METALLURGY- Notes JEE Notes | EduRev

JEE : METALLURGY- Notes JEE Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


LIST OF ORES AND THEIR NAMES
SULPHIDE ORE
PbS ? Galena
HgS ? Cinnabar
ZnS ? Zinc blende
Cu
2
S ? Copper glance
CuFeS
2
? Copper Pyrites (Chalcopyrite)
FeS
2
? Iron pyrites or Fool's gold
Ag
2
S ? Silver glance or Argentite
Cu
2
S.Ag
2
S ? Copper silver glance
Ag
2
S.Sb
2
S
3
? Pyrargirite or Rubisilver
HALIDE ORE
NaCl ? Rock Salt
KCl ? Sylvine
CaF
2
? Fluorspar
Na
3
AlF
6
? Cryolite
AgCl ? Horn Silver
KCl.MgCl
2
.6H
2
O ? Carnalite
OXIDE ORE
Fe
2
O
3
? Haematite
Fe
3
O
4
? Magnetite
Al
2
O
3
.2H
2
O ? Bauxite
Fe
2
O
3
.3H
2
O ? Limonite
Cu
2
O ? Cuprite or Ruby copper
MnO
2
? Pyrolusite
SnO
2
? Tinstone or Casseterite
TiO
2
? Rutile
Fe.Cr
2
O
4
? (FeO + Cr
2
O
3
) Chromite ore
Na
2
B
4
O
7
.10H
2
O ? Borax or Tincal
Ca
2
B
6
O
11
.5H
2
O ? Colemanite
U
3
O
8
? Pitch Blende
JEEMAIN.GURU
Page 2


LIST OF ORES AND THEIR NAMES
SULPHIDE ORE
PbS ? Galena
HgS ? Cinnabar
ZnS ? Zinc blende
Cu
2
S ? Copper glance
CuFeS
2
? Copper Pyrites (Chalcopyrite)
FeS
2
? Iron pyrites or Fool's gold
Ag
2
S ? Silver glance or Argentite
Cu
2
S.Ag
2
S ? Copper silver glance
Ag
2
S.Sb
2
S
3
? Pyrargirite or Rubisilver
HALIDE ORE
NaCl ? Rock Salt
KCl ? Sylvine
CaF
2
? Fluorspar
Na
3
AlF
6
? Cryolite
AgCl ? Horn Silver
KCl.MgCl
2
.6H
2
O ? Carnalite
OXIDE ORE
Fe
2
O
3
? Haematite
Fe
3
O
4
? Magnetite
Al
2
O
3
.2H
2
O ? Bauxite
Fe
2
O
3
.3H
2
O ? Limonite
Cu
2
O ? Cuprite or Ruby copper
MnO
2
? Pyrolusite
SnO
2
? Tinstone or Casseterite
TiO
2
? Rutile
Fe.Cr
2
O
4
? (FeO + Cr
2
O
3
) Chromite ore
Na
2
B
4
O
7
.10H
2
O ? Borax or Tincal
Ca
2
B
6
O
11
.5H
2
O ? Colemanite
U
3
O
8
? Pitch Blende
JEEMAIN.GURU
FeO.TiO
2
? Ilmenite
ZnO(Philosophers wool) ? Zincite
3BeO. Al
2
O
3
. 6SiO
2
 ? Beryl
OXY SALT ORE
( 1 ) Carbonate Ore :
CaCO
3
? Lime stone
MgCO
3
? Magnesite
CaCO
3
.MgCO
3
? Dolomite
FeCO
3
? Siderite
ZnCO
3
? Calamine
Cu(OH)
2
.CuCO
3
? Malachite or Basic Copper Carbonate
Cu(OH)
2
.2CuCO
3
? Azurite
PbCO
3
? Cerrusite
SrCO
3
? Strontianite
( 2 ) Sulphate ore :
CaSO
4
.2H
2
O ? Gypsum
MgSO
4
.7H
2
O ? Epsom Salt
PbSO
4
? Anglesite
BaSO
4
? Baryte
Na
2
SO
4
.10H
2
O ? Glauber Salt
SrSO
4
? Celestine
K
2
SO
4
.Al
2
(SO
4
)
3
.24H
2
O ? Potash Alum
( 2 ) Nitrate ore :
KNO
3
? Indian Salt peter
NaNO
3
? Chile Salt peter
JEEMAIN.GURU
Page 3


