Q. 1. Describe the meaning of a ‘Citizen’ and ‘Alien’. What are the differences between the two?
Ans. Definition of a citizen. The word ‘Citizen’ is sometimes loosely used in the sense of a man living in a city and possessing a polished tongue and refined manner. This is not the sense in which the term citizen is used in civics. Citizen is that member of population of a State who enjoys all the rights civil as well as political under the protection of the State in return for the allegiance he owes to the State. According to Aristotle, “He who has the power to take part in deliberative or judicial administration of any State is said by us to be a citizen of that State.” Mere residence in the territory of a State does not make a person a citizen. In every State there are several aliens who are citizens of foreign States. Vattal has defined citizens as “the members of a civil society bound to this society by certain duties, subject to its authority and equal participation in its advantages.” According to Sri Niwas Shastri, “A citizen is one, who is a member of a State and intelligent appreciation of what would conduce to the highest moral-welfare of the community.”The State protects the citizens’ life, property and liberty and his political rights. It provides him an opportunity for developing his personality and leading a useful and happy life. Citizen and Alien An Alien : As has been noted above that all the people living in a State are not citizens. Citizens are only the members of the State. Besides the citizen, s many foreigners live in the State. These foreigners are in fact the citizens of other states. These foreigners are of three types:
1. Resident aliens: There are so many persons in each State who live in their country and reside in another State. They start their business in that country. Such like residents have no desire to go to their country. They break off their relations with their country and consider themselves the citizens of the State where they reside. However, they will become the citizens of the resident State only when government will grant them political rights. So, many Indians live in Sri Lanka, South Africa, Canada, Australia and America, etc., and they are not the citizens of these countries.
2. Temporary residents: Foreigners who come to another country for a short period and after the completion of their business go back, they are called the temporary residents. Such foreigners come for some particular business or on a pleasure trip. Foreign students also come under this category.
3. Diplomatic representatives: They include ambassadors, ministers, counsels, agents and the subordinate staff attached to them. Until other aliens, they are entitled to special privileges and immunities. These are not amenable to the jurisdiction of the laws of the state where they are appointed. Distinction between the citizen and an alien:
1. A citizen is a member of a State, whereas an alien is not a member of a State.
2. A citizen has the right of permanent residence in he State, whereas the alien does not enjoy this right.
3. The main difference between a citizen and an alien is that a citizen enjoys political rights i.e., the Right to vote, Right to be elected, the Right to hold public office and the Right to be protected abroad and whereas an alien does not enjoy such political rights.
4. An alien owes allegiance to his own State and not to the country wherein he lives.
5. In time of war, foreigners can be asked to leave the country but not the citizens.
6. In the time of war, military service can be mad compulsory for the citizens but not for the foreigners.
7. The State of a citizen is superior to that of an alien.
Q. 2. What is the meaning of citizenship? Describe the methods of acquiring citizenship.
Discuss the methods of acquiring and losing citizenship.
Ans. Definitions of citizenships: Citizenship is a legal relationship that binds an individual to the State of which he is a member. Laski offers a more positive conception of citizenship by defining as“contribution of one’s instructed judgement to public good.” This definition assigns a positive role to the citizen, viz., his duty to contribute his mite towards material and moral advancement of his fellow citizens and that humanity as a whole. According to Gettell, “Citizenship is that condition of individual due to which he can use national and political rights in his ready to fulfil obligation.”According to Boyd, “Citizenship consists of theright ordering of loyalties.”
Kinds of citizens: There are two types of citizens:
1. Natural citizens: A natural citizen is one who is the citizen of a State by birth. He enjoys all the civic and political rights and owes allegiance to the State.
2. Naturalised Citizen: A naturalised citizen is an alien who acquires the citizenship of the State after fulfilling certain conditions. In certain States, however, no distinction is made between natural and naturalised citizens. However, in some States a naturalised citizen does not enjoy a status equal to that of a natural citizen.Acquisition of Citizenship
(A) Natural citizenship: Natural citizens are citizens by birth. There are two practices that are observed regarding the acquisition of citizenship by birth—Jus-Sanguinis and Jus-Soli.
