Q. 1. Explain with examples any five geographical factors that affect localisation of an industry at a particular place in India.
Ans.(i) Raw materials are basic requirements for manufacturing industries. Weight-losing industries, e.g., cement, sugar are located near the source of raw material.
(ii) Power resources are important for energy intensive industries such as aluminium and polythene bag industries which are located near the energy sources.
(iii) Labour supply is another important factor particularly for the labour intensive industry, e.g.,construction industry. To an extent labour can be brought to a site from other region.
(iv) Means of transportation and communication play a special role in bringing raw aterial to the factory and finished products to the market, e.g., cheap water transport has facilitated the development and concentration of jute mills in the Hoogly region.
(v) Market facilities also influences industries, many of which are located near large urban centres because the potential buyers are easily available.
Q. 2. Explain the role of ‘power’ and ‘market ‘in the location of heavy industries in India.
Ans. Role of power and market in the location of heavy industries in India:
(i) Power provides the motive force for machines, and therefore, its supply has to be ensured before the location of any industry.
(ii) However, certain industries, like aluminium and synthetic nitrogen manufacturing industries tend to be located near sources of power because they are power intensive and require huge quantum of electricity.
(iii) Markets provide the outlets for manufactured products. Heavy machine, machine tools, heavy chemicals are located near the high demand areas as these are market orientated.
(iv) Petroleum refineries are also located near the markets as the transport of crude oil is easier and several products derived from them are used as raw material in other industries. Koyali, Mathura and Barauni refineries are typical examples.
(v) Cotton textile industry uses a non-weight-losing raw material and is generally located in large urban centres, e.g., Mumbai, Ahmedabad, Surat, etc.
Q.3. How did the Swadeshi Movement give a major impetus to the cotton textiles industry?
Ans. In the second half of the 19th Century, the cotton textile industry expanded very rapidly. The number of units increased dramatically. The Swadeshi Movement gave a major impetus to the industry as there was a call for boycotting all British made goods in favour of Indian goods.
(i) The import of cotton textile reduced to some extent. Small units of textile industry were started. The boycott of the British goods were supplemented by the country made cotton goods and boycott of the foreign goods accelerated the speed of Indian textile industries
(ii) The production was started in cottage industries like handlooms and powerlooms were producing cotton clothes.
(iii) Production of Khadi was popular. The cottage industry was weaving khadi. The Swadeshi Movement led by Gandhi gave a major impetus to the textile industries as this movement increased the production and employment opportunities.
(iv) The development of railways and roadway network are favourable for the expansion and decentralisation of cotton textile industries in India.
(v) Cotton mills were set up at Coimbatore, Madurai, Bengaluru, Nagpur, Indore, Solapur and Vadodara. Though the country suffered a great set back due to the partition of the country.
Q.4. Analyse the factors that favoured the concentration of iron and steel industries in the Chhotanagpur region in India.
Ans. The factors responsible for the concentration of iron and steel industries in and around the ‘Chotanagpur Plateau Region’ are as follows:
(i) Low cost of iron ore- Iron mines are located in the nearby areas. It helps to reduce the transportation cost of iron ore to the industries.
(ii) High grade raw materials in proximity- Other bulky raw materials like coking coal, limestone,manganese, bauxite, mica are also available in close proximity.
(iii) Availability of cheap labour- From the adjoining areas of Bihar, Jharkhand and Odisha, cheap labour is available in abundance.
(iv) Dense transport network-This region is well connected with roadways and railways that help in the swift movement of raw materials and finished goods to the industry and market areas.
(v) Port facilities - Kolkata is a well-developed port that has helped in exporting iron ore to countries like Japan.
(vi) Power - Presence of coal, natural gas in this region is a key factor since a heavy industry like iron and steel requires a large amount of power.
Q. 5. Explain the main points of the new Industrial Policy, 1991 of India.
Discuss the role played by globalization in encouraging the growth of trade.
Mention any four major objectives of the New Industrial Policy, 1991 of India. Describe the role of globalization in achieving these objectives.
Ans. Major objectives of the New Industrial Policy 1991:
(i) To build on the gains already made.
(ii) Correct the distortions or weaknesses that have crept in.
(iii) Maintain a sustained growth in productivity.
(iv) Gainful employment and attain international competitiveness.
Role of Globalization :The thrust of globalization has been to increase the domestic and external competition through extensive application of market mechanism and facilitating dynamic relationship with the foreign investors and suppliers of technology.
(i) Increase in foreign investment :It means opening of the economy to foreign direct investment by providing facilities to foreign companies to invest in different fields of economic activity in India
(ii) Availability of foreign technology : It means use of advanced foreign technology in order to improve and increase production.
(iii) Open trade policy : It means opening of the economy to foreign direct investment by providing facilities to foreign companies to invest in different fields of economies activity in India; removing restrictions and obstacles to the entry of multinational companies in India. Allowing Indian companies to enter into foreign collaboration in India and also encouraging them to set up joint ventures abroad.
(iv) International competition for better products : Allowing the foreign companies to introduce and sell the products to increase competitive spirit.
Q. 6 Analyse the locational factors which helped in the development of ‘Mumbai-Pune Industrial Region.’
Ans. Factors responsible for the development of ‘Mumbai-Pune Industrial Region’:
(i) Favourable climatic conditions for the development of cotton textile industries.
(ii) Opening of the Suez Canal providing impetus for its growth.
(iii) Availability of port facility for trade.
(iv) Development of hydroelectricity in Western Ghats.
(v) Availability of labour.
(vi) Nearness to offshore oil fields favoured the growth of petrochemical industries.
(vii) Growth and development of various industries e.g. engineering goods, pharmaceuticals, chemicals etc.