes between colors like red, green, blue, etc
? Saturation: How far the color is from a gray of equal
intensity
? Lightness: The perceived intensity of a reflecting object
• Sometimes lightness is called brightness if the object
is emitting light instead of reflecting it.
• In order to use color precisely in computer graphics,
we need to be able to specify and measure colors.
How Do Artists Do It?
• Artists often specify color as tints, shades, and tones of
saturated (pure) pigments
• Tint: Adding white to a pure pigment, decreasing saturation
• Shade: Adding black to a pure pigment, decreasing lightness
• Tone: Adding white and black to a pure pigment
White
Pure Color
Black
Grays
Tints
Shades
Tones
HSV Color Model
Figure 15.16&15.17 from H&B 
 H         S         V         Color    
    0 1.0 1.0 Red
120 1.0 1.0 Green
240 1.0 1.0 Blue
 * 0.0 1.0 White
 * 0.0 0.5 Gray
 * * 0.0 Black
  60 1.0 1.0 ?
270 0.5 1.0 ?
270 0.0 0.7 ?
4
Intuitive Color Spaces
HSV is an intuitive color space, corresponding to our
perceptual notions of tint, shade, and tone
Hue (H) is the angle
around the vertical axis
Saturation (S) is a value
from 0 to 1 indicating
how far from the vertical
axis the color lies
Value (V) is the height
of the “hexcone”
Precise Color Specifications
• Pigment-mixing is subjective --- depends on human observer,
surrounding colors, lighting of the environment, etc
• We need an objective color specification
• Light is electromagnetic energy in the 400 to 700 nm
wavelength range
• Dominant wavelength is the wavelength of the color we “see”
• Excitation purity is the proportion of pure colored light to white
light
• Luminance is the amount (or intensity) of the light
Electromagnetic Spectrum
• Visible light frequencies range between ...
? Red = 4.3 x 10
14 
hertz (700nm)
? Violet = 7.5 x 10
14 
hertz (400nm)
Figures 15.1 from H&B
Visible Light
• Hue = dominant frequency (highest peak)
• Saturation = excitation purity (ratio of highest to rest)
• Lightness = luminance (area under curve)
White Light Orange Light
Figures 15.3-4 from H&B
Color Matching
• In order to match a color, we can adjust the
brightness of 3 overlapping primaries until the two
colors look the same.
? C = color to be matched
? RGB = laser sources (R=700nm, G=546nm, B=435nm)
• Humans have trichromatic color vision
C = R + G + B C + R = G + B
B R
G
C B G R C
Linear Color Matching
Grassman’s Laws:
1. Scaling the color and the primaries by the same factor
preserves the match:
2.  To match a color formed by adding two colors, add
the primaries for each color:
Page 5


1
Greg Humphreys
CS445: Intro Graphics
University of Virginia, Fall 2004
Raster Graphics and Color
Overview
• Display hardware
? How are images displayed?
• Raster graphics systems
? How are imaging systems organized?
• Color models
? How can we describe and represent colors?
Overview
• Display hardware
? How are images displayed?
• Raster graphics systems
? How are imaging systems organized?
• Color models
? How can we describe and represent colors?
Display Hardware
• Video display devices
? Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)
? Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)
? Plasma panels
? Thin-film electroluminescent displays
? Light-emitting diodes (LED)
• Hard-copy devices
? Ink-jet printer
? Laser printer
? Film recorder
? Electrostatic printer
? Pen plotter
Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)
Figure 2.4 from H&B 
Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)
Figure 2.16 from H&B 
2
Display Hardware
• Video display devices
» Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)
» Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)
? Plasma panels
? Thin-film electroluminescent displays
? Light-emitting diodes (LED)
• Hard-copy devices
? Ink-jet printer
? Laser printer
? Film recorder
? Electrostatic printer
? Pen plotter
Overview
• Display hardware
? How are images displayed?
• Raster graphics systems
? How are imaging systems organized?
• Color models
? How can we describe and represent colors?
Raster Graphics Systems
Display
Processor
System
Memory
CPU
Frame
Buffer
Monitor
Video
Controller
System Bus
I/O Devices
Figure 2.29 from H&B 
Frame Buffer
Frame
Buffer
Figure 1.2 from FvDFH 
Frame Buffer Refresh
Figure 1.3 from FvDFH 
Refresh rate is usually 60-120 Hz
DAC
Direct Color Framebuffer
• Store the actual intensities of R, G, and B individually
in the framebuffer
• 24 bits per pixel = 8 bits red, 8 bits green, 8 bits blue
•  16 bits per pixel = ? bits red, ? bits green, ? bits blue
3
Color Lookup Framebuffer
• Store indices (usually 8 bits) in framebuffer
• Display controller looks up the R,G,B values before
triggering the electron guns
Color indices
DAC
Color CRT
Figure 2.8 from H&B 
Overview
• Display hardware
? How are images displayed?
