Q. 1. Write a note on the ferrous minerals found in India.
Ans. Our country is well-placed in respect of ferrous minerals both in reserves and production.
(i) India is endowed with fairly abundant resources of iron ore. It has the largest reserve of iron ore in Asia.The two main types of ore found in our country are haematite and magnetite. It has great demand in international market due to its superior quality.
(ii) The iron ore mines occur in close proximity to the coal fields in the north-eastern plateau region of the country which adds to their advantage.
(iii) About 95 per cent of total reserves of iron ore is located in the States of Odisha, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, Goa, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.
(i) Manganese is an important raw material for smelting of iron ore and also used for manufacturing ferrous alloys.
(ii) Manganese deposits are found in almost all geological formations, however, it is mainly associated with Dharwar system.
(iii) Odisha is the leading producer of manganese. Major mines in Odisha are located in the central part of the iron ore belt of India, particularly in Bonai, Kendujhar, Sundergarh, Gangpur, Koraput, Kalahandi and Bolangir. Karnataka is another major producer and here the mines are located in Dharwar, Bellary, Belgaum, North Canara, Chikmagalur, Shimoga, Chitradurg and Tumkur.
Q. 2. Write a note on the non-ferrous minerals found in India.
Ans. India is poorly endowed with non-ferrous metallic minerals except bauxite.
(i) Bauxite is the ore which is used in manufacturing of aluminium. Bauxite is found mainly in tertiary deposits and is associated with laterite rocks occurring extensively either on the plateau or hill ranges of peninsular India and also in the coastal tracts of the country.
(ii) Odisha happens to be the largest producer of Bauxite. Kalahandi and Sambalpur are the leading producers.
(iii) Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra are other major producers. Bhavanagar, Jamnagar in Gujarat have the major deposits.
(iv) Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Goa are minor producers of bauxite.
(i) Copper is an indispensable metal in the electrical industry for making wires, electric motors, transformers and generators.
(ii) It is alloyable, malleable and ductile. It is also mixed with gold to provide strength to jewellery.
(iii) The copper deposits mainly occur in Singhbhum district in Jharkhand, Balaghat district in Madhya Pradesh and Jhunjhunu and Alwar districts in Rajasthan.
Q. 3. Explain the uses of non-conventional sources of energy.
Ans. Use of non-conventional sources of energy :
(i) Non–conventional resources of energy are highly valuable.
(ii) They are able to produce sustainable energy.
(iii) They are easily available in different parts.
(iv) They are very abundant in nature.
(v) They provide sustainable, eco-friendly and cheap energy.
(vi) These energy sources are more equitably distributed and environmental friendly.
Q. 4. Write a note on the non-conventional sources of energy.
Explain the importance of five non-conventional sources of energy with suitable examples.
Ans. Non – conventional sources of energy :
(i) Solar Energy
(ii) Wind Energy
(iii) Tidal and Wave Energy
(iv) Geothermal Energy
(i) Solar Energy: Sun rays tapped in photovoltaic cells can be converted into energy, known as solar energy.Solar thermal technology has some relative advantages over all other non-renewable energy sources. It is cost competitive, environment friendly and easy to construct. It is generally used more in appliances like heaters, crop dryers, cookers, etc. The western part of India has greater potential for the development of solar energy in Gujarat and Rajasthan.
(ii) Wind Energy: Wind energy is absolutely pollution free, inexhaustible source of energy. Permanent wind systems such the trade winds, westerlies and seasonal wind like monsoon have been used as source of energy.Besides these, local winds, land and sea breezes can also be used to produce electricity. The Ministry of Non-Conventional Sources of Energy is developing wind energy in India to lessen the burden of oil import bill. In Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Karnataka, favourable conditions for wind energy exist. Wind power plant at Lamba in Gujarat in Kachchh is the largest in Asia. Another, wind power plant is located at Tuticorin in Tamil Nadu.
(iii) Tidal and Wave Energy: Persistent efforts were made to create a more efficient energy system from the ceaseless tidal waves and ocean current. Large tidal waves are known to occur along the west coast of India. Hence, India has great potential for the development of tidal energy along the coasts but so far these have not yet been utilised.
(iv) Geothermal Energy: This energy is now considered to be one of the key energy sources which can be developed as an alternate source. The hot springs and geysers are being used since medieval period. In India, a geothermal energy plant has been commissioned at Manikaran in Himachal Pradesh.
