Q.1. Read the following paragraph carefully and answer the questions that follow:
“The real minorities are the masses of this country”
Accepting Objectives Resolution introduced by Jawaharlal Nehru, N. G. Ranga said : Sir, there is a lot to talk about minorities. Who are the real minorities? Not the Hindus in the socalled Pakistan provinces. These people are so depressed. Oppressed and suppressed that they are not able to take advantage of the ordinary civil rights. What is the position? You go to the tribal areas. According to law, their own traditional law, their tribal law, their lands cannot be alienated. Yet our merchants go there, and in so–called free market, they are able to snatch their lands. Thus, even though the law goes against this snatching away of their lands, still the merchants are able to turn the tribal people into veritable slaves by various kinds of bonds, and make them hereditary bond slaves. Let us go to the ordinary villagers. There goes the moneylender with his money and he is able to get the villagers in his pocket. There is the landlord himself, the zamindar, and the malguzar. There are various other people who are able to exploit these poor villagers. There is no elementary education even among these people. These are the real minorities that need protection and assurances of protection. In order to give them the necessary protection, we will need much more than this Resolution.
(i) On which aspect did N. G. Ranga draw attention?
(ii) What type of problems did the ordinary villagers face?
(iii)What kind of protection was needed for the real minorities?
Ans. (i) N. G. Ranga had drawn attention on minorities in economic terms who were poor and downtrodden. He felt that these people were so depressed and suppressed that they were not able to take advantage of their civil rights even. The tribal people were considered real minorities, so, they needed protection and assurances.
(ii) The ordinary villagers had problems with the merchants and moneylenders who took away their lands. The merchants were able to turn the tribal people into veritable slaves and compelled them to sign various kinds of bonds, made them hereditary bond–slaves. The zamindars, malguzars and others exploited these minorities and they had no elementary educational facilities.
(iii)Protection and assurance was needed for the real minorities. Minorities needed elementary education, legal protection, granting them special rights over their lands and by giving them advantage of civil rights.
Q. 2. Read the following extract carefully and answer the questions that follow:
“British element is gone but they have left the mischief behind”
Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel said:
It is no use saying that we ask for separate electorates, because it is good for us. We have heard it for years, and as a result of this agitation we are now a separate nation. Can you show me one free country where there are separate electorates? If so, I will be prepared to accept it. But in this unfortunate country, if this separate electorate is going to be persisted in, even after the division of the country, woe betide the country; it is not worth living. Therefore, I say, it is not for my good alone, it is for your own good that I say it, forget the past. One day, we may be united. The British element is gone, but they have left behind the mischief. We do not want to perpetuate that mischief. (Hear, hear). When the British introduced this element they had not expected that they will have to go so soon. They wanted it for their easy administration. That is all right. But they have left the legacy behind. Are we to get out of it or not?
(i) Why are separate electorates considered as a mischief?
(ii) State the arguments given by Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel for building political unity and forging a nation.
(iii)How did the philosophy of separate electorates result in a separate nation?
Ans. (i) Separate electorate was considered as a mischief because:
(a) It was like a poison that had entered into politics.
(b) The demand had turned one community against another.
(c) It caused bloodshed, civil war, riots.
(d) It divided the nation.
(ii) Building political unity and forging a nation:
(a) He considered separate electorate as a poison.
(b) For the goodness of the country it should not be followed.
(c) It was necessary for maintenance of peace that this system is not followed.
(d) In order to build a strong nation every individual must be moulded as a citizen and assimilated within the nation.
(e) For political unity assimilation is a must but feeling of separatist is not good.
(iii) Philosophy of Separate Electorate
(a) It turned one community against another and caused lot of bloodshed.
(b) Separatist feelings were cultivated by the British for their selfish ends.
(c) Communal hatred led to the tragic partition.
(d) It led to the isolation of minorities and eventual partition.
Q. 3. ‘‘Partition of India had made nationalists fervently opposed to the idea of separate electorates.’’ Examine the statement.
Ans. Opposition to the Idea of Separate Electorate
(i) Nationalists were haunted by the continued civil war and riots during partition days.
(ii) B. Pocker Bahadur made a strong plea for separate electorate for Muslims in the Constituent Assembly.
(iii) The idea of separate electorate provoked anger and dismay amongst most nationalists in the Constituent Assembly.
(iv) This was considered as poison that entered into the body politics.
(v) It was seen as a measure introduced by British to divide Indians.
(vi) This was the demand, which turned one community against other.
(vii) It divided people on communal levels. It strained relation and cause blood shed.
(viii) This was harmful for nation.
(ix) It was against the principle of democracy.
(x) It was suicidal for the nation according to G. B. Pant.
(xi) To build political unity each group had to be assimilated within the nation.
(xii) Separate electorate could lead to divide loyalties and difficult to forge a strong nation and a strong state.
(xiii) Isolating the minorities would deprive them of any effective say within the government.
(xiv) Any other relevant point.
Q.4. Read the passage and answer the questions that follow: We have never asked for privileges Hansa Metha of Bombay demanded justice for women, not reserved scats, or separate electorates: We have never asked for privileges. What we have asked for is social justice, economic justice, and political justices. We have asked for that equality which alone can be the basis of mutual respect and understanding, without which real cooperation is not possible between man and woman.
(i) What did Hansa Mehta demand for women?
(ii) How could women be empowered?
(iii)What could be the basis for mutual respect among men and women?
Ans. (i) Hansa Mehta demanded justice for women, not reserved seats or separate electorates.
(ii) Women can be empowered by social justice, economic justice and political justice.
(iii)Equality alone can be the basis of mutual respect aid understanding, without which real co-operation is not possible between man and women.
Q.5. Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:
“There cannot be any divided loyalty”
Govind Ballabh Pant argued that in order to become loyal citizens people had to stop focusing only on the community and the self.
For the success of democracy, one must train himself in the art of self-discipline. In democracies, one should careless for himself and more for others. There cannot be any divided loyalty. All loyalties must exclusively be centred round the State. If in a democracy, you create rival loyalties, or you create a system in which any individual or group, instead of suppressing his extravagance, cares no for larger or other interests, then democracy is doomed.
(i) Why did Govind Ballabh Pant laid more stress on the art of self-discipline?
(ii) What was considered important for the success of democracy?
(iii)“In democracies, one should careless for himself and more for others.” Give your views on this philosophy.
Ans. (i) Govind Ballabh Pant stressed more on selfdiscipline, as without democratic discipline, ideals and values of democracy cannot be upheld.
(ii) For the success of democracy, one should have loyalty to static. There should be no divided loyalties and all citizens must be committed to national unity and integrity.
(iii)In democracy, one should careless for himself and take care of others; right and more upholding the democratic values.
Q.6. Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:
“That is very good, Sir-hold words, noble words”
Somnath Lahiri said:
Well, Sir, I must congratulate Pandit Nehru for the fine expression he gave to the spirit of the Indian people when he said that no imposition of the British will be accepted by the Indian people. Imposition would be resented and objected, he said, and added that if needed we will walk the valley of struggle. Sir-bold words, noble words. But the point is to see when and how are you going to apply that challenge. Well. Sir, the point is that the imposition is here right now. British didn’t plan to made any constitution.…. dependent on a treaty satisfactory of the British but it suggests that for every little difference, you will have to run to the Federal Court or dance attendance there in England; or to call on the British Prime Minster Clement Attlee or someone else. Not only is it a fact that this Constituent Assembly, whatever plans we may be hatching, we are under the shadow of British guns, British Army, their economic and financial stranglehold which means that the final power is still in the British hands and the questions of power has not yet been finally decided, which means the future is not yet completely in our hands. Not that, but the statements made by Attlee and others recently have made it clear that if need be, they will even threaten you with division entirely. This means, Sir, there is no freedom in this country. As Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel put it some days ago, we have freedom only to fight among ourselves. That is the only freedom we have got … Therefore, our humble suggestion is that it is not a question of getting something by working out this Plan but to declare independence here and now and call upon the Interim Government,. Call upon the people of India, to stop fratricidal warfare and look out against its enemy, which still has the whip hand, the British Imperialism and go together to fight it and then resolve our claims afterwards when we will be free.
