Manufacturing Industries Mechanical Engineering Notes | EduRev

Created by: Yatin Trivedi

Mechanical Engineering : Manufacturing Industries Mechanical Engineering Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


CHAPTER 6: MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 
Important Terms 
 
? Manufacturing: Processing of raw material to make another 
valuable product in large quantity is called as manufacturing. 
? Light Industries: Industries which uses light raw material 
and produces light goods are called as light industries e.g. 
electric fans, bulb, button, toys etc. 
? Integrated Steel Plants: It is a large steel plant which handle 
everything under one complex – from smelting, rolling and 
shaping of steel. Ex – Durgapur, Bokaro, Jamshedpur etc. 
 
Remember These Facts 
 
? First cement plant was set in the year 1904 in Chennai. 
? Chemical industry produces fertilizers, synthetic fibers, 
plastic, adhesive, paints, dye, glass, soap, acids, detergents 
etc. 
? Smelting of bauxite to produce aluminium needs very high 
electricity [18,600 Kwh for one ton of ore]. Therefore, 
aluminium smelting plants are located near the source of 
hydroelectricity. 
? IT Industry and Electronic Industry includes manufacturing 
of television, telephone, mobiles, computers, IC, radars etc. 
Bangalore is called Electronic Capital of India. It is also 
called as Silicon Valley of India. 
? Sugar industry is located in the sugarcane producing area 
because sugarcane is a perishable item. It cannot be 
transport for longer distance and time. 
? First Cotton Mill was started in 1854 in Mumbai. 
? Four famous variety of Indian silk are: a) mulberry, b) tasar, 
c) eri and d) muga. 
Page 2


CHAPTER 6: MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 
Important Terms 
 
? Manufacturing: Processing of raw material to make another 
valuable product in large quantity is called as manufacturing. 
? Light Industries: Industries which uses light raw material 
and produces light goods are called as light industries e.g. 
electric fans, bulb, button, toys etc. 
? Integrated Steel Plants: It is a large steel plant which handle 
everything under one complex – from smelting, rolling and 
shaping of steel. Ex – Durgapur, Bokaro, Jamshedpur etc. 
 
Remember These Facts 
 
? First cement plant was set in the year 1904 in Chennai. 
? Chemical industry produces fertilizers, synthetic fibers, 
plastic, adhesive, paints, dye, glass, soap, acids, detergents 
etc. 
? Smelting of bauxite to produce aluminium needs very high 
electricity [18,600 Kwh for one ton of ore]. Therefore, 
aluminium smelting plants are located near the source of 
hydroelectricity. 
? IT Industry and Electronic Industry includes manufacturing 
of television, telephone, mobiles, computers, IC, radars etc. 
Bangalore is called Electronic Capital of India. It is also 
called as Silicon Valley of India. 
? Sugar industry is located in the sugarcane producing area 
because sugarcane is a perishable item. It cannot be 
transport for longer distance and time. 
? First Cotton Mill was started in 1854 in Mumbai. 
? Four famous variety of Indian silk are: a) mulberry, b) tasar, 
c) eri and d) muga. 
? Four well known synthetic fibers are: a) rayon, b) nylon, c) 
terelene and d) decron. 
? Three types of fertilizers manufactured in India are: a) Urea, 
b) Phosphatic Fertilisers, c) Ammonium Phosphate [DAP]. 
 
Importance of Manufacturing Industries 
 
a) Manufacturing industries are the backbone of our economy. 
Economic strength of any country depends on manufacturing 
industries. 
b) Manufacturing industries help in modernization of 
agriculture. Tractor, harvester, thresher, irrigation pipes, 
sprinklers, fertilizers etc are made in these industries. 
c) It is a great source of employment. Millions of people are 
directly engaged in manufacturing. These industries also 
help in eradicating unemployment and poverty.  
d) Export of manufactured items help trade and commerce and 
our country earn foreign exchange. 
e) Manufacturing meet the basic need of the people i.e. food, 
cloth and shelter. 
f) Highest contribution to our national economy comes from 
manufacturing industries. It brings prosperity, social and 
economic development. 
 
Types or Classification of Manufacturing Industries 
 
A] On the basis of Raw Materials [Input] 
 1. Agro Based: Those industries where raw materials 
come from agriculture, e.g. Cotton, 
Wollen, Jute, Silk Textiles, Sugar, Tea, 
Edible Oil 
 2. Mineral Based: Those industries where minerals are 
used as raw materials, e.g. Iron & 
Page 3


CHAPTER 6: MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 
Important Terms 
 
? Manufacturing: Processing of raw material to make another 
valuable product in large quantity is called as manufacturing. 
? Light Industries: Industries which uses light raw material 
and produces light goods are called as light industries e.g. 
electric fans, bulb, button, toys etc. 
? Integrated Steel Plants: It is a large steel plant which handle 
everything under one complex – from smelting, rolling and 
shaping of steel. Ex – Durgapur, Bokaro, Jamshedpur etc. 
 
