Q.1. Explain three economic and two social and cultural factors influencing the distribution of population in India.
Ans. Factors influencing the distribution of population in India are :
Economic Factors :
(i) Minerals : The regions which are rich in natural resources like coal, water, minerals and forest wealth favour the growth of population. These resources help in the development of trade, commerce and industry.
(ii) Urbanisation : People move from villages to live in cities to get better employment opportunities, medical facilities and other amenities which results in the growth of the population of the cities.
(iii) Industrialisation : Industrial areas provide job opportunities for the people as a result more and more people are attracted towards the industrial belt.
(iv) Agriculture : Rich and fertile soil always help in the growth and development of agricultural activities to support dense population.
Social and Cultural Factors :
(i) People are attracted towards certain areas as these areas have some religious or cultural significance.
(ii) Social and political unrest results in the movement of people towards areas where they can live peaceful life.
(iii) Government offer incentive to people to live in sparsely populated areas.
Q.2. How are physical and economic factors responsible for uneven distribution of population in India? Explain with examples.
Ans. (i) India has a highly uneven pattern of population distribution. This type of distribution suggests a close relationship between population and physical and socio-economic factors.
(ii) Among the physical factors climate along with terrain and availability of water affects the pattern of population distribution.
(iii) For example, North Indian Plains , deltas and coastal plains have higher proportion of population than the interior districts of southern and central Indian states, and in respect of development in irrigation, availability of mineral and energy resources and development of transport network. These areas have high concentration which were previously thinly populated.
(iv) Among the socio-economic factors due to evolution of settled agriculture and agricultural development.
(v) Pattern of human settlement, development of transport network; industrialization and urbanization, the regions falling in the river plains and coastal areas have larger population concentrations.
Q. 3. Explain how population density is closely related to physical and socio-economic factors.
Ans. Population density is closely related to physical and socio-economic factors.
(i) D ense population in UP, West Bengal, Bihar, Punjab, Haryana, Kerala is due to flat and fertile plains, favourable climate, water availability and socio-economic factors.
(ii) Sparse population of Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim, North-East States is due to hilly terrain, dense forests and harsh climate.
(iii) Rajasthan has water shortage and its hot and dry climate accounts for low population density.
(iv) M oderate density is seen in Odisha, Assam, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, etc., due to possibilities of agriculture, industrial development and favourable climate to some extent.
(v) Fa vourable factors for Transport network, industrialisation, urbanisation in Maharashtra, Goa, Delhi NCR, etc., account for high population density.
Q. 4 What is density of population? Describe the spatial variation of population density in India.
Discuss the spatial pattern of density of population in India.
Ans. Density of population is the number of people per unit of area. It is expressed as number of people per unit area/sq km.Spatial variations in the density of population are:
(i) Very low : Arunachal Pradesh, 17 persons/sq km.
(ii) The hill stations of Himalayan region and North Eastern states including Assam has relatively low densities.
(iii) Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Haryana has moderate density of population.
(iv) West Bengal, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh ,Kerala, Tamil Nadu has higher densities among the peninsular Indian states.
(v) Delhi has very high density of population 11,297 persons / sq km.
Q.5. Define the term ‘growth of population.’ Describe the third (III) phase of growth of population in India.
Ans. Growth of population is the change in the number of people living in a particular area between two points of time. The rate of the growth of the population is expressed in percentage (%).
Third (III) phase of growth of population :
(i) India’s population entered the third stage of transition sometime in the close of the 1960s.
(ii) This is the period of population explosion in India.
(iii) Decline in the death rates was much more rapid than birth rate, the rate of increase in the population went up from 1.2 to 1.3 percent during 1921-51 to 2 to 2.2 percent during 1951-81.
(iv) Improvement in the economy results in increase in the standard of living which in turn resulted in the decline of death rate.
Q. 6. What is population doubling time? Explain the characteristics of the growth of population in India in Phase I and II.
Ans. Population doubling time is defined as the time taken by any population to double itself at its current annual growth rate.
Characteristics of the growth of population in India in Phase I :
(i) The period from 1901 to 1921 is referred to as Phase I.
(ii) Population growth during this phase remained stagnant.
(iii) Both birth rate and death rate were high keeping the rate of increase low.
(i) The decades 1921 to 1951 are referred to as phase II.
(ii) During this phase population growth was steady.
(iii) Lower death rate due to better medical facilities resulted in the decline of mortality rate.
Q.7. Explain the trends of population growth of the world with special reference with the help of science and technology.
Ans. (i) The population on the Earth is more than six billion. It has grown to this size over the years. In the early period, population of the world grew very slow.
(ii) During the last few hundred years, population has increased at a rapid pace.
(iii) The expanding trade set the stage for rapid population growth.
(iv) The Industrial Revolution led to the population explosion around the world.
(v) Science and technology helped in controlling the birth rate and reducing death rate.
(vi) Due to advancement in medical facilities.
Q. 8. When does positive population growth take place? Explain the geographical factors that influence the distribution of population in India.
Ans. Positive growth of population takes place when the birth rate is more than the death rate between two points of time or when people from other countries migrate permanently to a region.