1. Jus-Sanguinis (Blood relationship): The citizenship of a child is determined by the nationality to which his parents belong, irrespective of the place of child’s birth. For instance, if Kenya follows this principle and child is born to an Indian couple in the country, he will acquire the Indian citizenship irrespective of the place where he is born. This principle prevails in Switzerland, Sweden, Germany, France, Rome, Austria and Italy.
2. Jus-Soli (Place of birth): A child acquires the citizenship of a State in which he is born. Citizenship is acquired according to the ‘Soli’ without any onsideration of the nationality to which the child belongs. Under this rule the American citizens’ child born in Great Britain or even in a ship flying with the British flag should become a citizen of Great Britain.With the growth of the feudal idea that birth created a relationship between the individual and the land, the rule of Jus-Soli came to be adopted in most countries of Europe.
Double citizenship: Different countries follow different practices and there is no uniformity of the system. In Britain and U.S.A. both the systems are followed. In case of the children of the citizens born in the country itself, the principle Jus-Soli is applied. In case of the children of the citizens born abroad, the rule of Jus-Sanguinis is applied. Some states like Argentina follow the principle of Jus-Soli and claim the children of foreigners born in their territories as their own citizens. Some others like Switzerland, Italy and Sweden follow the rule of Jus-Sanguinis and claim the children of their own citizens born outside the country as their citizens.
(B) Naturalised citizenship: Naturalised citizens are the citizens by adoption. It is a special device for the acquisition of foreign citizenship. It is process by which the foreigners acquire citizenship of any other State in which they wish to settle permanently. Naturalisation takes place through the following ways.
1. Long residence: Sometimes, aliens are naturalised on account of their residence for a particular period in that State. For instance, it is clearly stated by the law of England, the U.S.A., that only those foreigners who have resided there for at least five years, can acquire the citizenship of their States.
2. Marriage: A marriage affects a change in the citizenship of the wife who follows the citizenship of her husband. Thus, an English woman marrying a German will become a German citizen.
3. Adoption: The adoption of a new child also determines the new citizenship. For instance, if any German couple adopts the child of England, he cquires the citizenship of his adopted parents, i.e.,Germany.
4. Government Service: In certain states there is a principle that if any foreigner joins government service in that State, he gets the citizenship of that State.
5. Property: In some states as in Mexico, the acquisition of land confers citizenship on the purchaser.
6. Conquests: During war, weak states are conquered by the powerful ones. However,he questions of citizenship arise when the citizens of a defeated territory surrender all their rights of citizenship to the conquering states. Still it is the general practice of civilised states that the members of a defeated territory acquire the citizenship of a conquering State.
7. Legitimation: An illegitimate child of a citizen father and an alien mother when legitimatised by subsequent marriage, acquires the same citizenship s the father’s.
8. To scholars: In certain countries certain special facilities are given to scholars for acquiring the citizenship. Loss of Citizenship Citizenship may be lost under the following conditions:
1. Long absence: Long absence from the home country is sufficient under the law of many states to exclude one from the fold of citizens. In France and Germany, citizens who absent themselves from their State for more than ten years may lose their citizenship.
2. Marriage: In many states, a woman marrying a foreigner loses her citizenship in her own country and acquires the citizenship of her husband’s country.
3. Double Citizenship: Sometimes a person acquires double citizenship. However, on attaining adulthood, he is to accept the citizenship of only one country and he loses the citizenship of other country.
4. Government service in other state: Some states deprive their citizens of citizenship if they accept government service in some other State.
5. Crime: Citizenship may be lost by a man who is convicted of a heinous crime.
6. Adoption: If a child is adopted by a foreigner he loses the citizenship of his country and the child acquires the citizenship of his parents.
