Q. 1. Describe in detail the inventions made under the Industrial Revolution.
Ans. In the seventeenth and the eighteenth centuries and early years of the nineteenth century, the scientific and technological spheres in Europe saw a great progress. This progress resulted in new inventions in European countries. The inventions are described below:
1. The Flying Shuttle. The flying shuttle was designed by John Kay in 1733 C.E. It made possible the fast weaving of cloth. This cloth was broader.
2. The Spinning Jenny. The machine namely the Spinning Jenny was made by James Hargreaves in 1765 C.E. There was a provision of eight spindles in this machine. Thus, a single machine could perform the work of eight persons. The yarn spun with this machine was thin but not strong.
3. The Water Frame. The water frame was invented by a barber namely Richard Arkwright in 1769 C.E. This machine ran on hydel power. A much stronger cloth could be woven with it. Thus, the invention of the water frame brought about a revolution in textile industry. But this machine could not be installed at home and therefore factories came into existence in England.
4. The Mule. The mule was invented in 1779 C.E. by Samuel Crompton. This machine had all the qualities found in Hargreaves’s Spinning Jenny and Arkwright’s water frame. It also ran on hydel power.
The yarn spun with this machine was thin and strong.
5. The Powerloom. The powerloom was invented by Edmund Cartwright in 1787. This machine ran on steam power. Its invention brought about a revolution in industries. Now cloth began to be woven at a faster speed.
6. The Cotton Gin. The cotton gin was invented in 1793 C.E. by Alivine. This machine could separate seeds from cotton very fast. This significant invention brought about a revolution in cotton textile industry.
Now cloth could be woven at a faster speed.
7. The Cylinder Printing Machine. The cylinder printing machine was designed by the last years of the eighteenth century. This invention brought great changes in washing and dyeing of cloth. Consequently, the cotton textile industry made a great progress.
8. The Steam Engine. At first the steam engine was devised by Thomas Newcomen. Then James Watt made many improvements in it. As a result, its utility greatly increased. In fact, the Industrial Revolution began with James Watt’s steam engine.
9. Revolution in Iron and Coal Industries.
There was a constant demand for coal for the progress of the Industrial Revolution. Consequently, there came many revolutionary changes in iron and coal industries. Now, coke began to be used in place of charcoal for smelting iron. Earlier, even machines were made of wood. Now wood was replaced by iron, and innumerable machines were made of iron. In 1815 C.E., Sir Humphry Davy invented the safety lamp to provide protection of life to mine workers. Thus, work in mines became safe.
10. Revolution in Road Construction.
Means of transport were very necessary for industrial progress. Roads had been in a bad condition before the Industrial Revolution. It was very difficult to carry goods from one place to another. In the last years of the eighteenth century, a Scottish engineer Mac Adam used small pieces of stone in the construction of roads.
Later on, Teleford and Metcalf greatly contributed to the construction of good roads. Metalled roads encouraged the Industrial Revolution.
11. Revolution in Canal Building.
Construction of canals began to transport bulky goods like iron and coal. The first canal in England was built in 1791 C.E. under the supervision of an engineer, Brindley.
This canal was between Worsley and Manchester.
After that, many canals were constructed and trading regions of Lancashire and Manchester got interconnected.
12. Railway Engine. In 1814 C.E., George Stephenson made the first locomotive engine, which ran on steam power. In 1830 C.E., the first railway line was constructed between Manchester and Liverpool. Thus, a new change occurred in the development of means of transportation.
Q. 2. Discuss in detail the Agricultural Revolution.
Ans. In the eighteenth century, there came a change in methods of agriculture with the use of scientific methods in agricultural sector. New machines were invented, as a result of which methods of ploughing land and harvesting crops were totally changed. So there was marvellous progress in agriculture. These methods of bringing changes in agriculture at a fast speed are termed as the Agricultural Revolution.
Causes. Methods of ancient agriculture were old and traditional. Farmers’ fields were situated in farflung areas. Farmers had to take a great care of them, which wasted a lot of time. There was no fencing around fields due to which, at times, cattle used to destroy them. Means of production were also not good.
Farmers had to leave their fields uncultivated so that the soil could regain fertility.
