Malwa, Jaunpur and Gujarat - Provincial Dynasties of North India & Decean, History, UPSC UPSC Notes | EduRev

History for UPSC (Civil Services) Prelims

UPSC : Malwa, Jaunpur and Gujarat - Provincial Dynasties of North India & Decean, History, UPSC UPSC Notes | EduRev

The document Malwa, Jaunpur and Gujarat - Provincial Dynasties of North India & Decean, History, UPSC UPSC Notes | EduRev is a part of the UPSC Course History for UPSC (Civil Services) Prelims.
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Malwa, Jaunpur and Gujarat

 Malwa

  •  Malwa was successively ruled by two Muslim dynasties: the Ghuri since 1401 A.D., and the Khalji from 1436 A.D. 
  • Its capital was the ancient Hindu city of Dhar until Hoshang shifted it to Mandu where he erected several mangificent edifices. 
  • The fortified city is still noted for its splendid Jami Masjid, the Hindola Mahal, the Jahaz Mahal and the palace of the romantic Baz Bahadur and Rupmati.
  • Iltutmish had attacked Bhilsa and Ujjain, but the kingdom had continued to be under the Paramara rulers and their feudatories. 
  • Ala-ud-din Khalji assigned its conquest to his general Ain-ul-Mulk who defeated its Rajput ruler, Mahlak Deva. 
  • In 1390 A.D. Dilawar Khan Ghuri was made governor of Malwa. In 1406 A.D. Dilawar Khan died and Alp Khan ascended the throne with the title, Hoshang Shah. 
  • A war broke out between Malwa and the Bahmani kingdom and Hoshang Shah suffered a disastrous defeat (1429 A.D.). He died in 1435 A.D. 
  • The next ruler Muhammad Shah Ghuri proved a debauchee and a tyrant. His cousin, Mahmud Khalji, murdered him and seized the throne (1436 A.D.). Thus the royal line of Ghuris was replaced by that of the Khaljis.
  • In 1445 A.D. he recovered Ajmer from the Rana, captured Bundi. To commemorate his successes he erected a great Tower of victory at Mandu such as Rana Kumbha had already raised at Chittor. The ‘Abbasid Caliph’ of Egypt recognized his position and he received a mission from sultan Abu-Said of Khusrasan.
  • The next ruler, Mahmud’s ease-loving son Ghiyas-ud-din, was content to toll in his harem with 15,000 women, until he was poisoned by one of his sons, who ascended the throne as sultan Nasir-ud-din (1500 A.D.). 
  • After Nasir’s death in 1510 A.D. his third son, ascended the throne with the title Mahmud Khalji II. Under him, Malwa rapidly declined. Rebellions broke out everywhere, and soon Malwa had three sultans challenging each other’s claim.  
  • Ultimately, Mahmud II succeeded in ousting the other two, though at the cost of having to submit to the dictatorship of his Rajput supporters under the leadership of Medini Rai of Chanderi. 
  • Mahmud fell before Bahadur Shah of Gujarat of 1531 A.D. He was taken prisoner and on his way of Gujarat he was murdered at Dohad.
  • In the year 1555 A.D. Shujaat Khan tried to assert his independance but he died in the same year. 
  • His son Miyan Bayazid, better known as Baz Bahadur, proclaimed his independence. He fell in love with Rupamati who was noted for her gifts of music and poetry. 
  • Their love became famous and finally united 