LIST OF ORES AND THEIR NAMES
SULPHIDE ORE
PbS ? Galena
HgS ? Cinnabar
ZnS ? Zinc blende
Cu
2
S ? Copper glance
CuFeS
2
? Copper Pyrites (Chalcopyrite)
FeS
2
? Iron pyrites or Fool's gold
Ag
2
S ? Silver glance or Argentite
Cu
2
S.Ag
2
S ? Copper silver glance
Ag
2
S.Sb
2
S
3
? Pyrargirite or Rubisilver
HALIDE ORE
NaCl ? Rock Salt
KCl ? Sylvine
CaF
2
? Fluorspar
Na
3
AlF
6
? Cryolite
AgCl ? Horn Silver
KCl.MgCl
2
.6H
2
O ? Carnalite
OXIDE ORE
Fe
2
O
3
? Haematite
Fe
3
O
4
? Magnetite
Al
2
O
3
.2H
2
O ? Bauxite
Fe
2
O
3
.3H
2
O ? Limonite
Cu
2
O ? Cuprite or Ruby copper
MnO
2
? Pyrolusite
SnO
2
? Tinstone or Casseterite
TiO
2
? Rutile
Fe.Cr
2
O
4
? (FeO + Cr
2
O
3
) Chromite ore
Na
2
B
4
O
7
.10H
2
O ? Borax or Tincal
Ca
2
B
6
O
11
.5H
2
O ? Colemanite
U
3
O
8
? Pitch Blende
JEEMAIN.GURU
FeO.TiO
2
? Ilmenite
ZnO(Philosophers wool) ? Zincite
3BeO. Al
2
O
3
. 6SiO
2
 ? Beryl
OXY SALT ORE
( 1 ) Carbonate Ore :
CaCO
3
? Lime stone
MgCO
3
? Magnesite
CaCO
3
.MgCO
3
? Dolomite
FeCO
3
? Siderite
ZnCO
3
? Calamine
Cu(OH)
2
.CuCO
3
? Malachite or Basic Copper Carbonate
Cu(OH)
2
.2CuCO
3
? Azurite
PbCO
3
? Cerrusite
SrCO
3
? Strontianite
( 2 ) Sulphate ore :
CaSO
4
.2H
2
O ? Gypsum
MgSO
4
.7H
2
O ? Epsom Salt
PbSO
4
? Anglesite
BaSO
4
? Baryte
Na
2
SO
4
.10H
2
O ? Glauber Salt
SrSO
4
? Celestine
K
2
SO
4
.Al
2
(SO
4
)
3
.24H
2
O ? Potash Alum
( 2 ) Nitrate ore :
KNO
3
? Indian Salt peter
NaNO
3
? Chile Salt peter
JEEMAIN.GURU
M E T A L L U R G Y
1 . INTRODUCTION
Metallurgy
The branch of chemistry which deals with the method of extraction of metals from their ores.
Me tal
The element which tends to form positive ion is called a metal.
Mine rals
The various compounds of metals which occur in the earth's crust and are obtained by mining are called minerals.
In earth crust order of abundance of elements is.  O > Si > Al > Fe
A mineral may be single compound or a mixture of compounds having fixed chemical composition.
O r e
The mineral from which a metal can be profitably and easily extracted is called an ore.
Gangue or matrix
The undesirable impurities present in an ore are called gangue.
Mining process
Process of taking out ore from earth crust is called mining.
2 . TYPES OF METALLURGY
(a) Pyro metallurgy : Extraction of metal from ore by using heat energy.
Steps involved are : Calcination, roasting, reduction etc.
Ex. Less reactive metals : Cu, Fe, CO, Ni, Zn, Sn, Pb etc.
(b) Hydro metallurgy : (Ag, Au, Cu) –  This is wet metallurgy process.
Cu ? ?? Pyro + Hydro
Ag and Au ? ? ? ? By cynide process.
Steps are : (i) Complex formation (ii) Metal displacement
(i) AgCl or AuCl 
NaCN
?? ? ?
 Na[Ag(CN)
2
]
                   (Sodium argento cynide)
(ii) 2Na [Ag(CN)
2
] 
Zn
? ? ? ?
 Ag ? + Na
2
 [Zn(CN)
4
]
      (Impure)
(c) Electrical metallurgy : This process used for highly electro positive metal (s-block and A ?) metal obtained
by electrolysis of fused salt/anhydrous medium.
(d) Ion exchange metallurgy : Trans-Uranic (elements after Uranium in periodic table) elements are obtained
by this method.
3 . STEPS INVOLVED IN THE EXTRACTION OF METALS
The extraction of a metal from its ore is completed in the following four steps.
(a) Crushing and grinding (b) Pulverisation (c) Concentration of the ore
(d) Reduction to the metal (e) Refining of the metal.
JEEMAIN.GURU
Page 4


