Q. 1. The three challenges faced by India, at the time of Independence are yet to be resolved completely. Do you agree with the statement? Give three reasons in support of your answer.
Ans. The three challenges faced by India at the time of Independence are yet to be resolved completely:
(i) At the time of Independence, there was an urgent question: how was integration of the territory of India to be achieved? Although the challenges of nation building were resolved by our leaders, yet we are not able to forge a strong sense of unity amongst our own people. We still face the challenge of separatism from some parts of Indian Union like Jammu & Kashmir in the North and Nagaland in the Northeastern region of India. We are still struggling hard to resolve these two issues peacefully.
(ii) In spite of laying a strong foundation of secularism in India, the independent India has seen some of the worst communal riots in the country. The issue of establishment of uniform civil code is also a strong debate able issue in the country.
(iii) India has become one of the fastest growing economies in the world. In spite of achieving high lands of economic development, same rural and urban areas of India are still backward. The fruits of development need to penetrate at all levels. India has made its mark on the world yet; evils of poverty, illiteracy and unemployment are yet to be resolved completely.
Q. 2. Explain any three challenges faced by India at the time of its independence?
Ans. The three challenges faced by India at the time of its independence are as under:
(i) Shape a United Country: The biggest challenge was to unite the different princely states and convince them to join the Indian Union. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel carried out this task intelligently and diplomatically.
(ii) Develop democratic practices: In preindependent India, there were small princely states under monarchy. The next big challenge was to convince them to accept democratic setup of government for future united growth of the country.
(iii) Ensure removal of economic evils: There was large scale poverty, unemployment and economic instability in the country at the time of independence. Although this challenge is still being faced by the country, its present magnitude as compared to that at the time of independence is very small.
Q. 3. Analyse any six consequences of the partition of India in 1947.
Ans. Consequences of Partition: Creation of Pakistan and India–Mahatama Gandhi had rightly said that partition was a reason for mourning as it had caused a lot of bloodshed. The consequences of which are as follows:
(i) Regions like Calcutta, Amritsar and Lahore had become communal zones where Hindus stayed away from Muslims and Muslims away from Hindus. There was large scale communal violence and loss of life.
(ii) Minorities on both sides of the borders were worst sufferers. They moved to the other side on foot. They were killed, maimed, raped or looted. Children were separated from parents.
(iii) Women on both sides of the border were abducted and forced to convert to the religion of abductor. Some women were killed by family members to preserve family honou.
(iv) Minorities were living in refugee camps.Some lived for years with a loss of family property and assets. Writers and poets were expressing their feeling through writings as ‘division of hearts had taken place.’
(v) Even properties, liabilities and assets like typewriters, chairs, etc. were divided between India and Pakistan.
(vi) Members of the police and government employ were divided on the basis of religion and a break down of hearts was clearly seen.
Q. 4. What were the problems faced at the time of Partition of India?
Ans. First of all, there was no single belt of Muslim majority areas in British India. There were two areas of concentration, one in the west and one in the east. There was no way these two parts could be joined. So it was decided that the new country, Pakistan, will comprise two territories, West and East Pakistan separated by a long expanse of Indian territory. Secondly, not all Muslim majority areas wanted to be in Pakistan. Abdul Gaffar Khan, the undisputed leader of the North Western Frontier Province and known as ‘Frontier Gandhi’, was staunchly opposed to the two-nation theory. Eventually, his voice was simply ignored and the NWFP was made to merge with Pakistan. The third problem was that two of the Muslim majority provinces of British India, Punjab and Bengal, had very large areas where the non- Muslims were in majority. Eventually it was decided that these two provinces would be bifurcated according to the religious majority at the district or even lower level.
Q. 5. Read the passage given below carefully and answer the following questions:
The interim government took a firm stance against the possible division of India into smaller principalities of different sizes. The Muslim League opposed the Indian National Congress and took the view that the States should be free to adopt any course they liked. Sardar Patel, India’s Deputy Prime Minister and the Home Minister during the crucial period, immediately after independence, played a historic role in negotiating with the rulers of princely states in bringing most of them into the Indian Union.