Points To Be Remembered

  • Bengal was known in Delhi as ‘hell crammed with good things’. Though conquered, the province had never been assimilated to the Delhi empire.
  • Azam Shah of Bengal had close relations with the famous learned men of his times, including the famous Persian poet, Hafiz of Sheraz.
  • Ghiyasuddin Azam Shah of Bengal re-established friendly relations with the Chinese. The Chinese emperor received his envoy cordially and, in 1409, sent his own envoy with present to the sultan and his wife, and a request to send Buddhist monks to China.
  • During his period Chittagong port became a flourishing port for trade with China.
  • Azam Shah patronised the Bengali language. The celebrated poet Maladhar Basu, compiler of Sri-Krishna-Vijaya, was patronised by the sultan and was granted the title of Gunaraja.
  • Ala-ud-din Hussain is said to have shown great respect to the famous Vaishnavite saint, Chaitanya.
  • Since the time of Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji, the Muslim rulers of Bengal has tried to bring the Brahmaputra valley in modern Assam under their control.
  • Hem in marriage. Baz Bahadur was the last independent ruler of Malwa. Akbar annexed Malwa in 1562 A.D.
  • Jaunpur
  • The city of Jaunpur was founded by Firuz Tughladuring his second Bengal campaign in 1359 A.D. 
  • Malik Sarwar, who is said to have been a slave of sultan Muhammad, rose steadily till he became Wazir in 1389 A.D. He gained from Mahmud Tughlathe title of Lord of the East (Malik-us-Sharq). 
  • He was appointed the governor of the east provinces of the empire with the object of suppressing the rebellions in the Ganga doab. 
  • During the period of confusion following the invasion of Timur, he threw off his allegiance to the Delhi Sultanate and founded a line of independent rulers known as the Sharqi dynasty of Jaunpur. He died in 1399 A.D. 
  • Khwaja Jahan’s adopted son, a descendant of a slave of Firuz Tughlaq, assumed the title of Mubarak Shah Sharqi 1399 A.D. 
  • His successor, Ibrahim, was the greatest king of the Sharqi dynasty and ruled for thirty-five years. (1402-1436 A.D.). 
  • During the reign Delhi was all but completely eclipsed by Jaunpur which earned for itself the title of Shiraz-i-Hind. 
  • After him three inconsequential successors followed, Mahmud, Muhammad and Husain, under the last of whom the struggle with Delhi ended with annexation of Jaunpur in 1476 A.D. by Bahlol Lodi. 
  • Gujarat
  • Zafar Khan, who was governor of Gujarat since 1391 A.D., shook off his allegiance to the sultan of Delhi in 1401 A.D. and created his son Tatar Khan sultan of Gujarat under the title of Nasirud-din-Muhammad Shah. 
  • Nasir-ud-din imprisoned his father but the latter got his son poisoned and ascended the throne as Sultan Muzaffar Shah and founded the Muzaffari dynasty. 
  • Of the fourteen kings of this dynasty, the most important are three; Ahmad Shah I, Mahmud Begarha also known as Mahmud I, and Bahadur Shah. Ahmad Shah I (1411-1442 A.D.) was a grand son of Muzzaffarshah and is remembered for founding the city of Ahmedabad on the Sabarmati. 
  • Sultan Muhmud Begarha who came to the throne at the age of thirteen and ruled for fifty two years (1459-1511 A.D.) was the most eminent ruler of this dynasty. 
  • Remarkable tales about his personal pecularities, such as consuming a maund of food daily, and his body being so saturated with poison that flies settling on it would drop down dead etc. 
  • He was a brave warrior and gained success in all his campaigns. He saved Nizam Shah Bahmani from aggression on the part of the sultan of Malwa, defeated the Surmas, Sodhas and Kalhoras in Kutch, and suppressed the pirates of Dwarka. 
  • His reign was also memorable for the first conflicts between the cross and the crescent in  India. 
  • He joined the Ottoman Sultan of Turkey in trying to expel the Portuguese from the Indian waters. The Christians were defeated for the first time in Indian history.
  • During the reign of Muzaffar III, Akbar annexed Gujarat to his empire.

Points To Be Remembered

  • There were two warring kingdoms in north Bengal and Assam at that time. Kamata was in the west, and the Ahom kingdom was in the east. The Ahoms, a Mongoloid tribe from north Burma, had succeeded in establishing a powerful kingdom in the thirteenth century, and had become Hinduised in course of time.
  • Iliyas Shah invaded Kamta and, it seems, penetrated upto Gauhati. However, he could not hold the area, and the river Karatoya was accepted as the north-east boundary of Bengal.
  • An attack by Ala-ud-din Hussain Shah which was supported by the Ahoms led to the destruction of the city of Kamatpur and the annexation of the kingdom to Bengal.
  • The Vaishnavite reformer, Shankaradeva, belonged to the time of Svarga Narayana and played an important role in the spread of Vaishnavism in the area.
  • In 1360, while returning from his Bengal campaign, Firuz Tughladesecrated the famous Jagannatha  temple.
  • The Jama Masjid in Ahmadabad and the Tin Darwaza are fine examples of the style of architecture during the period of Ahmad Shah of Gujarat.
  • Ahmad Shah imposed Jizaya on the Hindus in Gujarat which had never been imposed on them earlier.
  • According to Barbosa, a traveller, Mahmud Begarha, from his childhood, had been nourished on some poison so that if a fly settled on his hand, it swelled and immediately lay dead.
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