1. Explain briefly the different dimensions of development.
Ans. Development is a complex phenomenon comprising many dimensions — Political Development,Economic Development, Social Development, Cultural Development and Administrative Development.
1. Political Development. Political development loosely refers to a process of organic change in the nature of political institutions. Political development refers to the process of change and growth in political sphere. Political development means the growth of the capability of the political system.
2. Economic Development. Economic development is an important aspect of development. The World Development Report (1991) defines economic development, “as a sustainable increase in living standards that encompass material consumption, education, health and environment protection.” For the definition of economic development, Gerald M. Meier lays emphasis on three words, “Process, real national income and long period.” Economic development is a process whereby an economy’s real national income increases over a period of time.
3. Social Development. Social development means increase in skills, complexity and internal differentiation. Social development means bringing about improvement in the social being of the people.Social development lays stress on expansion of education, better living conditions, better health, social security for women and children, cultural amenties, better status for women, social justice, better social relations, etc.
4. Administrative Development. In these days administrative development has been associated with the development of a Nation. Administrative development is the first and the most important facet of administration development. Administrative development is related to improved capability of public administration, better mechanical and managerial tools, efficient procedures, specialisation, modernisation of administrative process and structures, effective integration, etc.
Q. 2. Explain the term ‘Political Development’.
Ans. The concept of Political Development is the post World War II phenomena. Political development closely refers to a process of organic change in the nature of political institutions. Development in general means the process of cumulative change and growth. So Political Development, in particular, refers to this process of change and growth in political sphere.Definitions of the Political Development. Scholars have given different views regarding the meaning of political development.
1. Rastow and Pye hold that political development aims at “National”. Political unity and broadening of the base of political participation.
2. Hugan regards political development as the “growth of institutions and practices that allow a political system to deal with its own fundamental problems more effectively in short run while working towards more responsiveness of the regime to popular demands in the long run.”
3. G.A. Almond regards political development as“the acquisition of new capability in the sense of a specialised role structure and differentiated orientation which together give a political system the range of problems.” On the basis of above quoted definitions, it can be said that Political Development refers to a process of organic change in the nature of political institutions and the development of the political institutions to a level that they can meet the changing demands of the people. It means the growth of the capability of the political system.
4. According to Mackenzie, “The political development is the capacity to adopt to a higher level of adaptability.”
Q. 3. Write a short note on Lucian W. Pye’s concept of Political Development.
Ans. Lucian Pye presents the case of political development in a quite elaborate form in his book Aspects of Political Development. Before trying to furnish his own interpretation of the term ‘political development’, he discusses different definitions of political development given by different scholars and goes ahead after accepting some and rejecting some parts of each definition.
1. Political Development as the Political Prerequisite of Economic Development:Economists like Paul A. Baran, Norman S. Buchanan,Benjamin Higgins, Albert O. Hirschman and Barbara Ward laid stress on the point that political and social conditions can play a quite decisive role in presenting or facilitating economic growth. It is only under the settled and stable social and political conditions that economy of a nation can grow.
2. Political Development as the Politics typical of Industrial Societies: Some social theorists like W. W. Rostow hold that industrial societies, whether democratic or not, set certain standards of political behaviour and performance that represent political development and developmental goals for others to follow.
3. Political Development as Political Modernisation: Many social theorists like James S.Coleman, Deutsch and S.M. Lipset hold that political development means a study of political standards of the developed western and modern countries that the developing countries are trying to emulate. It means that the advanced western and modern countries are the pace-setters of political development.
4. Political Development as the operation of a Nation-State: There are certain social theorists like K.H. Silver, Edward A. Shills and William McCord who have pointed out that political development consists of the organisation of political life and the performance of political functions in accordance with the standards expected of a modern nation-state.
5. Political development as mobilisation and Participation: Certain social theorists like Clifford Geertz, Ruper Emerson best emphasise the role of a politically awakened citizen and the behaviour of the people in the direction of an expanded popular participation. Extension of franchise is taken as a mark of spread of the decision-making process through mass participation.
6. Political Development as one Aspect of a Multi-Dimensional process of Social change:Some special social theorists like Max F. Millikan, Daniel Lerner have advanced the argument that it is unnecessary and inappropriate to try to isolate political development from other forms of development.
7. Political Development as Administrative and Legal Development: Some social theorists like Max Weber, A.M. Henderson emphasised on the point that political development is intricately linked with the legal and administrative order of a community. Thus, the establishment of bureaucracy is essential for the process of development.
8. Political Development as the Building of Democracy: Joseph LaPalombara and J. Ronald Pennock hold that political development isintegrally connected order in the minds of the people.
9. Political Development as Stability or Orderly Change: Some social theorists like Karl Deutsch and F.W. Riggs have laid stress on the point that stability is legitimately linked with the concept of development. They hold that any form of economic or social advancement generally depends upon an environment in which uncertainty has been reduced. Planning can succeed only if reasonably safe prediction is possible.
10. Political Development as Mobilisation of Power: There are other social theorists like James S. Coleman, G.A. Almond and Talcott Parsons who hold the concept that political development can be evaluated in terms of the level or degree of absolute power which the system is able to mobilise. According to this view, states naturally differ in proportion to their inherent resource base with the result that measure of development is the degree to which they are able of maximise and realise the full potential of their given resources.
11. Political Development as sense of National Respect in International Affairs: In the end, Pye refers to the view that takes into account the case of post nationalism era where Nation-State will no longer be used as the basic unit of political life. Since Pye says nothing to criticise this interpretation, it appears that he either accepts it or ignores it altogether.
Q. 4. Define the term ‘Political Development’.Describe any three basic elements that are helpful in its formulation.
Ans. Political development closely refers to a process of organic change in the nature of political institutions. Development in general means the process of cumulative change and growth. So political development in particular refers to this process of change and growth in political sphere. Hagan regards political development as the, “growth of institutions and practices that allow a political system to deal with its own fundamental problems more effectively in the short run, while working towards more responsiveness of the regime popular demand in the long run.”Following are the elements or factors that are helpful in the formulation of political development:
1. Education: Education helps in the formulation of political development. Only those countries and people can develop politically that are educated and are able to understand political affairs.
2. Economic development: Economic development greatly influences political development.Not any sort of development is possible with economic progress. Economic development and equal distribution of wealth enable everybody to share and devote sometime to political participation. Their gradually developing interest in politics will ultimately lead to political development.
3. Mass-Media Technique: The mass-media techniques include newspapers, broadcasting, postal facilities, movies, roads, railways, air services and T.V. These facilities enlightened the citizens and wellinformed and these inturn enable the citizen to serve the State in a better way. Thus, economy, mass media, education, political participation and social mobility lead to political development. These elements work for acquiring socioeconomic developments, and objective of political development.