Q. 1. Define the term ‘manufacturing’. What are the characteristics of modern large scale manufacturing?
Ans. Manufacturing : Manufacturing adds value to natural resources by transforming raw materials into valuable products. Characteristics of modern large scale manufacturing:
(i) Specialization of skills/ technology
(iii) Technological innovation
(iv) Organisational structure of stratification
(v) Uneven distribution
Q. 2. Why do large scale industries choose different locations? Mention the factors that influence industrial location.
Explain the five factors that influence the industrial location in the world.
Ans. Large scale industries choose different locations due to : Industries maximize profits by reducing costs. Therefore, industries should be located at points where cost of production is lowest.
Factors influencing industrial location:
(i) Supply of raw materials
(ii) Access to market
(iii) Availability of labour
(iv) Sources of energy
(v) Access to transportation and communication
Detailed Answer :
(i) Supply of raw materials : Industries based on cheap, bulky and weight-losing material (ores) are located close to the sources of raw material such as steel, sugar, and cement industries. Perishability is a vital factor for the industry to be located closer to the source of the raw material.
(ii) Access to market : The existence of a market for manufactured goods is the most important factor in the location of industries. The developed regions of Europe, North America, Japan and Australia provide large global markets as the purchasing power of the people is very high.
(iii) Availability of labour : Increasing mechanization, automation and flexibility of industrial processes have reduced the dependence of industry upon the labours.
(iv) Sources of energy : Industries which use more power are located close to the source of the energy supply such as the aluminium industry.
(v) Access to transportation and communication : The cost of transport plays an important role in the location of industrial units. Western Europe and eastern North America have a highly developed transport system which has always induced the concentration of industries in these areas. Communication is also an important need for industries for the exchange and management of information.
Q. 3. Explain the major factors influencing the location of industries.
Ans. Various factors influencing the location of industries are :
(i) Physical factors : Land, climate, power resources, natural vegetation. The most important factor influencing the location of an industry is the availability of cheap power. Water, wind, coal, gas, oil, electricity are the main source of power. The extensive use of these sources of power has led to the flexibility leading to dispersal and centralisation of industries. It is easier to set up industries in plain areas situated near the river banks rather than on the hilly terrains. In modern times, strategic considerations are playing a vital role in determining industrial location. Access to market is an important factor which the entrepreneur should take into consideration. Industries located near the markets could be able to reduce the costs of transport in distributing the finished produced such as bread and bakery, etc. Natural and climatic considerations include level of ground, topography of a region, water facilities, drainage facilities, disposal of waste products, etc. These factors influence the location of industries.
(ii) Economic factors : Labour, capital, means of transport.Adequate supply of cheap and skilled labour is necessary for the industry. The attraction of an industry towards labour centres depends on the ratio of labour cost to the total cost of production. Nearness to the sources of raw materials also influences the location of the industry. Nearness to the sources of raw materials would reduce the cost of production of the industry. Capital is required for the setting up of an industry, for its running and also at the time of its expansion. The availability of capital at cheap rates of interest and in adequate amount is a dominating factor influencing industrial location.
(iii) Social factors : Conditions prevailing in the area. Various social factors prevailing in a certain area also influence the location of the industries.
(iv) Political factors : Government policies. It is easy to establish industries in areas where the government policies are in favour of encouraging the entrepreneurs to spread their wings. Government adopts ‘regional policies’ to promote ‘balanced’ economic development hence set up industries in particular areas.
(v) Other : Facilities available. Historical incidents also play a dominating role in determining the location of industries in certain areas. The development of cotton-textile industry in Lancashire provides an interesting example of this.
Q. 4. How is the high technology industry latest generation in manufacturing activities? Explain with examples.
Ans. High technology or simply high-tech, is the latest generation of manufacturing activities.
(i) It is best understood as the application of intensive research and development (R and D) efforts leading to the manufacture of products of an advanced scientific and engineering character. Professional(white collar) workers make up a large share of the total workforce.
(ii) Neatly spaced, low, modern, dispersed, officeplant-lab buildings rather than massive assembly structures, factories and storage areas mark the high-tech industrial landscape.(iii) High-tech industries which are regionally concentrated, self-sustained and highly specialised are called technopolies.
(iv) Robotics on the assembly line, computer-aided design (CAD) and manufacturing, electronic controls of smelting and refining processes, and the constant development of new chemical and pharmaceutical products are notable examples of a high-tech industry. (v) The Silicon Valley near San Francisco and Silicon Forest near Seattle are examples of technopolies.