(i) Which government has been referred to as the interim government?
(ii) Why did the Muslim League oppose the Indian National Congress?
(iii) What makes the role of Sardar Patel historic one?Explain.
Ans. (i) The government formed under Indian National Congress is referred to as interim government.
(ii) The Muslim League opposed Indian National Congress’ stance of not giving choice to the states to be free to choose any course they liked.
(iii) Sardar Patel’s role is considered to be a historic one because he reached out to princely states, negotiated with them and diplomatically brought them under Indian Union.
Q. 6. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:
“In the history of nation-building, only the Soviet experiment bears comparison with the Indian. There too, a sense of unity had to be forged between many diverse ethnic groups, religious, linguistic communities and social classes. The scale-geographic as well as demographic was comparably massive. The raw material the state had to work with was equally unpropitious: a people divided by faith and driven by debt and disease.”
(i) List the commonalities that the author mentions between India and Soviet Union and give one example for each of these from India.
(ii) The author does not talk about dissimilarities between the two experiments. Can you mention two dissimilarities?
(iii) In retrospect which of these two experiments worked better and why?
Ans. (i) The various commonalities between India and Soviet Union are:
(a) India and Soviet Union have been designed on linguistic principles.
(b) The state boundaries have been defined on geographical conditions as well as demographic situations in relation to linguistic principles.
(c) There has been large technical, technological and economic progress in both these countries for the welfare of the public.
(ii) The most important dissimilarity between India and Soviet Union is that while Soviet Union got divided into more than 15 independent nations, India still holds its integrity and stands firm to the principle of unity in diversity.
(iii) No doubt, the Indian experiment has been more successful in promoting national integration while maintaining linguistic and cultural heritage of the states.
Q.7. “The accommodation of regional demands and the formation of linguistic states were also seen as more democratic.” Justify the statement with any three suitable arguments.
Ans. Arguments to justify the statement:
(i) It is almost 60 years that the formation of linguistic states have changed the nature of democratic politics in a positive and constructive way.
(ii) Formation on the basis of language became a uniform basis for drawing the state boundaries.
(iii) It has united the country rather than leading to disintegration.
(iv) Regional aspirations, when fulfilled, give strength to the people and make democracy a success. Many regional aspirations are being accommodated to strengthen the democracy.
Q. 8. What forced the Union Government of India to setup the State Reorganisation Commission in 1953? Mention its two main recommendations. Name any four new states formed after 1956.
How did the reorganisation of states take place in India after its independence? Explain.
Explain the process and basis of the reorganisation of states of Indian Union.
What was the task of the States Reorganisation Commission? What was its most salient recommendation?
Ans. (i) The formation of Andhra Pradesh spurred the struggle for making of other states on linguistic lines in other parts of the country.
(ii) This struggle forced the Central government into appointing a States Reorganisation Commission in 1953 for redrawing of the boundaries of states.
(iii) The Commission recommended boundaries should reflect different languages.
(iv) On the basis of its report, the States Reorganisation Act was passed in 1956. This lead to the creation of 14 states and 6 union territories.
The Union Government of India was initially against linguistic boundaries of states. However, there were large scale protests, strikes and indefinite fasts in various parts of the country, particularly in the present day states of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Kerala and Karnataka. After the death of Potti Sriramulu as a result of an indefinite fast of 56 days, there were violent protests. As a result, government agreed on setting up of States Reorganisation Commission. This Commission got the States Reorganisation Act passed in 1956 creating 14 states and 6 union territories on linguistic principles.
The two main recommendations of the Commission were:
(i) The states should be reorganised on linguistic principles.
(ii) The state boundaries should reflect linguistic plurality of the country.
The four new states formed after 1956 are:
Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil