Long Questions with Answers - An Imperial Capita: Vijayanagara Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

History Class 12

Humanities/Arts : Long Questions with Answers - An Imperial Capita: Vijayanagara Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

The document Long Questions with Answers - An Imperial Capita: Vijayanagara Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev is a part of the Humanities/Arts Course History Class 12.
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Q.1. Read the following extract carefully and answer the questions that follow:
Colin Mackenzie 
Born in 1754, Colin Mackenzie became famous as an engineer, surveyor and cartographer. In 1815 he was appointed the first Surveyor General of India, a post he held till his death in 1821. He embarked on collecting local histories and surveying historic sites in order to better understand India’s past and make governance of the colony easier. He says that ‘‘it struggled long under the miseries of bad management ... before the South came under the benign influence of the British government.’’ By studying Vijayanagara, Mackenzie believed that the East India Company could gain ‘‘much useful information on many of these institutions, laws and customs whose influence still prevails among the various Tribes of Natives forming the general mass of the population to this day.’’
1. Who was Colin Mackenzie?
2. How did Mackenzie try to rediscover the Vijayanagara Empire?
3. How was the study of the Vijayanagara Empire useful for East India Company?
OR
Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow: 
Colin Mackenzie 
Born in 1754, Colin Mackenzie became famous as an engineer, surveyor and cartographer. In 1865, he was appointed as the first Surveyor General of India, a post he held till his death in 1821. He embarked on collecting local histories and surveying historic sites in order to better understand India’s past and make governance of the colony easier. He says that “It struggled long under the miseries of bad management...before the south came under the benign influence of the British Government.” By studying Vijayanagara, Mackenzie believed that the East India Company could gain “much useful information on many of these institutions, laws and customs whose influence still prevails among the various tribes of natives forming the general population to this day.”
1. Who was Colin Mackenzie? Give his introduction.
2. Mention what Mackenzie did to make governance of the colony easier.
3. According to him, what benefits would the East India Company gain after studying Vijayanagara? Explain in brief.
Ans.
1. Colin Mackenzie was an engineer and a cartographer. He was an employee of the East India Company. He prepared the first survey of the Hampi. His source of information about the city was based on memories of the Priests of Virupaksha temple and the shrine of Pampadevi.
2. He recorded the tales of local histories and surveyed sites to get better understanding of past. It helped to make governance of the colony easier.
3. He felt the East India Company could gain useful information on many of these institutions, laws and customs which still influenced the various tribes of natives formed. These natives form the general mass of population. It could help East India Company to rule the country better.

Q.2. Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow:
Kings and Traders 
Krishnadeva Raya (ruled 1509-29), the famous ruler of Vijayanagara, composed a work on statecraft in Telugu known as the Amuktamalyada. About traders, in his words: A king should improve the harbours of his country and encourage its commerce that horses, elephants, precious gems, snandalwood, pearls and other articles are freely imported......He should arrange that the foreign sailors who land in his country on account of storms, illness and exhaustion are looked after in a suitable manner.....Make the merchants of distant foreign countries who import elephants and good horses to be attached to yourself by providing them with daily audience, gifts and allowing decent profits. These articles will never go to your enemies.
1. Who was the most famous ruler of Vijayanagara and why?
2. Mention the name and theme of the work compiled by him.
3. Why do you think the king was interested in encouraging trade? Explain.
Ans.
1. Krishnadeva Raya was the most famous ruler of Vijayanagara. He belonged to the Tuluva Dynasty. His rule was characterized by expansion and consolidation. Under his rule the kingdom of Vijayanagara experienced unparalleled peace and prosperity.
2. Krishnadeva Raya composed a work in Telugu known as the Amuktamalyada. The main theme of his work was on statecraft.
3. He was interested in encouraging trade because, if the merchants are kept happy, the goods will never reach the enemies. and these merchants will be attached to yourself.