LIST OF ORES AND THEIR NAMES
SULPHIDE ORE
PbS ? Galena
HgS ? Cinnabar
ZnS ? Zinc blende
Cu
2
S ? Copper glance
CuFeS
2
? Copper Pyrites (Chalcopyrite)
FeS
2
? Iron pyrites or Fool's gold
Ag
2
S ? Silver glance or Argentite
Cu
2
S.Ag
2
S ? Copper silver glance
Ag
2
S.Sb
2
S
3
? Pyrargirite or Rubisilver
HALIDE ORE
NaCl ? Rock Salt
KCl ? Sylvine
CaF
2
? Fluorspar
Na
3
AlF
6
? Cryolite
AgCl ? Horn Silver
KCl.MgCl
2
.6H
2
O ? Carnalite
OXIDE ORE
Fe
2
O
3
? Haematite
Fe
3
O
4
? Magnetite
Al
2
O
3
.2H
2
O ? Bauxite
Fe
2
O
3
.3H
2
O ? Limonite
Cu
2
O ? Cuprite or Ruby copper
MnO
2
? Pyrolusite
SnO
2
? Tinstone or Casseterite
TiO
2
? Rutile
Fe.Cr
2
O
4
? (FeO + Cr
2
O
3
) Chromite ore
Na
2
B
4
O
7
.10H
2
O ? Borax or Tincal
Ca
2
B
6
O
11
.5H
2
O ? Colemanite
U
3
O
8
? Pitch Blende
JEEMAIN.GURU
FeO.TiO
2
? Ilmenite
ZnO(Philosophers wool) ? Zincite
3BeO. Al
2
O
3
. 6SiO
2
 ? Beryl
OXY SALT ORE
( 1 ) Carbonate Ore :
CaCO
3
? Lime stone
MgCO
3
? Magnesite
CaCO
3
.MgCO
3
? Dolomite
FeCO
3
? Siderite
ZnCO
3
? Calamine
Cu(OH)
2
.CuCO
3
? Malachite or Basic Copper Carbonate
Cu(OH)
2
.2CuCO
3
? Azurite
PbCO
3
? Cerrusite
SrCO
3
? Strontianite
( 2 ) Sulphate ore :
CaSO
4
.2H
2
O ? Gypsum
MgSO
4
.7H
2
O ? Epsom Salt
PbSO
4
? Anglesite
BaSO
4
? Baryte
Na
2
SO
4
.10H
2
O ? Glauber Salt
SrSO
4
? Celestine
K
2
SO
4
.Al
2
(SO
4
)
3
.24H
2
O ? Potash Alum
( 2 ) Nitrate ore :
KNO
3
? Indian Salt peter
NaNO
3
? Chile Salt peter
JEEMAIN.GURU
M E T A L L U R G Y
1 . INTRODUCTION
Metallurgy
The branch of chemistry which deals with the method of extraction of metals from their ores.
Me tal
The element which tends to form positive ion is called a metal.
Mine rals
The various compounds of metals which occur in the earth's crust and are obtained by mining are called minerals.
In earth crust order of abundance of elements is.  O > Si > Al > Fe
A mineral may be single compound or a mixture of compounds having fixed chemical composition.
O r e
The mineral from which a metal can be profitably and easily extracted is called an ore.
Gangue or matrix
The undesirable impurities present in an ore are called gangue.
Mining process
Process of taking out ore from earth crust is called mining.
2 . TYPES OF METALLURGY
(a) Pyro metallurgy : Extraction of metal from ore by using heat energy.
Steps involved are : Calcination, roasting, reduction etc.
Ex. Less reactive metals : Cu, Fe, CO, Ni, Zn, Sn, Pb etc.
(b) Hydro metallurgy : (Ag, Au, Cu) –  This is wet metallurgy process.
Cu ? ?? Pyro + Hydro
Ag and Au ? ? ? ? By cynide process.
Steps are : (i) Complex formation (ii) Metal displacement
(i) AgCl or AuCl 
NaCN
?? ? ?
 Na[Ag(CN)
2
]
                   (Sodium argento cynide)
(ii) 2Na [Ag(CN)
2
] 
Zn
? ? ? ?
 Ag ? + Na
2
 [Zn(CN)
4
]
      (Impure)
(c) Electrical metallurgy : This process used for highly electro positive metal (s-block and A ?) metal obtained
by electrolysis of fused salt/anhydrous medium.
(d) Ion exchange metallurgy : Trans-Uranic (elements after Uranium in periodic table) elements are obtained
by this method.
3 . STEPS INVOLVED IN THE EXTRACTION OF METALS
The extraction of a metal from its ore is completed in the following four steps.
(a) Crushing and grinding (b) Pulverisation (c) Concentration of the ore
(d) Reduction to the metal (e) Refining of the metal.
JEEMAIN.GURU
4 . CONCENTRATION OF THE ORE
The removal of impurities from the ore is called its concentration. It is  carried out in one or more of the
following steps. These undesired impurity are gangue or matrix.
By physicals separation
(a) Gravity separation (Lavigation)
This method of concentration of the ore is based on the difference in the specific lavigation gravities of the
ore and the gangue particles.
Powdered ore is agitated with a running stream of water. The lighter gangue particles are taken away by
water while heavier ore particles settle down. Ex. Oxygenated Ores.
(b) Froth Floatation method
This method is mainly employed for the concentration of sulphide ores.
The method is based on the different wetting characteristics of the gangue and the sulphide ore with
water and oil. The gangue preferrentially wetted by water and the ore by oil.
The crushed ore along with water is taken in a floatation cell. Various substances are added depending on
the nature of the ore and a current of air is blown in. The substances added are usually of three types.
(i) Frothers
They generate a stable froth which rises to the top of the tank. Example of frother is pine oil, Eucalyptus
oil, etc.
(ii) Collectors or floating agents
These attach themselves by polar group to the grains of the ores which then become water repellant and
pass on into the froth. Example: sodiumethyl /ethyly xanthate.
(iii) Activators or Depressants
These reagents activate or depress the flotation properly and help in the separation of different sulphide
ores present in a mixture.
An example of depressant is NaCN. An activator is CuSO
4
.
(c) Magnetic separation
If the ore and not the gangue or the gangue and not the ore is attracted by a magnet, the two can be
separated by this method.
Magnetite (Fe
3
O
4
) is concentrated by this method,(FeWO
4
) wolframite removed from SnO
2
, FeO removed
from chromite (FeCr
2
O
4 
?
 
