Q. 1. How are the principal modes of world transportation complementary to one another? Explain with examples.
Ans. Principal modes of transport are land, water and air. They are all complementary to one another:
(i) All modes of transport are used for inter- regional and intra-regional movement of goods and passengers.
(ii) International movement of goods is mainly handled by ocean freighters carried forward to the market/place of destination by roadways or railways.
(iii) Light weight/delicate goods are transported through airways which takes lesser time as compared to the other modes of transport. Then roadways provide the door to door facility to deliver the product to its destination.
(iv) Waterways carry heavy/bulky goods to their destinations only with the help of the land transport.
(v) Mainly land transport acts as a feeder to the airways and the waterways.
Q. 2. What is transport? How do the factors of demand and routes affect the transport services throughout the world? Explain with examples.
Ans. Transport is a service or facility for carrying persons and goods from one place to the other using humans, animals and different kinds of vehicles. Transportation is an organised service industry created to satisfy the basic needs of society. The significance of a mode depends on the type of goods and services to be transported, costs of transport and the mode available.
The factors of demand and routes that affect the transport services throughout the world are:
(i) International movement of goods is handled by ocean freighters.
(ii) Road transport is cheaper and faster over short distances and for door-to door services.
(iii) Railways are most suited for large volumes of bulky materials over long distances within a country.
(iv) High-value, light and perishable goods are best moved by airways.
Q. 3. Describe the journey of development of land transport from the days of humans as carries and the cableways of today.
Ans. L and transport is an important part of India’s economy as most of the movement of goods and services take place over land. In the early days human being themselves were carriers and use to carry the goods to smaller distances. Later animals were used to carry load and treated as beasts of burden. Invention of the wheel revolutionised the means of transport, engine-motors, cars and trucks, pipelines, ropeways and cableways have made the life of human easy.
The revolution in transport came about only after the invention of the steam engine in the eighteenth century. Perhaps the first railway line was opened in 1825 between Stockton and Darlington in northern England and then on wards, railways became the most popular and fastest mode of transport in the nineteenth century.
Among the newer developments in land transportation are pipelines, ropeways, ocean vessels, cableways. Liquids like mineral oil, water, sludge and sewers are transported by pipelines. In general, the old and elementary forms like the human porter, pack animal, cart of wagon are the most expensive means of land transportation and large freighters are the cheapest. They are important in supplementing modern channels and carriers which penetrate the interiors in large countries.
Q. 4. ‘The Suez Canal and the Panama Canal are two vital man-made navigation canals which serve as gateways of commerce for both the eastern and western worlds’. In the light of this statement explain the economic significance of these two canals.
Ans. Economic importance of the Suez and the Panama Canals:
The Suez Canal:
(i) It has given Europe a new gateway to Indian Ocean and Australia.
(ii) It has shortened the distance.
(iii) It saves time and fuel.
(iv) It has become cheaper as compared to the Cape of Good Hope route.
(v) Suez is sea level canal.
(vi) Thus, Suez is very suitable for commerce.
The Panama Canal:
(i) This canal has linked Eastern America with Western America.
(ii) It also links Europe with Western America.
(iii) It has shortened distance between Europe and Western America.
(iv) It saves time and fuel.
(v) There are locks in canal even then it is more economical. (Any five of each to be explained.)
The Suez Canal:
(i) It has shortened the distance: The Suez Canal is considered to be the shortest link between the East and the West due to its unique geographical location.
(ii) It saves time and fuel: The Suez Canal saves distance, time and operating costs for vessels that transit the canal.
(iii) It is an important international navigation canal linking the Mediterranean Sea at Port Said and the Red Sea at Port Suez.
(iv) Suez is very suitable for commerce: The canal is liable to be widened and deepened when required to cope with the development in ship sizes and tonnages.
(v) The accidents are almost nil compared with other waterways.
The Panama Canal:
(i) It saves time and fuel: Today 10 per cent of the US shipping goes through the canal as it saves the travel time as well as the fuel consumption.
(ii) It has shortened distance between Europe and Western America: The canal has created an ease in the world trade. Therefore, the Canal helps to keep the world trade running smoothly, keeping in mind America’s large economic importance.
(iii) This canal has linked Eastern America With Western America: The canal has shortened the distance and has opened the trade route between the US west coast and the east coast of South America.
(iv) The Panama Canal has created more job opportunities related to the distribution of the cargo.
(v) There are locks in canal even then it is more economical: This is because it cuts down the travel time taken by the cargo to reach the destination port.
Q. 5. ‘The Rhine Waterways is the world’s most heavily used inland waterway ”. In the light of this statement examine the significance of this waterway.
Ans. The significance of the Rhine Waterway:
(i) The Rhine flows through Germany and the Netherlands.