Q.3. Explain how the Amara-Nayaka system was a major political innovation of the Vijayanagara Empire. Why did strain become to show within the imperial structure after the death of Krishnadeva Raya in 1529.
Ans.
The Amara-NAYAKA system was a major political innovation of the Vijayanagara Empire. There exists a probability  that many features of this system were derived from the Iqta system of the Delhi Sultanate. The Amara-Nayakas were military commanders who were given territories to be governed by the Rayas. They collected taxes and other dues from the peasants, traders and craft persons.
They retained some revenues for personal use and for maintenance of their horses, elephants and temples. They provided the kings with an effective fighting form with which they brought the entire southern peninsula under their control. They sent tribute to the king annually and personally appeared in the Royal Court with gifts to show their loyalty. Kings, sometimes, transferred them from one place to another. During 17th century, many Nayakas established kingdoms, which in turn hastened the collapse of the central imperial structure.
Strain began to show in the Vijayanagara after the death of Krishnadeva Raya in 1529. His successors were disturbed by the rebellious Nayakas. By 1542, control of the centre was shifted to Aravidu, another ruling lineage. During this period the military ambitions of the rulers of Vijayanagara and Deccan Sultanate resulted in shifting alignments, which led to an alliance of the Sultanates against Vijayanagara. In 1565, Rama Raya, the Chief Minister of Vijayanagara led an army into the battle at Rakshasi-Tangadi (also known as Talikota) where his forces were defeated by the combined armies of Bijapur, Ahmednagar and Golconda. The victorious armies sacked Vijayanagara and the city was abandoned within few years. Now the, focus was shifted to the east where the Aravidu Dynasty ruled from Penukonda and then from Chandragiri (near Tirupati).
Though the armies of the Sultans were responsible for the destruction of the Vijayanagara, relations between the Rayas and the Sultans were not always hostile. In spite of religious differences, Krishnadeva Raya, supported claimants to power in the Sultanates and took pride in the title of ‘establisher of Yavana Kingdom’. Similarly, the Sultan of Bijapur tried to solve the succession disputes in Vijayanagara following the death of Krishnadeva Raya. In fact, the Vijayanagara kings were keen to ensure the stability of the Sultanates and vice-versa. It was the adventurous policy of Rama Raya who tried to play on Sultans against each other that led the Sultans to join and defeat him.

Q. 4. Explain how Krishnadeva Raya was able to expand and consolidate his Empire of Vijayanagara? Explain the causes of the decline of Vijayanagara after his death.
Ans.
Krishnadeva Raya (1509-29) was the greatest ruler of Vijayanagara Empire. His rule was characterised by expansion and consolidation. In 1512, the land between the Tungabhadra and Krishna rivers was acquired. In 1514, the rulers of Orissa were subdued and in 1520, severe defeats were inflicted on the Sultans of Bijapur. His kingdom remained in a constant state of military preparedness. His kingdom flourished under unparalleled peace and prosperity. He built some fine temples and also found a sub-urban township near Vijayanagara called Nagalapuram after his mother. Some of the most detailed descriptions of the kingdom came from his period.
Strain began to show in the Vijayanagara after the death of Krishnadeva Raya in 1529. His successors were disturbed by the rebellious Nayakas. By 1542, control of the centre was shifted to Aravidu, another ruling lineage. During this period, the military ambitions of the rulers of Vijayanagara and Deccan Sultanate resulted in shifting alignments, which led to an alliance of the Sultanates against Vijayanagara.
In 1565, Rama Raya, the Chief Minister of Vijayanagara led an army into battle at Rakshasi-Tangadi (also known as Talikota) where his forces were defeated by the combined armies of Bijapur, Ahmednagar and Golconda. The victorious armies sacked Vijayanagara and the city was abandoned within few years. Now, the focus was shifted to the east where the Aravidu Dynasty ruled from Penukonda and then from Chandragiri (near Tirupati). Though the armies of the Sultans were responsible for the destruction of the Vijayanagara, relations between the Rayas and the Sultans were not always hostile. In spite of religious differences, Krishnadeva Raya, supported claimants to power in the Sultanates and took pride in the title of ‘establisher of Yavana Kingdom’. Similarly, the Sultan of Bijapur tried to solve the succession disputes in Vijayanagara following the death of Krishnadeva Raya. In fact, the Vijayanagara kings were keen to ensure the stability of the Sultanates and vice-versa. It was the adventurous policy of Rama Raya who tried to play on Sultans against each other that led the Sultans to join and defeat him. All these factors cumulatively  led to the decline of the Vijayanagara Empire.

Q.5. Read the passage given below and the answer the questions:
How tanks were built 
About a tank constructed by Krishnadeva Raya, poet wrote:
The King made a tank...... at the mouth of two hills so that all the water which comes from either one side or the other collects there; and besides this water comes to it from more than three leagues (approximately 15 kilometers) by pipes which run along the lower parts of the range outside. The water is brought from a lake which itself overflows into a little river. The tank had three large pillars handsomely carved with figures; these connect above with certain pipes by which they get water when they have to water gardens and ricefields.
In order to make this tank, he said, king broke down a hill....In the tank I saw so many people at work that there must be fifteen to twenty thousand men, looking like ants...
(i) Explain briefly where the tank was constructed.
(ii) Explain the sources of water for the tanks in brief.
(iii) Explain briefly the advantages of constructing tanks.
Ans.
(i) The tank was constructed at the mouth of two hills.
(ii) The tank was helpful in irrigating the garden and the rice fields.
(iii) All the water which came from either one side or the other collected there and water get collected from 15 kilometers by pipes which ran along the lower parts of range outside. The water was brought from a lake which itself overflowed into a little river.

