Q. 1. Describe the various devices of maintaining peace.
Ans. The following devices can be used to prevent war and to maintain international peace:
1. Balance of Power: Balance of power is the most important device to maintain world peace. The basic principle of Balance of Power is that no State or group of states should become so powerful that may become a threat to international peace. In the 19th century, this device was used by the European state to maintain peace. Even in modern times, this principle is adopted by the major States of the world.
2. International law: International law plays an important role in maintaining world peace.International law regulates the relations among civilised states. International law has laid down the code of behaviour which states are expected to observe in their dealings with one another. According to Palmer and Perkins, “With a consciousness of the defects and limitations of international law. the men and women who seek a world of peace and order view law as an index to their progress. International law does provide almost the only means by which the states can register and secure the gains which they make towards a better international order.”
3. International organisation: In the present time, International organisations are very important institutions for maintaining international peace and security. At present, United Nations consists of 193 member states. The United Nations has done remarkable work for the maintenance of international peace and prevention of war. The wars in Korea, Israel and Indonesia have been stopped with the efforts of the United Nations. The war between India and Pakistan on Kashmir issue was brought to an end.
4. Collective Security: Collective Security is the most promising — indeed, it is the in-dispensable road to peace. Collective Security means machinery for joint action in order to prevent or counter any attack against an established international order. In simple words, Collective Security implies collective measures for dealing with threats to peace. According to Article 1 of the Charter United Nation can take effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to the peace, and for the suppression of acts of aggression and other branches of the peace. The supreme test of the Collective Security System can be seen in Korea.For the first time, military action was taken against North Korea in 1950 under Collective Security System.The United Nations has also taken action against Iraq under Collective Security System and Kuwait became independent.
5. International Morality: International morality is another device for maintaining international peace and security. There are some moral rules at the nternational level to regulate the behaviour of the states. Live and Let Live, Peaceful co-existence, Equality, Fraternity, etc., are some rules of international morality. Principles of Panchsheel are the best example of international morality. If all states follow rules of morality then international peace will be established permanently.
6. Disarmament and Arms control: Arms are the most important part of national power. Even the small and underdeveloped countries are collecting weapons. But more arms mean more danger to peace. Best method of maintaining international peace is disarmament and arms control. For this purpose, the United Nations has established a Disarmament Commission to achieve the purpose.
7. World Public opinion: Modern age is an age of democracy and in democratic world public opinion has a great significance. It is very difficult to ignore public opinion at the national as well as the international level.
8. World Government: Many Scholars and Statesmen are of the view that world government is essential for the maintenance of international peace and security. According to Hans J. Morgenthau, “The experience of two world wars within a quarter of a century and the prospects of a third one to be fought with nuclear weapons have imparted to the idea of world State an unprecedented urgency.”
9. Diplomacy: According to Morgenthau, diplomacy is the best method for the maintenance of international peace. Manu has rightly said in Manu Samriti, “Peace and war among states depend upon the role of ambassadors (Diplomats).” Diplomacy is an instrument to prevent war, in case of war to contain it, to end war, to conclude treaties and to maintain friendly relations. General Secretary of the United Nations used diplomacy as a weapon to maintain international peace and security.