(ii) It is navigable for 700 km from Rotterdam, at its mouth in the Netherlands to Basel in Switzerland.
(iii) Ocean-going vessels can reach up to Cologne. The Ruhr river joins the Rhine from the east.
(iv) It flows through a rich coalfield and the whole basin has become a prosperous manufacturing area.
(v) Dusseldorf is the Rhine port for this region
(vi) Huge tonnage moves along the stretch south of the Ruhr.
(vii) This waterway is the world’s most heavily used waterway.
(viii) It connects the industrial areas of Switzerland, Germany, France, Belgium and the Netherlands with the North Atlantic Sea Route.
Q. 6. ‘Trans-Canadian Railway line is considered as the economic artery of Canada’. Support the statement with suitable examples.
Ans. Trans – Canadian Railway line is considered as the economics artery of Canada for the following reasons:
(i) This railway line is about 7050 km long rail-line in Canada, runs from Halifax in the east to Vancouver on the Pacific coast passing through Montreal, Ottawa, Winnipeg and Calgary.
(ii) It was constructed in 1886, as part of an agreement to make British Columbia on the west coast join the Federation of States.
(iii) It gained economic significance because it connected the Quebec – Montreal Industrial Region with the wheat belt of Prairie Region and the Coniferous forest region in the north.
(iv) Each of these regions became complementary to the other.
(v) A loop line from Winnipeg to Thunder Bay connects this rail-line with one of the important waterways of the world.
(vi) This line is the economic artery of Canada, wheat and meat are the important exports on this route. (Any five points to be mentioned)
Q. 7. What are the advantages and disadvantages of pipelines?
Ans. The advantages of pipelines:
(i) Pipelines provide uninterrupted flow of water, gas and petroleum.
(ii) Initial cost of laying pipelines is high but, the running cost is minimal.
(iii) They are eco-friendly, do not contribute to the pollution and save fuel.
(iv) It rules out trans-shipment losses or delays.
(v) These can be laid in difficult terrains, underwater, and dense forested areas.
(i) Leakage in the pipelines is difficult to detect.
(ii) Safeguarding the pipeline from the extremists is very difficult.
(iii) These are not flexible and cannot give door to door services.
(iv) Once laid, capacity cannot be increased.
(i) Pipelines provide uninterrupted flow of water, gas and petroleum: Pipelines are ideally suited to transport liquids and gases as they have relieved the increasing pressure on the existing surface transport system (railways and roadways). Moreover, pipelines are safe, accident-free and environmental friendly.
(ii) It rules out trans-shipment losses or delays: Supply through pipeline is very reliable. It is free from obstacles faced in road and rail transport.
(iii) Pipelines are quick, cheap, efficient and environment friendly mode of transportation. It minimizes tranship losses and delays.
(i) Leakage in the pipelines is difficult to detect: There is always a risk of damage caused to the pipeline because of various reasons such as road repair and other activities containing excavation. Such damages are very difficult to detect. This leads to pilferage and wastage due to leakage.
(ii) Once laid, capacity cannot be increased: Laying down the pipeline is a major and expensive task. Once laid, it is extremely difficult physically and economically to increase its capacity.
Q. 8. Which is the longest trans-continental railway of North America? Describe its any four features.
Ans. Trans-Canadian Railways is the longest transcontinental railway of North America.
Features of Trans-Canadian Railways are:
(i) It is 7,050 km long rail-line to Canada which was constructed for British Columbia.
(ii) It runs between Halifax in the East to Vancouver in the West.
(iii) It connects Quebec-Montreal Industrial Region with the wheat belt of the Prairie region and the coniferous forest region in the North.
(iv) A loop line from Winnipeg to Thunder Bay located on Lake Superior connects this rail-line with one of the important waterways of the world.
(v) This line is the economic artery of Canada.
(vi) Wheat and meat are the important exports on this route.
Q. 9. What is the importance of railways as a mode of land transport? Explain any four main features of the railway network in Europe.
Ans. Railways are a mode of land transport which is used for carrying bulky goods and passengers over long distances. Commuter trains are very popular in UK, USA, Japan and India. These carry millions of passengers daily.
Features of Railway Network in Europe:
(i) Europe has one of the most dense rail network in the world.
(ii) Most of the rail network in Europe is double or multiple tracked.
(iii) Belgium has the highest density of railway network.
(iv) London, Paris, Brussels, Milan, Berlin and Warsaw are the important rail heads.
(v) The industrial regions of Europe has highest density.
(vi) There is a very dense network in the west of the Urals in Russia. Railways account for about 90 per cent of the country’s total transport.
Q. 10. Which shipping canal links the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean? Explain its four characteristics.