Remember These Facts 
 
? First cement plant was set in the year 1904 in Chennai. 
? Chemical industry produces fertilizers, synthetic fibers, 
plastic, adhesive, paints, dye, glass, soap, acids, detergents 
etc. 
? Smelting of bauxite to produce aluminium needs very high 
electricity [18,600 Kwh for one ton of ore]. Therefore, 
aluminium smelting plants are located near the source of 
hydroelectricity. 
? IT Industry and Electronic Industry includes manufacturing 
of television, telephone, mobiles, computers, IC, radars etc. 
Bangalore is called Electronic Capital of India. It is also 
called as Silicon Valley of India. 
? Sugar industry is located in the sugarcane producing area 
because sugarcane is a perishable item. It cannot be 
transport for longer distance and time. 
? First Cotton Mill was started in 1854 in Mumbai. 
? Four famous variety of Indian silk are: a) mulberry, b) tasar, 
c) eri and d) muga. 
? Four well known synthetic fibers are: a) rayon, b) nylon, c) 
terelene and d) decron. 
? Three types of fertilizers manufactured in India are: a) Urea, 
b) Phosphatic Fertilisers, c) Ammonium Phosphate [DAP]. 
 
Importance of Manufacturing Industries 
 
a) Manufacturing industries are the backbone of our economy. 
Economic strength of any country depends on manufacturing 
industries. 
b) Manufacturing industries help in modernization of 
agriculture. Tractor, harvester, thresher, irrigation pipes, 
sprinklers, fertilizers etc are made in these industries. 
c) It is a great source of employment. Millions of people are 
directly engaged in manufacturing. These industries also 
help in eradicating unemployment and poverty.  
d) Export of manufactured items help trade and commerce and 
our country earn foreign exchange. 
e) Manufacturing meet the basic need of the people i.e. food, 
cloth and shelter. 
f) Highest contribution to our national economy comes from 
manufacturing industries. It brings prosperity, social and 
economic development. 
 
Types or Classification of Manufacturing Industries 
 
A] On the basis of Raw Materials [Input] 
 1. Agro Based: Those industries where raw materials 
come from agriculture, e.g. Cotton, 
Wollen, Jute, Silk Textiles, Sugar, Tea, 
Edible Oil 
 2. Mineral Based: Those industries where minerals are 
used as raw materials, e.g. Iron & 
Steel, Cement, Aluminum, Machine 
Tools etc. 
B] On the basis of their Main Role 
 1. Basic Industries: Those industries which provide raw 
material to other industries are called 
basic industries. These industries help 
the development of other industries, 
e.g. Iron and Steel, Copper and 
Aluminium Smelting 
 2. Consumer 
Industries: 
Those industries which produce goods 
for consumers are called consumer 
industries. Finished goods of these 
industries are directly sold in the 
market for consumers, e.g. Sugar, 
Toothpaste, Soap, Bread, Paper etc. 
C] On the basis of Capital Investment 
 1. Small Scale 
Industries:  
Those industries where investment of 
capital in less than rupees one crore is 
called as small scale industries, e.g. 
Mat, Furniture, Toys, Bread, Tools etc. 
 2. Large Scale 
Industries: 
Those industries where investment of 
capital is more than rupees one crore 
is called as large scale industries, e.g. 
Iron & Steel, Petrochemicals, Cotton 
Textiles etc. 
D] On the basis of Ownership 
 1. Public Sector: These industries are owned, operated 
and maintained by Govt. e.g. BHEL, 
SAIL, IISCO 
 2. Private Sector: These industries are owned, operated 
and maintained by individual or group 
of individuals, e.g. TISCO, Bajaj Auto 
Ltd. Dabar India. 
Page 4


CHAPTER 6: MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 
Important Terms 
 
? Manufacturing: Processing of raw material to make another 
valuable product in large quantity is called as manufacturing. 
? Light Industries: Industries which uses light raw material 
and produces light goods are called as light industries e.g. 
electric fans, bulb, button, toys etc. 
? Integrated Steel Plants: It is a large steel plant which handle 
everything under one complex – from smelting, rolling and 
shaping of steel. Ex – Durgapur, Bokaro, Jamshedpur etc. 
 