Cr
2
O
3
?FeO).
By Chemical separation
Some of the ores are concentrated by means of chemical treatment.
Leaching : It involues the treatment of the ore with a suitable reagent. as to make it soluble while impurity
remain insoluble. The ore is recoverd from the solution by suitable chemical method.
(i) Bayer's process
Ex. Bauxite ore contain impurity Fe
2
O
3
, TiO
2
, SiO
2
 when it dissolve in aq. NaOH/pressure + 150°C T
bauxite is dissolve but other are not dissolve.
Al
2
O
3
 + 2NaOH ? ? ? ? 2NaAlO
2
 + H
2
O
NaAlO
2
 + 2H
2
O ? ? ? ? Al(OH)
3
 + NaOH
   
Al
2
O
3
 + 3H
2
O
(ii) Cyanide process : Their process used for Au, Ag by (Mac-Arthur forrest cyanide process).
JEEMAIN.GURU
Page 5


LIST OF ORES AND THEIR NAMES
SULPHIDE ORE
PbS ? Galena
HgS ? Cinnabar
ZnS ? Zinc blende
Cu
2
S ? Copper glance
CuFeS
2
? Copper Pyrites (Chalcopyrite)
FeS
2
? Iron pyrites or Fool's gold
Ag
2
S ? Silver glance or Argentite
Cu
2
S.Ag
2
S ? Copper silver glance
Ag
2
S.Sb
2
S
3
? Pyrargirite or Rubisilver
HALIDE ORE
NaCl ? Rock Salt
KCl ? Sylvine
CaF
2
? Fluorspar
Na
3
AlF
6
? Cryolite
AgCl ? Horn Silver
KCl.MgCl
2
.6H
2
O ? Carnalite
OXIDE ORE
Fe
2
O
3
? Haematite
Fe
3
O
4
? Magnetite
Al
2
O
3
.2H
2
O ? Bauxite
Fe
2
O
3
.3H
2
O ? Limonite
Cu
2
O ? Cuprite or Ruby copper
MnO
2
? Pyrolusite
SnO
2
? Tinstone or Casseterite
TiO
2
? Rutile
Fe.Cr
2
O
4
? (FeO + Cr
2
O
3
) Chromite ore
Na
2
B
4
O
7
.10H
2
O ? Borax or Tincal
Ca
2
B
6
O
11
.5H
2
O ? Colemanite
U
3
O
8
? Pitch Blende
JEEMAIN.GURU
FeO.TiO
2
? Ilmenite
ZnO(Philosophers wool) ? Zincite
3BeO. Al
2
O
3
. 6SiO
2
 ? Beryl
OXY SALT ORE
( 1 ) Carbonate Ore :
CaCO
3
? Lime stone
MgCO
3
? Magnesite
CaCO
3
.MgCO
3
? Dolomite
FeCO
3
? Siderite
ZnCO
3
? Calamine
Cu(OH)
2
.CuCO
3
? Malachite or Basic Copper Carbonate
Cu(OH)
2
.2CuCO
3
? Azurite
PbCO
3
? Cerrusite
SrCO
3
? Strontianite
( 2 ) Sulphate ore :
CaSO
4
.2H
2
O ? Gypsum
MgSO
4
.7H
2
O ? Epsom Salt
PbSO
4
? Anglesite
BaSO
4
? Baryte
Na
2
SO
4
.10H
2
O ? Glauber Salt
SrSO
4
? Celestine
K
2
SO
4
.Al
2
(SO
4
)
3
.24H
2
O ? Potash Alum
( 2 ) Nitrate ore :
KNO
3
? Indian Salt peter
NaNO
3
? Chile Salt peter
JEEMAIN.GURU
M E T A L L U R G Y
1 . INTRODUCTION
Metallurgy
The branch of chemistry which deals with the method of extraction of metals from their ores.
Me tal
The element which tends to form positive ion is called a metal.
Mine rals
The various compounds of metals which occur in the earth's crust and are obtained by mining are called minerals.
In earth crust order of abundance of elements is.  O > Si > Al > Fe
A mineral may be single compound or a mixture of compounds having fixed chemical composition.
O r e
The mineral from which a metal can be profitably and easily extracted is called an ore.
Gangue or matrix
The undesirable impurities present in an ore are called gangue.
Mining process
Process of taking out ore from earth crust is called mining.
2 . TYPES OF METALLURGY
(a) Pyro metallurgy : Extraction of metal from ore by using heat energy.