Ans. The Panama Canal is the man-made waterway in Panama that connects the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific Ocean.
Characteristics of the Panama Canal are:
(i) The canal is constructed across the Isthmus of Panama between Panama City and Colon to facilitate international trade.
(ii) The canal is 48 mile (77 km) waterways. Canal began commercial operation in June 26, 2016.
(iii) The Panama Canal reduced the time for ships to travel between Atlantic and Pacific Oceans enabling them to avoid lengthy hazardous Cape Horn route around the southernmost tip of South America via the Drake Passage or Strait of Magellan.
(iv) The US government has purchased 83 km area on either side and named it canal zone. (v) It has six lock systems.
(vi) Tolls for the canal are set by the Panama Canal Authority and are based on vessel type, size and the type of cargo it is carrying.
Q. 11. Name the longest trans-continental railway of the world.
Describe any four features of it.
Which is the largest trans-continental railway in the world? Describe any four characteristics of this railway.
Ans. Trans-Siberian Railway is the longest transcontinental railway of the world.
(i) It is 9,289 km long railway route.
(ii) It extends between St. Petersburg to Vladivostok.
(iii) It is double-tracked which is electrified.
(iv) It is the most important route in Asia.
(v) There are several connecting links to the South.
(vi) It connects Asian region to the European region.
Q. 12. Which means of transport is extensively used to carry water, petroleum, natural gas and other liquids? Describe the network of this means of transport in the world.
Ans. Pipelines are extensively used to carry water, petroleum, natural gas and other liquids for uninterrupted flow.
(i) In the USA there is a dense network of oil pipelines from the producing areas to the consuming areas. Big Inch is a famous pipeline, which carries petroleum from the oil wells of the Gulf of Mexico to the North-eastern states.
(ii) In Europe, Russia and West Asia pipelines are used to connect oil from Volga and Ural in Russia to East European countries.
(iii) In the Middle-East the oil is transported through pipelines from Saudi Arabia to Iraq and other countries and to the refineries located on the Mediterranean Coast (6,550 Km).
(iv) In North India pipelines connect the oil wells to the refineries and then to the industrial belts.
(v) HBJ pipeline runs through the North-western India and it is extended to Delhi, it is important for the economic development of the region.
(vi) The oil producing countries of Central Asia, i.e. Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan supply petroleum and natural gas through pipelines to Turkey and Russia.
Q. 13. Explain the merits and demerits of road transport in the world.
Ans. Merits of road transport:
(i) Road transport is the most economical for short distances.
(ii) It offers door-to-door service.
(iii) It plays a vital role in a nation’s trade and commerce and for promoting tourism.
Demerits of road transport:
(i) During rainy season, unmetalled roads become unmotorable.
(ii) Even the metalled roads are seriously handicapped during heavy rains and floods. City roads suffer from chronic traffic congestions.
(iii) The quality of roads varies greatly between developed and developing countries because road construction and maintenance require heavy expenditure.
Merits of road transport:
(i) It offers door-to-door service: The outstanding advantage of road transport is that it provides door to door or warehouse to warehouse service. This reduces cartage, loading and unloading expenses.
(ii) Road transport is the most economical for short distances: It is economic and quicker for carrying goods and people over short distances.
(iii) It plays a vital role in a nation’s trade and commerce and for promoting tourism: Road transport is carried on to near by countries for exchange of goods and increasing cultural exchange.
Demerits of road transport:
(i) During rainy season, unmetalled roads become unmotorable: Motor transport is not as reliable as rail transport. During rainy or flood season, roads become unfit and unsafe for use.
(ii) This mode of transport is unsuitable and costly for transporting cheap and bulky goods over long distances.
Q. 14. “Air transport plays an important role in the international trade”. Support the statement.
Ans. Air transport plays an important role in the international trade. It has the advantage of taking the least time for carriage and handling high value or perishable goods over long distances. It is very costly and unsuitable for carrying heavy and bulky commodities. This ultimately reduces the participation of this sector in the international trade as compared to the oceanic routes.
At present, there are 12 international airports and 112 domestic airports functioning in India. They are– Ahmedabad, Amritsar, Bengaluru, Chennai, New Delhi, Goa, Guwahati, Hyderabad, Kochchi, Kolkata, Mumbai and Tiruvanantapuram.
Q. 15. State any three characteristics of water transport. Why is traffic far less on the Cape of Good Hope Route’? Give two reasons.
Ans. Characteristics of water transport are:
(i) Water transport does not require route construction.
(ii) The oceans are linked with each other.
(iii) The oceans are negotiable with ships of various sizes.
(iv) It is much cheaper.
(v) The energy cost of water transportation is lower.
The traffic is far less on the Cape of Good Hope Route because of:
(i) Limited development of this route.