Remember These Facts 
 
? First cement plant was set in the year 1904 in Chennai. 
? Chemical industry produces fertilizers, synthetic fibers, 
plastic, adhesive, paints, dye, glass, soap, acids, detergents 
etc. 
? Smelting of bauxite to produce aluminium needs very high 
electricity [18,600 Kwh for one ton of ore]. Therefore, 
aluminium smelting plants are located near the source of 
hydroelectricity. 
? IT Industry and Electronic Industry includes manufacturing 
of television, telephone, mobiles, computers, IC, radars etc. 
Bangalore is called Electronic Capital of India. It is also 
called as Silicon Valley of India. 
? Sugar industry is located in the sugarcane producing area 
because sugarcane is a perishable item. It cannot be 
transport for longer distance and time. 
? First Cotton Mill was started in 1854 in Mumbai. 
? Four famous variety of Indian silk are: a) mulberry, b) tasar, 
c) eri and d) muga. 
? Four well known synthetic fibers are: a) rayon, b) nylon, c) 
terelene and d) decron. 
? Three types of fertilizers manufactured in India are: a) Urea, 
b) Phosphatic Fertilisers, c) Ammonium Phosphate [DAP]. 
 
Importance of Manufacturing Industries 
 
a) Manufacturing industries are the backbone of our economy. 
Economic strength of any country depends on manufacturing 
industries. 
b) Manufacturing industries help in modernization of 
agriculture. Tractor, harvester, thresher, irrigation pipes, 
sprinklers, fertilizers etc are made in these industries. 
c) It is a great source of employment. Millions of people are 
directly engaged in manufacturing. These industries also 
help in eradicating unemployment and poverty.  
d) Export of manufactured items help trade and commerce and 
our country earn foreign exchange. 
e) Manufacturing meet the basic need of the people i.e. food, 
cloth and shelter. 
f) Highest contribution to our national economy comes from 
manufacturing industries. It brings prosperity, social and 
economic development. 
 
Types or Classification of Manufacturing Industries 
 
A] On the basis of Raw Materials [Input] 
 1. Agro Based: Those industries where raw materials 
come from agriculture, e.g. Cotton, 
Wollen, Jute, Silk Textiles, Sugar, Tea, 
Edible Oil 
 2. Mineral Based: Those industries where minerals are 
used as raw materials, e.g. Iron & 
Steel, Cement, Aluminum, Machine 
Tools etc. 
B] On the basis of their Main Role 
 1. Basic Industries: Those industries which provide raw 
material to other industries are called 
basic industries. These industries help 
the development of other industries, 
e.g. Iron and Steel, Copper and 
Aluminium Smelting 
 2. Consumer 
Industries: 
Those industries which produce goods 
for consumers are called consumer 
industries. Finished goods of these 
industries are directly sold in the 
market for consumers, e.g. Sugar, 
Toothpaste, Soap, Bread, Paper etc. 
C] On the basis of Capital Investment 
 1. Small Scale 
Industries:  
Those industries where investment of 
capital in less than rupees one crore is 
called as small scale industries, e.g. 
Mat, Furniture, Toys, Bread, Tools etc. 
 2. Large Scale 
Industries: 
Those industries where investment of 
capital is more than rupees one crore 
is called as large scale industries, e.g. 
Iron & Steel, Petrochemicals, Cotton 
Textiles etc. 
D] On the basis of Ownership 
 1. Public Sector: These industries are owned, operated 
and maintained by Govt. e.g. BHEL, 
SAIL, IISCO 
 2. Private Sector: These industries are owned, operated 
and maintained by individual or group 
of individuals, e.g. TISCO, Bajaj Auto 
Ltd. Dabar India. 
 3. Joint Sector: These industries are jointly run by 
Govt. and group of individuals. It is 
mixture of public and private sector, 
e.g. Oil India Ltd. [OIL]. 
 4. Cooperative 
Sector: 
These industries are owned, operated 
and maintained by supplier of raw 
materials and workers of the 
industries, e.g. Sugar industries in 
Maharastra, Coir industries in Kerala. 
E] On the basis of Finished Goods [Output] 
 1. Heavy 
Industries: 
Those industries which use heavy and 
bulky raw materials and produced 
heavy goods in large quantity are 
called heavy industries, e.g. Iron and 
Steel, Copper Smelting. 
 2. Light Industries: Those industries which use light and 
small raw materials and produced light 
goods are called light industries, e.g. 
Electrical, Toys, Tools, Utensils etc. 
 
 
Which factors affect the location of an industry? 
  
Industries are not found everywhere. They are located at certain 
places only where they get favourable condition. Location of an 
industry is governed by mainly by the following two factors. 
 
1. Raw Materials 
2. Source of Energy 
3. Source of Water 
4. Availability of Capital 
and Finance 
5. Demand in Market 
6. Skilled Labourers and 
Workers 
7.Banking and Insurance 
8. Transport and 
Communication 
Page 5


CHAPTER 6: MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 
Important Terms 
 
? Manufacturing: Processing of raw material to make another 
valuable product in large quantity is called as manufacturing. 
? Light Industries: Industries which uses light raw material 
and produces light goods are called as light industries e.g. 
electric fans, bulb, button, toys etc. 
? Integrated Steel Plants: It is a large steel plant which handle 
everything under one complex – from smelting, rolling and 
shaping of steel. Ex – Durgapur, Bokaro, Jamshedpur etc. 
 