Steps involved are : Calcination, roasting, reduction etc.
Ex. Less reactive metals : Cu, Fe, CO, Ni, Zn, Sn, Pb etc.
(b) Hydro metallurgy : (Ag, Au, Cu) –  This is wet metallurgy process.
Cu ? ?? Pyro + Hydro
Ag and Au ? ? ? ? By cynide process.
Steps are : (i) Complex formation (ii) Metal displacement
(i) AgCl or AuCl 
NaCN
?? ? ?
 Na[Ag(CN)
2
]
                   (Sodium argento cynide)
(ii) 2Na [Ag(CN)
2
] 
Zn
? ? ? ?
 Ag ? + Na
2
 [Zn(CN)
4
]
      (Impure)
(c) Electrical metallurgy : This process used for highly electro positive metal (s-block and A ?) metal obtained
by electrolysis of fused salt/anhydrous medium.
(d) Ion exchange metallurgy : Trans-Uranic (elements after Uranium in periodic table) elements are obtained
by this method.
3 . STEPS INVOLVED IN THE EXTRACTION OF METALS
The extraction of a metal from its ore is completed in the following four steps.
(a) Crushing and grinding (b) Pulverisation (c) Concentration of the ore
(d) Reduction to the metal (e) Refining of the metal.
JEEMAIN.GURU
4 . CONCENTRATION OF THE ORE
The removal of impurities from the ore is called its concentration. It is  carried out in one or more of the
following steps. These undesired impurity are gangue or matrix.
By physicals separation
(a) Gravity separation (Lavigation)
This method of concentration of the ore is based on the difference in the specific lavigation gravities of the
ore and the gangue particles.
Powdered ore is agitated with a running stream of water. The lighter gangue particles are taken away by
water while heavier ore particles settle down. Ex. Oxygenated Ores.
(b) Froth Floatation method
This method is mainly employed for the concentration of sulphide ores.
The method is based on the different wetting characteristics of the gangue and the sulphide ore with
water and oil. The gangue preferrentially wetted by water and the ore by oil.
The crushed ore along with water is taken in a floatation cell. Various substances are added depending on
the nature of the ore and a current of air is blown in. The substances added are usually of three types.
(i) Frothers
They generate a stable froth which rises to the top of the tank. Example of frother is pine oil, Eucalyptus
oil, etc.
(ii) Collectors or floating agents
These attach themselves by polar group to the grains of the ores which then become water repellant and
pass on into the froth. Example: sodiumethyl /ethyly xanthate.
(iii) Activators or Depressants
These reagents activate or depress the flotation properly and help in the separation of different sulphide
ores present in a mixture.
An example of depressant is NaCN. An activator is CuSO
4
.
(c) Magnetic separation
If the ore and not the gangue or the gangue and not the ore is attracted by a magnet, the two can be
separated by this method.
Magnetite (Fe
3
O
4
) is concentrated by this method,(FeWO
4
) wolframite removed from SnO
2
, FeO removed
from chromite (FeCr
2
O
4 
?
 