(v) Bio-energy: Bio-energy refers to energy derived from biological products which includes agricultural residues, municipal, industrial and other wastes. Bio-energy is a potential source of energy conversion. It can be converted into electrical energy, heat energy or gas for cooking. This will improve economic life of rural areas in developing countries, reduce environmental pollution, enhance self-reliance and reduce pressure on fuel wood. One such project converting municipal waste into energy is Okhla in Delhi.
Q. 5. Write a detailed note on the petroleum resources of India.
Ans. Crude petroleum consists of hydrocarbons of liquid and gaseous states varying in chemical composition, colour and specific gravity. Crude petroleum occurs in sedimentary rocks of the tertiary period. Petroleum resources of India :
(i) Till 1956, Digboi in Assam was the only oil producing region in India, but the scenario has changed after 1956.
(ii) In recent years, new deposits have been found at the extreme western and eastern parts of the country. In Assam, Digboi, Naharkatiya and Moran are important oil producing areas.
(iii) The major oilfields of Gujarat are Ankeleshwar, kalol, Mehsana, Nawagam, Kosamba and Lunej.
(iv) Mumbai High which lies 160 km off Mumbai was discovered in 1973 and the production commenced in 1976.
(v) Oil and natural gas have been found in exploratory wells in Krishna, Godavari and Kaveri basin on the East coast.
Q.6. Write an essay on hydel power in India.
Ans. Electricity produced from the water is called as hydropower. The falling water turns the water wheel or the turbines and electricity is generated. It is most convenient and versatile form of energy. Since, the First Five Year Plan, India has given much emphasis on generation of hydroelectric power from major hydro and mini hydel projects. These hydel projects also help in irrigation and fish culture. Hence, they are called multipurpose projects. Some of the important hydel projects in India are :
(i) Bhakra-Nagal Project: The Bhakra-Nangal Project, on the river Sutlej, with its four power stations at Nangal, Bhakra, Ganguwal and Kotla is an important hydro power project. It has an installed capacity of 1.2 million KW. It supplies electricity to Punjab, Haryana and Delhi.
(ii) The Damodar Valley Project: The Damodar Valley Project with its three-hydel power stations at Tilaiya, Maithon and Panchet is built on river Damodar. It supplies electricity to Bihar and West Bengal
(iii) The Hirakund Dam Project: The major hydroelectricity power project in Odisha is the Hirakud Dam Project on the river Mahanadi. The Rourkela Steel Plant mainly gets power supply from it.
(iv) The Rihand Project: It is a major hydroelectricity power project. On the borders of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh water is stored in the form of a large lake and power is generated.
(v) The Chambal Valley Project: On the river Chambal, two power houses are constructed. One at Gandhi Sagar Dam in Madhya Pradesh and the other at Kota in Rajasthan.
(vi) The Koyana Hydroelectricity Project: It is one of the largest project in Maharashtra. The water of the Koyana, a tributary of the Krishna is utilised for power generation. It supplies electricity mainly to Mumbai-Pune industrial belt.
Q.7. Why is petroleum referred to as liquid gold? State two important uses of petroleum and name two oil fields each in Assam and Gujarat.
Ans. Petroleum is referred to as liquid gold because of its scarcity and diversified uses. It is an essential source of energy for all internal combustion engines in automobiles,railways and aircraft Its numerous by-products are processed in petrochemical industries such as fertilizer, synthetic rubber, synthetic fibre, medicines, Vaseline, lubricants, wax, soap and cosmetics. In Assam, Digboi, Naharkatiya and Moran are important oil producing areas. The major oilfields of Gujarat are Ankaleshwar, Kalol, Mehsana, Nawagam, Kosamba.
Q. 8. Electricity is one of the greater inventions of all times. It is mostly generated by using coal, natural gas and petroleum, which are exhaustible resources. Can you imagine the human society without electricity? This may happen in future, when all energy resources will be exhausted. Explain the values that can change this possible darkness scenario.
Ans. Mineral fuels like coal, petroleum, natural gas and nuclear energy are the conventional sources of energy. They are exhaustible. Sustainable energy resources are renewable. These resources can help us in future after taking great care of these resources. Even then we should keep in mind certain things to avoid such situations.
(i) Creating awareness among the masses about development of sustainable sources of energy.
(ii) Maximum use of renewable energy resources such as solar, wind, biomass and hydroelectricity.
(iii) Optimum use of energy resources and minimum wastage.
(iv) Alternative energy sources like solar power, wind, water, geothermal, etc., are to be developed.