7. Self-renunciation of citizenship: A person may renounce the citizenship of his original State and may become citizen of a foreign State by naturalisation.
8. Conquest: If the territory of a country is conquered by another State, then persons living in the conquered territory lose the citizenship of that country.
Q. 3. What are the essential qualities of a good citizen?
Ans. A good citizen is one who makes all the possible efforts for the welfare of the community and the State. Good citizenship lies in living for others. No country can progress unless its citizens are good. The progress of a State depends on its citizens. A person becomes a good citizen if he possesses the following qualities:
1. Education: A good citizen in the modern society should be well-educated. Mere literacy is not sufficient but he should have a thorough knowledge of what is happening around him. He should be intelligent enough to sift good from bad. His education enables him to play his part in the society more successfully and usefully. Education makes him understand the problems of the State.
2. Social spirit: A good citizen must possess social spirit. He should subordinate his self-interest to the interest of the community. He is imbued with the spirit of service and common good. A citizen is firstly an individual and that also a social one. His needs cannot be satisfied and his personality cannot develop without the society. Good citizens are never selfish but they always think in the terms of the good of society. They co-operate with others in helping them in achieving the goal. If a man always thinks about his personal interest, he is not an ideal citizen.
3. Dutifulness: A citizen should discharge his duties honestly and diligently. He should always be ready to support others in the discharge of their duties. He should pay his taxes regularly and must be ready to render all possible services to the community. He should be ready to suffer for his country. His activities should be inspired by a spirit of service to the community and by strong devotion to his duties. A citizen should feel that he has to do whatever he can in order to increase the welfare of the community. There are many civic duties such as voting intelligently and honestly, performance of which cannot be enforced by law but must depend solely on the citizen’s sense of duty. A citizens must carefully discharge his duties to the various social groups like family, locality, city, State and the world. He should be honest, fearless and straightforward in the performance of his duties.
4. Self-control and gentleman lines: It is the sacred duty of a citizen not to be indifferent to public affairs. He must not be guided solely by his private self interest. It is his duty to avoid party quarrels. He should be constantly on the guard for the protection of his rights and liberties. Self-control lies behind the spirit of obedience without which there can be no good citizenship. A good citizen is sober in temperament and exercises self-control in his public dealings. He possesses a disciplined character. He does not indulge in vicious habits. He is self-confident without being vain.
5. Good health: A healthy citizen can serve the society in a nice way. An unhealthy and a sick citizen would be a burden not only on his family but also to his neighbours and society. The foremost duty of the citizen, therefore, is that he should be very careful about his diet and physical exercises so that he should have perfect health and be in a position to help the society. A good citizen must be inspired with an urge to maintain a sound body. A good citizen is always careful about the rules of health and observes them scrupulously. A sound mind is contained only in a sound body.
6. Proper use of vote: In a democracy, every adult is given the Right to vote. The Right to vote is a very important right. Members of legislatures are elected by the electorate. Ministers are taken from the members of legislature. A citizen should exercise his Right to vote quite intelligently. He should cast his vote in favour of a deserving candidate. In case a voter casts his vote to an undeserving candidate then the administration may ass into wrong hands. A citizen should make proper use of all the rights granted to him by the State.
7. Patriotism: A good citizen is always a patriot to the backbone. He loves his country deeply and is always ready to sacrifice his lot for the State. He very willingly shows due respect to the laws of the State. He co-operates with the administration and helps in the maintenance of peace and order.
8. Good character: A good character is very important for good citizenship. So many qualities automatically develop in a person who has the strength of character. Good character influences a man to a great extent in his efforts for making progress and for making a name. A country cannot progress if its citizens are morally corrupt, dishonest and selfish. Character is given utmost importance in the Indian culture.
9. Vigilance: A good citizen should be always alert and vigilant. A man should not be indifferent to what s happening in his neighbourhood. He should take active nterest in public matters. A good citizen should not be a passive being who has only to enjoy the advantages which the State offers. He should play an active part in the affairs of the state. Indolence and carelessness are the enemies of a good citizen.