(i) Why did Somnath Lahiri congratulate Pandit Nehru?
(ii) Explain why Somnath felt that the absence of Constitution will mean dependence on the British.
(iii)How did he feel that the final power was still in the hands of British?
(iv) Explain the views of Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel.
Ans: (i) Somnath Lahiri praised Nehru for his thoughts on the feelings of Indian people. Nehru said that no imposition of the British will be accepted by Indians.
(ii) Somnath Lahiri felt that this view about the absence of Constitution would mean dependence on British and the final powers are still with them.
(iii)He felt that the final powers are with British and the real powers are not decided yet. Future is not completely in our hands.
(iv) Patel felt that people of India should not be fighting within and should get rid of British imperials. We can resolve mutual differences when we become free.
Q. 7. Read the following extract carefully and answer the questions that follow:
“We are not going to just copy”
This is what Jawaharlal Nehru said in his famous speech of 13 December, 1946.
My mind goes back to the various Constituent Assemblies that have gone before and of what took place at the making of the great American nation when the fathers of that nation met and fashioned out a Constitution which has stood the test of so many years, more than a century and a half and of the great nation which has resulted, which has been built up on the basis of that Constitution. My mind goes back to that mighty revolution which took place also over 150 years ago and to that Constituent Assembly that met in that gracious and lovely city of Paris which has fought so many battles for freedom, to the difficulties that Constituent Assembly had and to how the king and other authorities came in its way, and still it continued. The House will remember that when these difficulties came and even the room for meeting was denied to the then Constituent Assembly, they betook themselves to an open tennis court and met there and took the oath, which is called the Oath of the Tennis Court that they continued meeting in spite of Kings, in spite of the other, and did not disperse till they had finished the task they had undertaken. Well, I trust that it is in that solemn spirit that we too are meeting here and that we, too, whether we meet in this chamber or other chambers, or in the fields or in the market-place, will go on meeting and continue our work till we have finished it.
(i) How was the American Constitution finalised and explain its result?
(ii) What does Nehru’s determination to pass the Constitution show?
(iii)Explain any two such difficulties that were faced by the Constituent Assembly?
Ans.(i) Nehru reconvicted that in making the American Constitution, how kings and other officials came as a stumbling block and the way it continued. There was no room for a meeting which was denied to the Constituent Assembly and the oath was taken in tennis court and was called “Oath of the Tennis Court”.
(ii) Nehru believed that with the same solemn spirit, all have gathered and will meet either in chambers or in the market place and will be completed.
(iii)Two problems were no place for meeting and people coming in the way.
Q.8. How did the Constituent Assembly of India protect the powers of the Central Government? Explain.
Ans. One of the topics most vigorously debated in the Constituent Assembly was the respective rights of the Central Government and the States. Jawaharlal Nehru argued for a strong centre in the draft Constitution. The need for a strong Centre had been underlined on numerous occasions. The Constitution provided three lists of subjects: Union, State and Concurrent. The subjects placed in the first list were for the Centre and more items were placed for the Union control than the other federations and more placed for the concurrent list than desired for the provinces. The Union also had control over minerals and key industries. Moreover, Article 356 gave power to Centre to take over the State administration on the recommendation of the Governor. Dr. Ambedkar had declared that he wanted “a strong and united Centre, much stronger than the Centre we had created under the Government of India Act, 1935”. Many members felt that the Centre must be strong enough to stop the communal riots and violence. Gopalaswami Iyenger declared that “the Centre should be made as strong as possible”. Balakrishna Sharma, reasoned at length that only a strong Centre could plan for the well-being of the country, mobilise the available economic resources, establish a proper administration and defend the country against foreign aggression.
Q. 9. How did the Constituent Assembly seek to resolve the language controversy?
“Within the Constituent Assembly of India, the language issue was intensely debated.” Examine the views put forward by the members of the Assembly on this issue.