Q.6. Explain why Abdur Razzaq, a Persian ambassador, was greatly impressed by the fortification of Vijayanagara Empire during the 15th century.
Ans.
 Abdur Razzaq, a Persian ambassador, was impressed by the fortification of Vijayanagara Empire and mentioned seven lines of forts.
(a) They encircled not the city but also the agricultural hinterland and forests.
(b) The outermost wall linked the hills surrounding the city.
(c) The massive mansion like construction was slightly tapered.
(d) No mortar or cementing agent was employed anywhere in the construction.
(e) The stone blocks were wedge-shaped, which held them in place, and the inner portion of the walls was of earth packed with rubble. Square or rectangular bastions projected outwards.
(f) Most significant was its enclosed agricultural tracts. These had been corroborated by archaeologists.
(g) He noted that “between the first, second and the third walls there are cultivated fields, gardens and houses.”
(h) There were large granaries within fortified areas.
(i) Rulers protected the agricultural area.
(j) A second line of fortification went round the inner core of the Urban Complex, and a third line surrounded the Royal Centre, within which each set of major buildings was surrounded by walls.
(k) The Fort entrance had well-guarded gates, which linked the city to the major roads.
(l) Gateways were distinctive architectural features that defined the structures to which they regulated access.
(m) Architecture in the fortification reflected the Turkish influence.
(n) Roads connecting the city were identified by archaeologists.

Q.7. Identify the rituals and practices associated with the Mahanavami Dibba, a structure in the Royal Centre of Vijayanagara Empire.
Ans
. Located in one of the highest points on the city, the “Mahanavami Dibba” is a massive platform rising from a base of about 11000 sq. ft. to a height of 40 ft. It was supported by wooden structure and with relief carvings. Rituals associated with the structure probably coincided with Mahanavami (literally the great ninth day) on the ten-day of the Hindu festival during the autumn month of September and October, known variously as Dushhera (northern India), Durga Puja (in Bengal) and Navaratri or Mahanavami (in Peninsular India). The Vijayanagara Kings displayed their prestige, power and superiority on this occasion.
The ceremonies performed on the occasion included worship of the image, worship of the state house, and the sacrifice of buffaloes and other animals. Dancers, wrestling matches, and processions of horses, elephants, chariots and soldiers, as well as ritual presentations before the King and his guests by the Chief Nayakas and subordinate Kings marked the occasion. These ceremonies were imbibed with deep symbolic meanings. On the last day of the festival, the King inspected his army and the armies of the Nayakas in a grand ceremony in an open field.
On this occasion, the Nayakas brought rich gifts to the Kings. However, scholars point out that the space surrounding the structure does not have adequate space for elaborate processions of men, women and animals. It remains an enigma, like the other structures of the Royal Palace.

Q.8. Why was the south-western part of Vijayanagara Kingdom designated as Royal Centre? Explain.
Ans.
The south-western part of Vijayanagara Kingdom was designated as Royal Centre
(a) It included over 60 temples.
(b) The patronage of temples and cults was important for rulers who were trying to establish and legitimize their authority through associations with the divinities housed in the shrines,
(c) About thirty building complexes have been identified as palaces seeing their structure..
(d) The “King’s palace” was the largest of the enclosures. It has two impressive platforms, usually called the “Audience Hall” and the “Mahanavami Dibba”.
(e) Rituals associated with the structure probably coincided with Mahanavami
(f) The Vijayanagara Kings displayed their prestige, power and superiority on Mahanavami.
(g) The ceremonies performed on Mahanavami  included worship of the image, worship of the state horse, and the sacrifice of buffaloes and other animals.
(h) The most beautiful building in the Royal Centre is the Lotus Mahal.
(i) Most temples were located in the Sacred Centre, there were several in the Royal Centre.
(j) The Hazara Rama temple was probably meant for King and his family.
Detailed Answer: 
The patronage of temples and cults was meaningful for rulers as they were trying to establish and legitimise their power through their association with the divinities kept in the shrines. Around 30 building complexes had been recognized as palaces. These are large structures which are not associated with rituals.
One typical difference between structures and temples is that the latter were made totally of masonry, while the superstructure of the secular buildings was built with perishable materials. The Kings Palace was the largest of the enclosures but did not legitimate proof of being a Royal Residence. It consists of two platforms namely the “Audience Hall” and the “Mahanavami Dibba”.
The Audience Hall was a raised platform with slots for wooden pillars at close and regular distances. It was an extensive platform rising from a base of about 11,000 sq. ft. to a height of 40 ft. The base of the platform was covered with carvings. Rituals were connected with the Mahanavami of the ten day Hindu festival.
The Lotus Temple was the most splendid building, though historians were not sure what the buildings was meant for. In Hazara Rama Temple, though the images in the central shrine are missing yet sculptured panels on the walls survived. The scenes from the Ramayana were sculptured on the inner walls of the shrine.

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