• Raster graphics systems
? How are imaging systems organized?
» Color models
? How can we describe and represent colors?
Specifying Color
• Color perception usually involves three quantities:
? Hue: Distinguishes between colors like red, green, blue, etc
? Saturation: How far the color is from a gray of equal
intensity
? Lightness: The perceived intensity of a reflecting object
• Sometimes lightness is called brightness if the object
is emitting light instead of reflecting it.
• In order to use color precisely in computer graphics,
we need to be able to specify and measure colors.
How Do Artists Do It?
• Artists often specify color as tints, shades, and tones of
saturated (pure) pigments
• Tint: Adding white to a pure pigment, decreasing saturation
• Shade: Adding black to a pure pigment, decreasing lightness
• Tone: Adding white and black to a pure pigment
White
Pure Color
Black
Grays
Tints
Shades
Tones
HSV Color Model
Figure 15.16&15.17 from H&B 
 H         S         V         Color    
    0 1.0 1.0 Red
120 1.0 1.0 Green
240 1.0 1.0 Blue
 * 0.0 1.0 White
 * 0.0 0.5 Gray
 * * 0.0 Black
  60 1.0 1.0 ?
270 0.5 1.0 ?
270 0.0 0.7 ?
4
Intuitive Color Spaces
HSV is an intuitive color space, corresponding to our
perceptual notions of tint, shade, and tone
Hue (H) is the angle
around the vertical axis
Saturation (S) is a value
from 0 to 1 indicating
how far from the vertical
axis the color lies
Value (V) is the height
of the “hexcone”
Precise Color Specifications
• Pigment-mixing is subjective --- depends on human observer,
surrounding colors, lighting of the environment, etc
• We need an objective color specification
• Light is electromagnetic energy in the 400 to 700 nm
wavelength range
• Dominant wavelength is the wavelength of the color we “see”
• Excitation purity is the proportion of pure colored light to white
light
• Luminance is the amount (or intensity) of the light
Electromagnetic Spectrum
• Visible light frequencies range between ...
? Red = 4.3 x 10
14 
hertz (700nm)
? Violet = 7.5 x 10
14 
hertz (400nm)
Figures 15.1 from H&B
Visible Light
• Hue = dominant frequency (highest peak)
• Saturation = excitation purity (ratio of highest to rest)
• Lightness = luminance (area under curve)
White Light Orange Light
Figures 15.3-4 from H&B
Color Matching
• In order to match a color, we can adjust the
brightness of 3 overlapping primaries until the two
colors look the same.
? C = color to be matched
? RGB = laser sources (R=700nm, G=546nm, B=435nm)
• Humans have trichromatic color vision
C = R + G + B C + R = G + B
B R
G
C B G R C
Linear Color Matching
Grassman’s Laws:
1. Scaling the color and the primaries by the same factor
preserves the match:
2.  To match a color formed by adding two colors, add
the primaries for each color:
5
?
RGB Spectral Colors
• Match each pure color in the visible spectrum
(rainbow)
• Record the color coordinates as a function of
wavelength
Figure 15.5 from H&B 
Human Color Vision
• Humans have 3 light sensitive pigments in their
cones, called L, M, and S
• Each has a different
spectral response curve:
• This leads to metamerism
• “Tristimulus” color theory
Just Noticeable Differences
• The human eye can distinguish hundreds of thousands of
different colors
• When two colors differ only in hue, the wavelength between
just noticeably different colors varies with the wavelength!
? More than 10 nm at the extremes of the spectrum
? Less than 2 nm around blue and yellow
? Most JND hues are within 4 nm.
• Altogether, the eye can distinguish about 128 fully saturated
hues
• Human eyes are less sensitive to hue changes in less
saturated light (not a surprise)
Luminance
Compare color source 
to a gray source
Luminance
       Y = .30R + .59G + .11B
       Color signal on a BW TV
       (Except for gamma)
Chromaticity and the CIE
• Negative spectral matching functions?
• Some colors cannot be represented by RGB
• Enter the CIE
• Three new standard primaries called X, Y, and Z
• Y has a spectral matching function exactly equal to
the human response to luminance
XYZ Matching Functions
•  Match all visible
colors with only
positive weights
•  Y matches luminance
•  These functions are
defined tabularly at 1-
nm intervals
•   Linear combinations
of the R,G,B matching
functions
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