Ans. Since India is a vast country having different regions with various languages, the Assembly discussed the issue of language for the newlyindependent country which generated intense arguments. Hindustani was the choice of Congress and Gandhiji. Before the independence of the country, the Congress had made up its mind to adopt Hindustani as the National Language of the country. Mahatma Gandhi had also approved this decision. He was convinced that everyone should speak in a language which is understood by most of the common people. Hindustani, which is a blend of Hindi and Urdu, was not a new language. It was a popular language as it was spoken by most of the people of the country and Mahatma Gandhi preferred it to be the National Language of India. The case for Hindi was mostly advocated by R. V. Dhulekar, a Congressman from the United Provinces and wanted that Hindi should be used as the language of constitution–making. When he was told that all the members of the Constituent Assembly did not know Hindi, he felt infuriated and stated that those who did not know Hindustani were not worthy to be the members of the Constituent Assembly. He told such members to quit the Assembly. There was a commotion in the Assembly over his remarks. However, the peace and order were restored due to the intervention of Jawaharlal Nehru. The Language Committee of the Constituent Assembly suggested a compromise formula in its report. In order to resolve the deadlock over the issue of language, it advocated that Hindi in Devanagari script should be the official language of the country. It also suggested that transition from English to Hindi would be gradual. It stated that during the first fifteen years from the enforcement of the new Constitution, English would continue to be used for all official purposes. In other words, the Language Committee referred to Hindi as the official language and not the national language of India. The members in the Constituent Assembly, who were from the Southern states, opposed Hindi and considered it as a threat to their provincial languages. Many oppositions were expressed by Mrs. G. Durgabai of Madras and Sh. Shankar Rao from Bombay. T. A. Ramalingam Chettiar from Madras suggested that the issue of language should be handled with tact and caution. Hindi should not be aggressively thrust upon the southern people. In other words, the members from South India wanted that Hindi Should not be forcefully imposed on them.
Q.10.Explain how the Constitution of India protects the rights of the Central and the State Governments.
Ans. The Constitution of India protects the rights of the Central Government and the state:
(a) The rights of the Central and State Governments were debated vigorously in the Constituent Assembly.
(b) J. L. Nehru argued for a strong centre.
(c) The draft Constitution provided for three lists of subjects: Union, State and Concurrent.
(d) The subjects in the first list were to be the power of the Central Government, the second list for the State Government and third list was for Centre and State.
(e) Article 356 gave the powers to the centre to take over a state administration on the basis of the recommendation of the Governor.
(f) The Constitution mandated for a complex system of fiscal federalism.
(g) K. Santhanam defended the rights of the states and demanded a real-location of powers.
(h) His argument was that if the centre was overburdened with responsibilities, it could not function effectively.
(i) Several other arguments were put forward for the effective functioning of the federation.
(j) The argument for greater power to the provinces provoked a strong reaction in the Assembly. It was felt that the powers of the Centre had to be greatly strengthened to enable it to stop the communal frenzy.
(k) Balakrishna Sharma reasoned that a strong Centre could plan for the well-being of the country, mobilise the available economic resources, establish a proper administration and defend the country against foreign aggression.
(l) Ambedkar also wanted a strong united centre.
(m)Gopalaswami lyenger wanted the same.
(n) After the partition, nationalists felt that political pressure for a decentralised structure was not longer there and in fact the violence of the times gave a push to centralisation.
(o) Therefore, the Constitution showed a distinct bias towards the rights of Union of India over the states.
Several attempts were made to make the centre more strong and powerful. Regarding the concurrent list, the Centre and the State shared responsibility. But in case of any disputes, Centre’s decision is recommended. The Union List contained more subjects than the State List. The Centre enjoyed control over many important mineral and key industries. Article 356 gave the powers to the Centre to take over a state administration on the recommendation of the Government List, the Centre and the State shared responsibility. In case of taxes, custom duties and company taxes, the Centre retained all the proceeds and in other like the income tax and excise duties was shared with the States; still other cases like estate duties was assigned completed to the State. The State could levy and collect taxes on their own, which included land and property taxes, sales tax and the hugely profitable tax on bottled liquor.