Under this ancient agriculture method, in free time farmers engaged themselves in many other domestic works like cloth-weaving, soap-making, etc. They met their needs from other sources in a bad season.
Demand for foodgrains increased with the increase in population. It was difficult to increase production with old methods. Therefore people began to think about new methods, so that agricultural production could be increased.
Helping Factors in the Agricultural Revolution. Following factors contributed to the Agricultural Revolution:
1. Robert Westener’s Root Crop System. Robert Westener wrote a book about soil produce. He said that the problem of leaving land unoccupied could be solved if root crops were sown. Moreover, much fodder and manure could be obtained from land.
2. Zethro Tul’s Wheat Drill. Zethro Tul designed a method of seed sowing with machine. Sowing of seed and covering it with soil could be done at the same time with this machine.
3. Townshed’s Fourfold Method. Townshed suggested sowing of four different crops turn by turn.
These were kept in this series—first wheat, then turnip, third barley and at last clover (fodder). It was not needed to leave the land unoccupied when this policy was followed. Moreover, fodder for cattle was available in winters also. Production of turnip increased to the extent that new methods were termed as the Turnip Townshed.
4. Cattle Rearing Method of Robert Bakewell and Colin. Cattle were very weak as reared according to old method. They had less wool and flesh. But the method of Robert Bakewell and Colin solved the need of flesh and wool. Now new breeds of the sheep called Newlysester and Durham Shorthorn provided sufficient amount of wool and flesh.
5. Thomas Coke’s Method of Manure-making. Thomas Coke devised a new method of manuremaking. Consequently, agricultural produce increased.
6. Arthur Young’s Methods for Agricultural Improvement. Arthur Young passed the ‘enclosure’ laws. He set up large organised fields in place of small fields. Therefore, he was named as ‘Farmer George’.
Effects of the Agricultural Revolution:
1. Increase in agricultural production made people rich.
2. Small farmers were eliminated. They were replaced by big landlords.
3. Demand for land increased.
4. Efforts were made to make the barren land fertile.
5. There were also some bad effects of the Agricultural Revolution. It worsened the condition of farmers and ruined cottage industry. Consequently, unemployment increased.
Q. 3. What were socio-economic effects of the Industrial Revolution?
Ans. The Industrial Revolution deeply affected each aspect of public life in England. It transformed the British agriculture-dominated country into an industrial country. Following were major socioeconomic effects of the Industrial Revolution:
1. Rise in National Income. This revolution made England the world’s largest industrial nation.
She established her trade relations with other countries. Her goods were sold abroad. So her national income greatly increased.
2. End of Cottage Industries. Such machines were invented during the Industrial Revolution as could not be installed at homes. So innumerable factories were set up in the country. Consequently, cottage industries in England almost ended.
3. Establishment of New Industrial Towns. Before the Industrial Revolution there were only a few towns in England. But the Industrial Revolution contributed to the establishment of large towns.
Therefore, many large industrial towns such as Manchester, Lancashire, Birmingham, Sheffield came into being in England.
4. Sufficient and Cheaper Goods. Invention of machines resulted in the sufficient production of goods. These were cheaper and so people easily began to buy them.
5. Increase in Unemployment. Elimination of home industries was the worst effect of the Industrial Revolution. Now a single machine could do the work of many persons. Consequently, people who did manual labour were rendered unemployed.
6. Emergence of New Classes. The Industrial Revolution gave birth to two new classes, namely the workers and the capitalists. The capitalists made the workers work at lower wages. Consequently the poor became poorer, and the whole wealth of the country began to be accumulated by the capitalists. Someone has rightly said, ‘‘The Industrial Revolution made the wealthy wealthier and the poor poorer.’’
7. Increase in Number of Landless Labourers. The Industrial Revolution forced small farmers to sell their plots of land and work in factories. Therefore, the number of landless labourers increased.
8. Small Craftsmen became Labourers. Now strong and perfect goods were manufactured fast with machines due to the Industrial Revolution. It lowered the demand for hand-woven or spun cloth. Therefore small craftsmen gave up their work and began to work as labourers in factories.
9. Exploitation of Women and Small Children. Women and small children were also employed in factories. They were also to do work without wages (begar). It badly affected their health.
