Long Questions with Answers- Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Geography Class 12

Humanities/Arts : Long Questions with Answers- Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

The document Long Questions with Answers- Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev is a part of the Humanities/Arts Course Geography Class 12.
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Q. 1. What do you know about Target Area Planning.
Ans. 
The planning process has to take special care of those areas which have remained economically backward.
(i) The economic development of a region depends upon its resource base. But sometimes resource-rich region also remain backward.
(ii) The economic development also requires technology as well as investment besides the resource.
(iii) With the planning experience of about one and half decades, it was realised that regional imbalances in economic development were getting accentuated.
(iv) In order to arrest the accentuation of regional and social disparities, Planning Commission introduced the ‘target area’ and ‘target group‘ approaches to planning.
(v) In the 8th Five Year Plan special area programmes were designed to develop infrastructure in hill areas, north-eastern states, tribal areas and backward areas.

Q. 2. What features are covered under the Hill Area Development Programme?
Ans.
(i) Hill Area Development Programmes were initiated during Fifth Five Year Plan covering 15 districts comprising all the hilly districts of Uttar Pradesh (present Uttarakhand), Mikir Hill and North Cachar hills of Assam, Darjeeling district of West Bengal and Nilgiri district of Tamil Nadu.
(ii) The National Committee on the Development of Backward Area in 1981 recommended that all the hill areas in the country having height above 600 m and not covered under tribal sub-plan be treated as backward hill areas.
(iii) The detailed plans for the development of hill areas were drawn keeping in view their topographical, ecological, social and economic conditions.
(iv) These programmes aimed at harnessing the indigenous resources of the hill areas through development of horticulture, plantation agriculture, animal husbandry, poultry, forestry and small-scale and village industry.

Q. 3. Write short notes on drought-prone area programme and agro-climatic planning. How do these programmes help in the development of dryland agriculture in India?
Ans.
This programme was initiated during the Fourth Five Year Plan with the objectives of providing employment to the people in drought-prone areas and creating productive assets.
(i) Initially this programme laid emphasis on the construction of labour-intensive civil works. But later on, it emphasised on irrigation projects, land development programmes, afforestation, grassland development and creation of basic rural infrastructure such as electricity, roads, market, credit and services.
(ii) National Committee on Development of Backward Areas, reviewed the performance of this programme. It has been observed that this programme is largely confined to the development of agriculture and allied sectors with major focus on restoration of ecological balance.
(iii) Since, growing population pressure is forcing the society to utilise the marginal lands for agriculture, and, thereby causing ecological degradation, there is a need to create alternative employment opportunities in the drought prone areas.
(iv) The other strategies of development of these areas include adoption of integrated watershed development approach at the micro-level. The restoration of ecological balance between water, soil, plants, human and animal population should be a basic consideration in the strategy of development of drought-prone area.
(v) Broadly, the drought prone area in India is spread over semi-arid and arid tract of Rajasthan, Gujarat, western Madhya Pradesh, Marathwada region of Maharashtra, Rayalseema and Telangana plateaus of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka plateau and highlands and interior parts of Tamil Nadu. The drought prone areas of Punjab, Haryana and northern Rajasthan are largely protected due to spread of irrigation in these regions

Q. 4.
Long Questions with Answers- Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev
Mention the measures proposed to promote sustainable development in the Command Area of Indira Gandhi Canal irrigation project which are meant to restore ecological balance.
OR
Suggest the measures of promotion of sustainability in Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area.
Ans. 
(i) The first requirement is strict implementation of water management policy. The canal project envisages protective irrigation in Stage-I and extensive irrigation of crops and pasture development in Stage -II.
(ii) In general, the cropping pattern shall not include water intensive crops. It shall be adhered to and people shall be encouraged to grow plantation crops such as citrus fruits.
(iii) The CAD programmes such as lining of water courses, land development levelling and Warabandi system (equal distribution of canal water in the command area of outlet) shall be effectively implemented to reduce the conveyance loss of water.
(iv) The areas affected by waterlogging and soil salinity shall be reclaimed.
(v) The eco-development through afforestation, shelter belt plantation and pasture development is necessary, particularly in the fragile environment of Stage-II.
(vi) The social sustainability in the region can be achieved only if the land allottees having poor economic background are provided adequate financial and institutional support for cultivation of land.
(vii) The economic sustainability in the region cannot be attained only through development of agriculture and animal husbandry. The agricultural and allied activities have to develop along with other sectors of economy. This shall lead to diversification of economic base and establishment of functional linkages between basic villages, agro-service centres and market centres.

Q. 5. What was the main plan of the ‘Tribal Sub-Plan’. What was its contribution on the development of Bharmaur area?
Ans. 
The main aim of the ‘Tribal Sub-Plan’ was: 
This area development plan was aimed at improving the quality of life of the Gaddis and narrowing the gap in the level of development between Bharamaur and other adjoining areas of Himachal Pradesh.
Contribution in development of Bharmaur area: 
Bharmaur was a very backward area. The most significant contribution of tribal sub-plan in Bharmaur region is the development of:
(i) Infrastructure in terms of school
(ii) Health care facilities
(iii) Potable water
(iv) Roads
(v) Communication
(vi) Electricity.
Detailed Answer:
(i) Infrastructure in terms of School:
The main aim is to develop and provide basic primary education so as to make them aware of their basic rights and duties.
(ii) Health care facilities: It was decided to provide basic health care facilities to each and every one which includes compulsory vaccinations and proper pre and post-natal care, etc.
(iii) Potable water: Water is one of the most important requirements of the human beings. It was made sure that each and every household gets potable water to drink so as to reduce the risk of water -borne diseases.
(iv) Road: Roads were built to provide connectivity with other states and hence allow socialising.
(v) Communication: Communication services such as TV, telephones, internet connections were provided for the development of the people and to keep them in sync with the outside world.

Q. 6. What measures have been proposed to promote sustainable development in the command area?
Ans. 
Seven measures  have been proposed to promote sustainable development in the command area are meant to restore ecological balance.
They are:
(i) The first requirement is strict implementation of water management policy.  The canal project envisages protective irrigation in Stage-I and extensive irrigation of crops and pasture development in Stage-II.
(ii) In general, the cropping pattern shall not include water intensive crops. It shall be adhered to and people shall be encouraged to grow plantation crops such as citrus fruits.
(iii) The CAD programmes such as lining of water courses, land development and levelling and Warabandi system (equal distribution of canal water in the command area of outlet) shall be effectively implemented to reduce the conveyance loss of water.
(iv) The areas affected by waterlogging and soil salinity shall be reclaimed.
(v) The eco-development through afforestation, shelterbelt plantation and pasture development is necessary particularly in the fragile environment of Stage-II.
(vi) The social sustainability in the region can be achieved only if the land allottees having poor economic background are provided adequate financial and institutional support for cultivation of land.
(vii) The economic sustainability in the region cannot be attained only through development of agriculture and animal husbandry. The agricultural and allied activities have to develop along with other sectors of economy. This shall lead to diversification of economic base and establishment of functional linkages between basic villages, agro-service centres and market centres.

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