Cr
2
O
3
?FeO).
By Chemical separation
Some of the ores are concentrated by means of chemical treatment.
Leaching : It involues the treatment of the ore with a suitable reagent. as to make it soluble while impurity
remain insoluble. The ore is recoverd from the solution by suitable chemical method.
(i) Bayer's process
Ex. Bauxite ore contain impurity Fe
2
O
3
, TiO
2
, SiO
2
 when it dissolve in aq. NaOH/pressure + 150°C T
bauxite is dissolve but other are not dissolve.
Al
2
O
3
 + 2NaOH ? ? ? ? 2NaAlO
2
 + H
2
O
NaAlO
2
 + 2H
2
O ? ? ? ? Al(OH)
3
 + NaOH
   
Al
2
O
3
 + 3H
2
O
(ii) Cyanide process : Their process used for Au, Ag by (Mac-Arthur forrest cyanide process).
JEEMAIN.GURU
5 . CALCINATION
Calcination is a process in which ore is heated, generally in the absence of air, to expel water from a hydrated
oxide or carbon dioxide from a carbonate at temperature below their melting points.
For Example
(i) Al
2
O
3
. 2H
2
O ? ? ? Al
2
O
3
 + 2H
2
O, 2Al(OH)
3
 ? ? Al
2
O
3
 + 3H
2
O
(ii) 2Fe
2
O
3
. 3H
2
O ? ? ? 2Fe
2
O
3
 + 3H
2
O
(iii) CaCO
3
 ? ? ? CaO + CO
2
(iv) CaCO
3
. MgCO
3
 ? ? ? CaO + MgO + 2CO
2 ?
(v) MgCO
3
 ? ? MgO + CO
2 ?
(vi) ZnCO
3
 ? ? ? ZnO + CO
2 ?
(vii) FeCO
3
 ? ? FeO + CO
2 ?
Advantages of Calcination
(i) Moisture is removed.
(ii) Organic matter is destroyed
(iii) The hydroxide and carbonates ores are converted into their oxides.
(iv) The metal become porous and easily workable
6 . ROASTING
(Metal sulphides ? ? Metal oxide + SO
2
)
The removal of the excess sulphur contained in sulphide ores by heating in an excess of air is called roasting.
The concentrated sulphide ore is heated in reverberatory furnace, below its melting point or fusion temperature
in the presence of an excess of air with or without the addition of an external substance.
In roasting definite chemical like oxidation, chlorination etc. take place but in calcination does not occur any
major chemical changes.
(i) 2ZnS + 3O
2
 ? ? ? 2ZnO + 2SO
2
(ii) ZnS + 2O
2
 ? ? ? ZnSO
4
(iii) 2Cu
2
S + 3O
2
 ? ? ? 2Cu
2
O + SO
2
?
(iv) 4FeS
2
 + 11O
2
 ? ? ? 2Fe
2
O
3
 + 8SO
2
(v) HgS + O
2
 ?? ? HgO + SO
2
(vi) 2As
2
S
3
 + 9O
2
 ? ? ? 2As
2
O
3
 + 6SO
2
Advantages of Roasting
(i) Excess of sulphur is removed as volatile oxide.
S + O
2
 ?? SO
2
 
?
             
(air)
(ii) The metal sulphide is converted into metal oxide.
(iii) Impurities of arsenic and antimony are removed as their volatile oxides.
Sb
4
 + 3O
2
 ? ? 2Sb
2
O
3
As
4
 + 3O
2
 ? ? 2As
2
O
3
JEEMAIN.GURU
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