(ii) More time-consuming.
(iii) Very lengthy route between Asian and European countries.
Q. 16. Explain any five characteristics of rail transport of Europe.
Ans. The characteristics of rail transport in Europe are:
(i) Rail transport in Europe is characterized by its diversity, both technical and infrastructural.
(ii) Europe was the location of the world’s first railways.
(iii) The European Union aims to make cross-border operations easier as well as to introduce competition to national rail networks. Industrial Revolution, has led to a high level of cooperation between European countries in developing and maintaining rail network.
(iv) Rail infrastructure, freight transport and passenger services are provided by a combination of local and national governments and private companies.
(v) The modern European network spans the entire continent and provides passenger and freight movement. There are significant high speed rail passengers networks.
Q. 17. Which continent has highest road density? Why do traffic congestions occur on road? Explain three measures to solve the problem to traffic congestions.
Ans. North America.
When the road cannot cope up with the demands of traffic , congestion occurs. Number of private as well as commercial vehicle is rapidly increasing. Construction of new roads or flyovers is not fusible to resolve this emerging traffic. Certain other things need to be done in order to solve the problem of traffic congestions. These can be:
(i) Use of public transport instead of private transport has to be encouraged. This will certainly make the difference.
(ii) Private vehicles should have some restrictions especially in peak hours.
(iii) Facilities in public transports should be increased so that it can attract huge amount of commuters.
Q. 18. Describe any five characteristics of highways of the world.
Ans. A highway is any public road or other public way on land. Major highways are often named and numbered by the governments that typically develop and maintain them. Major modern highways that connect cities in populous developed and developing countries help to enhance the road’s capacity, efficiency and safety to various degrees.
The characteristics of modern highways of the world are as follows:
(i) These are metalled roads that helps to connect distant places. This helps to procure raw materials easily. This promotes agricultural and industrial development.
(ii) These roads are more than 80 m wide and have several traffic lanes which enhance them to handle increased traffic capacity as compared to city or town streets.
(iii) Bridges, flyovers, embankments are common features at high speed. This helps to connect major industrial towns, agricultural centres, markets and ports. It also provides employment opportunities.
(iv) Highways have also indulged in environmental pollution due to increased vehicular movement and emission of smoke. Low quality roads can result in wear and tear of vehicles and accidents.
Q. 19. ‘Land transport plays a vital role in the development of trade and tourism in the world’. Support the statement with suitable examples.
Ans. Transport helps in the assembly of raw materials and distribution of finished goods. It makes possible to move goods from one place to another. In the earlier days, there were only local markets due to the absence of safe means of transport. Nowadays, trade is not restricted to the boundaries of a single country, but has spread throughout the world.
Development of efficient means of transport has knit together all the nations of the world into one big world market. Even the perishable articles like fish, dairy products, meat, etc., are being transported to distant places of the world. But without good transport facilities, such a development in trade and commerce would not have been possible.
For example: In India, there are many highways, linking the major towns and cities. Transportation also links diverse destinations and ferries people, commodities and services between these places. Tourism is much about travel and therefore the role of transportation in its operation is vital.
Q. 20. Explain the importance of ‘communication services’ in the world.
Ans. Importance of ‘communication services’ in the world:
(i) Communication involves transmission of words messages, facts, ideas. etc., from one place to another.
(ii) All types of communication is nearly dependent on means of transport.
(iii) Where transport is efficient there communication is also efficient.
(iv) It helps to spread messages from one place to another very quickly.
(vi) These services have linked the entire world.
(vii)Time has been reduced to spread the messages.
(viii)The global communication has revolutionised the world.
(ix) The whole world has become one global village.
Importance of ‘communication services’ in the world:
(i) Communication involves transmission of words messages, facts, ideas, etc., from one place to another: Communication is simply sending a message through spoken language that is understood both by the sender and the receiver of the message.
(ii) It helps to spread messages from one place to another very quickly: Communication helps us to pass on the message from one place to another effectively. Our ability to communicate with one another effectively is one of the primary reasons civilization can exist. We cannot effectively work together on a common task if we can’t communicate. We can’t preserve and spread knowledge without a way to communicate it.
(iii) These services have linked the entire world: The communication practice that takes place via satellite helps in linking the world. Due to increasing globalization, international communication encompasses political, social, economic, cultural and military concerns.
(iv) The whole world has become one global village: The world has become a global village with no boundaries to trade and communication. The use of services like television and other telecommunication technologies have transformed the world into a single global village.
(v) These services have linked the entire world: With the spread of communication services, the world is coming close in terms of cultural and social aspects. For examples : The emergence of ‘world music’ has broken and spread the music traditions into mainstream rock culture all across the world.