Q. 5. Define the term ‘manufacturing’. Explain any four features of ‘small-scale manufacturing’.
Ans. Manufacturing is the production of merchandise for use or sale using labour and machines, tools, chemical and biological processing or formulation. The term may refer to a range of human activities from handicrafts to high tech but is most commonly applied to industrial production . Features of small-scale manufacturing :
(i) Small manufacturing size standards are based on industry-by-industry basis, but generally it specifies a small business as it has less number of employees.
(ii) The manufacturing of products is based upon the raw material available in that area. (iii) Semi-skilled and unskilled labourers are used.
(iv) It raises local purchasing power.
Q. 6. Define ‘manufacturing’. Classify manufacturing industries on the basis of size into three categories. Explain an important characteristic of each category.
Ans. Manufacturing can be defined as the production of merchandise for use or sale using machines, labour, tools, chemical and biological processing, etc. The term may also refer to a range of human activities, from handicraft to high tech, but it is most commonly applied to industrial production, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale. Such finished goods may be used for manufacturing other more complex products, such as aircraft, household appliances or automobiles. Size of the industry can be determined by the amount of capital invested, number of workers employed and volume of production. Based on the size, industries can be classified intro three types :
(i) Cottage or household industries
(ii) Small-scale industries
(iii) Large-scale industries
(i) Cottage or household industries: It is the smallest manufacturing unit. The craftsmen or artisans use local raw materials and simple hand tools to produce everyday goods in their homes with the help of their family members or part-time labour. Some common everyday products produced in this sector of manufacturing include foodstuffs, fabrics, mats, containers, tools, furniture, shoes and figurines from wood-lot and forest, shoes, thongs and other articles from leather; pottery and bricks from clays and stones.
(ii) Small-scale industries: This type of manufacturing uses local raw material, simple power-driven machines and semi-skilled labour. It provides employment and raises local purchasing power.
(iii) Large-scale industries: This type of manufacturing involves a large market, various raw materials, enormous energy, specialised workers, advanced technology, assembly-line mass production and large capital. Production of automobiles and heavy machinery are large-scale industries.
Q. 7. ‘Africa has immense natural resources and yet it is industrially the most backward continent’. Comment.
Ans. ‘Africa has immense natural resources and yet it is industrially the most backward continent’. The following are the reasons:
(i) Unfavourable climatic conditions.
(ii) Low level of technological development.
(iii) Lack of rapid network of transport and communication.
(iv) Lack of developed energy resources.
(v) Lack of market facilities.
(vi) Lack of skilled labour.
Detailed Answer :
Africa has immense natural resources and yet it is industrially the most backward continent. It is the reserve house of many minerals such as copper, coal, mineral oil and other minerals. But these countries are backward in the field of manufacturing. The reasons are as under :
(i) Unfavourable climatic conditions : The climate of most of the countries in this continent where mineral based industry can be set is not favourable.
(ii) Low level of technological development : The African countries lagged behind and have not developed modern technology, therefore, the countries are backward in industrialisation. Technological advancements are an important aspect of modern manufacturing.
(iii) Lack of rapid network of transport and communication : The African countries could not develop sufficient transport and communication services which are boon to modern industrialisation.
(iv) Lack of developed energy resources : Although the African countries are rich in coal, petroleum and water resources but they could not develop them to utilize in manufacturing.
(v) Lack of market facilities : Africa being a backward continent lacks market facilities hence this proves to be an hindrance in the setting up of industries.
(vi) Lack of skilled labour : Due to adverse conditions of the climate, the skilled labour gets hindered to work in the industries.
Q. 8. Why are the high-tech industries located in the periphery of metropolitan areas? (KVS)
Explain why high-tech industries in many countries are being attracted to the peripheral areas of metropolitan centres.
Ans. The high-tech industries are located in the periphery of metropolitan areas because : (i) Space is available for future expansion.
(ii) Cheaper land values.
(iii) Easy accessibility and well laid connectivity due to development of transport and communication.
(iv) Favourable climate.
(v) Easy availability of labour and manpower.
Detailed Answer :
(i) Space is available for future expansion : Abundance space is available in case of future expansion as well as availability of civil amenities.
(ii) Cheaper land value : The land cost in the periphery of metropolitan areas is affordable to purchase.
(iii) Easy accessibility and well laid connectivity due to development of transport and communication : The industries set up in the periphery of the metropolitan cities have the advantage of easy connectivity and well laid and advanced transportation facilities.
(iv) Favourable climate : The climate is also favourable which does not act as an hindrance in the working of the high-tech industries.
(v) Easy availability of labour and manpower : Manpower and labour is easily available as people flock to such places in search of employment and financial security.