Q. 1. Read the following passage and answer the questions below:
Globalisation as a concept fundamentally deals with flows. These flows could be of various kinds: Ideas moving from one part of the world to another, capital shunted between two or more places, commodities being traded across borders, and people moving in search of better livelihoods to different parts of the world. The crucial element is the worldwide ‘interconnectedness’ that is created and sustained as a consequence of these constant flows. Globalisation is a multidimensional concept. It has political, economic and cultural manifestations and these must be adequately distinguished.
(i) “Globalisation is a multidimensional concept”. Justify.
(ii) In globalisation, the crucial element is the ‘worldwide interconnectedness’.
Substantiate the statement with two suitable. examples.
(iii) How the disintegration of the USSR helped in spreading globalisation across the world?
Ans. (i) Globalisation is a multidimensional concept.It has its political, economic and cultural aspects. It is neither purely economic nor a purely cultural phenomenon.
(ii) In globalisation the crucial element is the ‘world–wide interconnectedness.
A. Movement of capital from one place to another.
B. People moving in search of better livelihoods to different parts of the world.
C. Commodities being traded across borders.
(iii) The disintegration of USSR helped in spreading globalisation around the world :
A. With the disintegration of theUSSR and fall off communist regimes in East European countries the ideology of communism was replaced by the ideology of capitalism.
B. The spread of capitalism to the Second World further speeded up the process of globalisation.
Q. 2. State the political impact of globalisation on the world?
Ans. The political impact of globalisation on the world is
(A) Globalisation results in an erosion of state capacity, that is, the ability of the government to do what they do. All over the world, the old welfare state is giving way to the old minimalist state that performs certain core functions like maintenance of law and order and the security of its citizens.
(B) In place of the welfare state, it is the market that becomes the prime determinant of economic and social priorities.
(C) The entry and the increased role of multinational companies all over the world leads to reduction in the capacity of governments to take their decisions on their own.
(D) Some governments are forced to do away with certain rules and regulations which safeguard the rights of the working people and environment.
(E) The supporters of the Globalisation, on the other hand, believe that in some respect the state capacity has received a boost as a consequence of globalisation, with enhanced technologies available at the disposal of the state to collect information about its citizens.With this information the state is better able to rule, not less able.
Q. 3. Analyse any three demerits of globalisation.
Ans. DEMERITS OF GLOBALISATION
(i) Political Consequences : It has affected the traditional conceptions of state.The old “Welfare State” is now giving way to minimalist state. The increased role of MNCs leads to reduction in the capacity of governments to take their decisions on their own.
(ii) Economic Consequences :
• It benefits only a small section of the society.
• It has led to forced globalisation leading to economic ruin for the weaker countries.
• Many call it re-colonisation of the world.
(iii) Cultural Consequences :
• It leads to the rise of a uniform culture called homogenisation.
• Imposition of Western culture on the rest of the world.
• It leads to shrinking of the rich cultural heritage of the entire globe.