Geographical factors that influence the distribution of population in India :
(i) Availability of water : Availability of water is very important in determining the population of a given area. Water is the basic necessity for several purposes including irrigation, industries, transport and domestic affairs. Rivers are the source of fresh clean water as a result most of the population is concentrated in the river valleys.
(ii) Landforms : Terrain is one of the important factors which influences the concentration and growth of population. Plain areas have high density of population as compared to mountain regions. The steep slope in mountain areas restrict the availability of land for agriculture, development of transport, industries and other economic activities which discourage concentration of population.
(iii) Climate : Climatic factors such as rainfall and temperature play the most important role in determining the population of an area. Extremes of climate discourage the concentration of population. Climates include the too cold climates of the Himalayas, and the too hot and dry climate of the Thar Desert. A moderate climate, on the other hand is favourable for positive population growth rate.
(iv) Soil : Soil is an important factor in determining the density of population. Fertile soil supports higher population density while infertile soil leads to low density. In the Northern Plains of India, the soil is regularly enriched by annual floods of the rivers like the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra and its tributaries. Therefore, this area has high population density. On the other hand, desert soils, mountain soil , laterite soils are infertile, so there is low density of population in these areas.
Q.9. “The decades 1921-51 are referred to as the period of steady growth of population whereas the decades 1951-81 are referred to as the period of population explosion in India.” Explain giving reasons.
Ans. The decades 1921-1951:
(i) Health and sanitation was not improved in comparison with today.
(ii) High mortality rate.
(iii) The crude birth rate remained high.
(iv) This period was of great economic depression due to the World War II.
(v) Communication and transport system was not improved.
The decades 1951-81:
(i) There was rapid fall in mortality rate.
(ii) High fertility rate of the population in the country.
(iii) Improvement in living conditions.
(iv) Improvement in health and sanitation.
Q.10. Explain the three components of population change in the world. Analyse the impacts of population change.
Ans. Components of population change in the world are :
(i) Higher birth rate
(ii) Lower death rate
(iii) Migration Impact:
(i) In developing countries like India the levels of maternal and infant mortality are very high. Repeated childbirths are seen as an insurance against multiple infant and child deaths. Vast numbers of people cannot avail of the services provided by government due to problems of knowledge and its access.
(ii) As the population grows, the pressure on natural resources will increase.
(iii) Population pressure will reduce the per capital availability of land for farming , which will affect availability of food grains, drinking water, etc.
(iv) Pressure on basic amenities also increase due to change in population.
Q.11. What do you understand by population growth? Name the components of population growth. Explain the four distinct phases of growth identified within the period of 1901-2001.
Ans. Growth of population is the change in the number of people living in a particular area between two points of time.
Population growth has two component namelynatural and induced. The natural growth is analysed by assessing the crude birth and death rate. The induced components are explained by the volume of inward and outward movement of people in any given area.
The four distinct phases of growth identified within the period of 1901-2001 :
Q.12. ‘‘The decadal and annual growth rates of population in India are both very high and steadily increasing over time.’’ Substantiate the statement.
Ans. The decadal and annual growth rate of population in India: The decades between 1921 to 1951 recorded steady growth of population. Overall improvement in health and sanitation minimized the mortality rate but the birth rate remained high. In the next three decades 1951-81 are known as the period of population explosion. It was caused by a rapid fall in the mortality rate but birth rate remained high Average annual growth rate was very high as the living conditions of people improved due to developmental activities resulting in high natural increase in birth rate and thus, growth rate remained high. International migration also contributed to the high growth rate of population. Since 1981 till date, population growth rate has been high although a downward trend of crude birth rate has started.
NOTE : If examinee proves the statement by giving arguments in favour of annual / decadal / phase wise growth, in that case this may be considered.
Q.13. Explain with example the occupational structure of India’s population.
Give an account of the occupational structure of India’s population.
Ans. The distribution of the population according to different types of occupation is referred to as the occupational structure. In India, about 64 per cent of the population is engaged only in agriculture.
The proportion of population dependent on secondary and tertiary sectors is about 13 and 20 per cent, respectively. There has been an occupational shift in favour of secondary and tertiary sectors because of growing industrialisation and urbanisation in recent times.
There are three categories under occupational structure :
(i) Primary sector : Agriculture, fishing, logger comes under this category. These are primary because production is carried with the help of nature.
(ii) Secondary sector : All manufacturing industries come under this sector.
(iii) Tertiary sector : It provides services to both primary and secondary sectors.
(iv) There has been a great improvement in work participation of women in secondary and tertiary sectors.
(v) Male workers outnumber female workers in all the three sectors.
(vi) The proportion of workers in agriculture sector in India has shown a decline over the last two decades.
Q.14. Differentiate between a main worker and a marginal worker. Mention the main occupational categories found in India.
Ans. Main worker is a person who works for at least 183 days in a year, on the other hand, a marginal worker works for less than 183 days in a year.
Occupational Categories :
(i) Cultivators : The people who possess the agricultural land and are engaged with cultivation activity.
(ii) Agricultural Labourers : People who are engaged with farm-based activities/ cultivation to earn the wages.
(iii) Household Industrial Workers : People engaged with cottage industries, generally as house entity.
(iv) Other Workers : Workers in non-household industries/ trade/ commerce/ construction repair and other services.