10. Ill-effect on Workers’ Health. Workers’ health was ill-affected because of the absence of open environment. Now they worked in polluted environment in factories rather than in clean air.
Q. 4. Why did the Industrial Revolution occur first of all in England?
In which country did the the Industrial Revolution occur first and why?
Ans. The Industrial Revolution implies to the changes due to which factory system emerged in the eighteenth century. This revolution occurred first in England. Following were its main causes:
1. Increase in Population. Population in England had greatly increased, which resulted in a great demand for goods. So the English paid their attention towards increasing industrial production.
2. British Colonies. Demand for goods in colonies set up by the British had increased. So the British could consume their surplus goods in these colonies.
3. Availability of Raw Materials. The British empire had expanded to a great extent. So the British were able not only to sell their goods in their colonies but also obtain raw materials at lower rates from there. This is the reason why the Industrial Revolution occurred first in England.
4. Prosperity. A successful internal and external policy of Walpole had made the British rich. These people could very easily invest their capital in industries.
5. Great Number of Banks. There were a great number of banks in the country to help people in their transactions of money. So, banks also helped in the occurrence of the Industrial Revolution first of all in England.
6. Peaceful Atmosphere of the Country. Walpole, by his foreign policy, kept England aloof of the European wars in the eighteenth century. Because of peaceful atmosphere in the country, people paid their attention towards the progress of industries and trade.
7. Suitable Climate. Almost each region of England is located near the sea. So there the climate is humid which is very useful for textile industry. That is why cotton textile industry made progress first of all in England.
8. Coal and Iron Mines. There were a great number of iron and coal mines in England. These mines were situated very close to each other. Nearness of these mines too became a cause of the Industrial Revolution to occur first of all in England.
9. Expansion of Foreign Trade. The British were good navigators. They undertook voyages, discovered new lands and established trade contacts with the newly discovered territories. Therefore, increasing trade also caused the Industrial Revolution.
10. Ships. The British had very good ships. It made transportation of goods much convenient. So, because of good ships, the Industrial Revolution occurred at first in England.
11. Freedom of Ideas. The British enjoyed a complete freedom of ideas. The government had not imposed any restrictions on them. So, people made new discoveries, which became a major cause of the Industrial Revolution.
Q. 5. Describe the expansion of the Industrial Revolution in Europe. In which Asian country did it occur first?
Ans. The expansion of the Industrial Revolution in Europe is described below:
1. England. In fifty years after the beginning of machine age, England became the world’s largest industrial nation. For instance, England exported only 50 thousand kg of cotton textile to India in 1813 C.E., which rose to 25 lac kg in 1855 C.E. Mineral production in England also increased to a large extent.
England began to export even coal. Thus, England became a great industrial nation. But development in other industrial countries of Europe started only after the fall of Napoleon.
2. France, Germany, etc. After the fall of Napoleon, the use of machines began in France, Belgium, Switzerland and Germany. But these countries only experienced a total development of industries after a very long time. The reason was that there was political instability in some of these countries. Iron industry was established in France first in 1850 C.E. Though steel production in Germany had increased in 1865 C.E., yet it was behind England.
In 1871 C.E., after the unification of Germany, this nation experienced marvellous industrial development. In a few years, Germany emerged as the industrial rival of England.
3. The United States of America. Though the use of machines in the United States of America had initiated after it achieved independence from England, development of industries occurred there only after 1870 C.E. In 1860 C.E., cotton textile, steel and shoe industries had been set up in this country, but still their production increased only after 1870 C.E.
4. Russia. Russia is such a European country as experienced the Industrial Revolution last of all. There was no shortage of minerals. But because of shortage of capital and free labourers, industrial development could not be made possible there for a long time. In 1861 C.E., Russia was freed from slavery. It also obtained capital from foreign countries. Consequently, Russia paid its attention towards industrial development. There industries started but their complete development could be possible only after the Revolution of 1917 C.E.
The First Industrialised Asian Country. Japan was the first amongst the Asian countries who witnessed industrial development. In the last years of the nineteenth centurty, steel, machines, chemical substances and metal goods were produced in large quantities in Japan. Japan even exported these commodities.