Q. 4. What are the hindrances to good citizenship? Also explain how can they be removed.
Ans. Everybody should try to become a good citizen. However, it is too difficult to become a good citizen. An individual is to face many difficulties for becoming a good citizen. In a modern democracy, it is necessary that the government should be a government of the people, by the people and for the people. Therefore, the quality and the contribution of the individual is important. If the citizen is illiterate, if he is dishonest and careless, he would cause a setback to the progress of the State. For hindrances to good citizenship are hindrances to the efficient working of the State.
Following are the hindrances in the way of a citizen:
1. Illiteracy: Education is the basis of good life. Without education an individual remains in the darkness. The uneducated citizens generally fail to discharge their duties properly.
2. Indolence: The citizen should not be stupid or ignorant. An ignorant and indolent citizen cannot be a good citizen.
3. Selfishness: Citizens are sometimes guided by selfish motives. They neglect public interest and strive to promote their own interests even at the cost of public good.
4. Poverty: Many social evils crop up because of poverty. Those who cannot have enough to spare cannot develop their personalities.
5. Partymanship: Partymanship is another serious hindrance to good citizenship. A democratic government cannot be carried on without parties and party spirit, in so far as it is healthy, is conducive to better political organisations. But rivalry between the parties may not be always healthy. Each party strives to promote its own interests at the cost of the general interest of the country.
6. Communalism: Communalism is a great hindrance in the path of good citizenship. It hampers social and political solidarity of a country and brings bout a discord among the people.
7. Capitalism and Imperialism: Capitalism is a great hindrance to good citizenship. It ignores the many and favours the few. Imperialism also hampers the growth of good citizenship. It is imperialism which causes war among different countries of the world. War never results in the interest of any country.
8. Old customs: Old customs and traditions are often a great hindrance to good citizenship. It is not bad to follow old customs and traditions but it is not a healthy practice to follow them blindly. Remedies for Hindrances The State and the people must make full and joint efforts to do with the causes that act as hindrances to good citizenship. Some of the remedies are as follows:
1. Spread of education: The State should make all the possible efforts for the spread of education.
2. Spread of civic virtues: Propagation of civic ideals through press, radio and public meetings, too,can elevate a nation and so these should also be fully utilised in producing good citizens. Civic ideals can also be preached in religious gatherings and religious places such as churches, temples, gurdwaras and mosques can be used for the purpose.
3. Economic reforms: The State should take all the possible measures to remove poverty. It should create ample employment opportunities for the citizens.Measures should be taken for the removal of gross in equalities of wealth. Reasonable wages should be given for reasonable hours to both men and women. All possible comforts should be provided to the citizens so that they may feel themselves at their best.
4. Equal rights: All the individuals should be equally given economic, social and political rights. There should be no discrimination against anybody on the basis of caste, creed, colour, sex and blood. Nobody should enjoy special privileges and nobody should be above the law of the land.
5. Social spirit: Citizens should be told about the importance of social spirit. They should not be guided by selfish motives and should do everything for the welfare of the community and the State. No citizen for his personal interest should sacrifice the interest of the State.
6. Proper organisation of Political Parties:Political parties should be formed on political and economic basis. They should never be formed on communal or class lines. The parties should not disrupt the unity and solidarity of the State. They should be above corruption and nepotism. The main interest of the parties should be the general welfare of the masses.
7. Establishment of Health Centres: Government should establish health centres in large numbers and there the citizens should be told the rules of maintaining a sound health. Ill health is a great weakness in a good citizen. If the citizens are not healthy, they cannot contribute enough to the welfare of the society. It is the sacred duty of every citizen to make all possible efforts to remove all these hindrances. It is only in the absence of these hindrances that the citizens of a country become ideal citizens. A country can progress only if its citizens are good.