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Q. 1. Explain the concept of class struggle given by Karl Marx.
What is class struggle? Discuss its concept given by Karl Marx.
Ans. Marx’s concept of class struggle is one of his best creation. That’s why first of all we should know that what is class. On the basis of Marx’s explanation of class, Lenin has given definition of class.
According to Lenin, ‘‘Classes are known as big groups of those people who in any level of history of social production from their point of view, from the point of view of their relation with the means of production, from the point view of hard work and their role in social structure and because of which they are the owner of that much part of the social property, are different from each other from the point of view of quantity and from the view of achieveing it.’’
In this way Marx’s definition of class can be given according to their role in the process of production. In simple words, ‘‘Class is a group of those persons who earns their livelihood is one same way.’’ Class comes into being on the basis of means of production. New classes take the places of old classes when changes come in production system.
Marx was of the view that two types of classes exist in all the four types of societies till today:
(i) Classes in Primitive Society
(ii) Classes in Slave Society
(iii) Classes in Feudal Society
(iv) Classes in Capitalist Society.
According to Marx, two types of classes exist in all types of societies and conflict remains there in both the classes. First class is that which have all the means of production and which is rich class.
It is known as capitalist class. Second Class is that class which don’t have any means and which is a poor class. It is known as Labourer class. Capitalist class always exploits the labourer class.
Marx was of the view that capitalist class establishes large industries with the help of its money and it gives job to labourer class in their industries. Capitalist takes more work from the laboures and gives very less pay for that. Labourer class hardly gets food of two times due to less daily wages.
It struggles for the whole life and even dies struggling with life. Capitalist, who hardly does any thing except investing his money, takes whole of the profit and surplus value because of which he becomes more and more rich and poor becomes more poorer and poorer.
Marx was of the view that private property is that root cause of exploitation and that’s why two main classes are there in every sector of the society. Capitalist class has all the means of production and exploited class means labourer classes don’t have any thing to sell except their labour.
Conflict and struggle remains there in both the classes due to this exploitation to which Marx gave the name of class struggle. Capitalist class wants to take more work by giving less pay and labourer wants more and more money for their work.
But capitalist class don’t want to give more pay. That’s why struggle remains there in both the classes.
One time will come when this struggle in both the classes will come in its last form and labourer class will go for revolution. It will do revolution and will try to eliminate capitalist class. This revolution will be based upon force.
This class struggle between both the classes will come to an end with the elimination of capitalism.
All the restrictions over means of production will come to an end and they will come in the hands of labourer class. Capitalist class will be eliminated and no class will remain in the society.
In this way Marx says that revolution will come with class struggle and classes will also come to an end. In this way communism and socialism will come. Every one will get according to its needs and ability.