Remember These Facts 
 
? First cement plant was set in the year 1904 in Chennai. 
? Chemical industry produces fertilizers, synthetic fibers, 
plastic, adhesive, paints, dye, glass, soap, acids, detergents 
etc. 
? Smelting of bauxite to produce aluminium needs very high 
electricity [18,600 Kwh for one ton of ore]. Therefore, 
aluminium smelting plants are located near the source of 
hydroelectricity. 
? IT Industry and Electronic Industry includes manufacturing 
of television, telephone, mobiles, computers, IC, radars etc. 
Bangalore is called Electronic Capital of India. It is also 
called as Silicon Valley of India. 
? Sugar industry is located in the sugarcane producing area 
because sugarcane is a perishable item. It cannot be 
transport for longer distance and time. 
? First Cotton Mill was started in 1854 in Mumbai. 
? Four famous variety of Indian silk are: a) mulberry, b) tasar, 
c) eri and d) muga. 
? Four well known synthetic fibers are: a) rayon, b) nylon, c) 
terelene and d) decron. 
? Three types of fertilizers manufactured in India are: a) Urea, 
b) Phosphatic Fertilisers, c) Ammonium Phosphate [DAP]. 
 
Importance of Manufacturing Industries 
 
a) Manufacturing industries are the backbone of our economy. 
Economic strength of any country depends on manufacturing 
industries. 
b) Manufacturing industries help in modernization of 
agriculture. Tractor, harvester, thresher, irrigation pipes, 
sprinklers, fertilizers etc are made in these industries. 
c) It is a great source of employment. Millions of people are 
directly engaged in manufacturing. These industries also 
help in eradicating unemployment and poverty.  
d) Export of manufactured items help trade and commerce and 
our country earn foreign exchange. 
e) Manufacturing meet the basic need of the people i.e. food, 
cloth and shelter. 
f) Highest contribution to our national economy comes from 
manufacturing industries. It brings prosperity, social and 
economic development. 
 
Types or Classification of Manufacturing Industries 
 
A] On the basis of Raw Materials [Input] 
 1. Agro Based: Those industries where raw materials 
come from agriculture, e.g. Cotton, 
Wollen, Jute, Silk Textiles, Sugar, Tea, 
Edible Oil 
 2. Mineral Based: Those industries where minerals are 
used as raw materials, e.g. Iron & 
Steel, Cement, Aluminum, Machine 
Tools etc. 
B] On the basis of their Main Role 
 1. Basic Industries: Those industries which provide raw 
material to other industries are called 
basic industries. These industries help 
the development of other industries, 
e.g. Iron and Steel, Copper and 
Aluminium Smelting 
 2. Consumer 
Industries: 
Those industries which produce goods 
for consumers are called consumer 
industries. Finished goods of these 
industries are directly sold in the 
market for consumers, e.g. Sugar, 
Toothpaste, Soap, Bread, Paper etc. 
C] On the basis of Capital Investment 
 1. Small Scale 
Industries:  
Those industries where investment of 
capital in less than rupees one crore is 
called as small scale industries, e.g. 
Mat, Furniture, Toys, Bread, Tools etc. 
 2. Large Scale 
Industries: 
Those industries where investment of 
capital is more than rupees one crore 
is called as large scale industries, e.g. 
Iron & Steel, Petrochemicals, Cotton 
Textiles etc. 
D] On the basis of Ownership 
 1. Public Sector: These industries are owned, operated 
and maintained by Govt. e.g. BHEL, 
SAIL, IISCO 
 2. Private Sector: These industries are owned, operated 
and maintained by individual or group 
of individuals, e.g. TISCO, Bajaj Auto 
Ltd. Dabar India. 
 3. Joint Sector: These industries are jointly run by 
Govt. and group of individuals. It is 
mixture of public and private sector, 
e.g. Oil India Ltd. [OIL]. 
 4. Cooperative 
Sector: 
These industries are owned, operated 
and maintained by supplier of raw 
materials and workers of the 
industries, e.g. Sugar industries in 
Maharastra, Coir industries in Kerala. 
E] On the basis of Finished Goods [Output] 
 1. Heavy 
Industries: 
Those industries which use heavy and 
bulky raw materials and produced 
heavy goods in large quantity are 
called heavy industries, e.g. Iron and 
Steel, Copper Smelting. 
 2. Light Industries: Those industries which use light and 
small raw materials and produced light 
goods are called light industries, e.g. 
Electrical, Toys, Tools, Utensils etc. 
 
 
Which factors affect the location of an industry? 
  
Industries are not found everywhere. They are located at certain 
places only where they get favourable condition. Location of an 
industry is governed by mainly by the following two factors. 
 
1. Raw Materials 
2. Source of Energy 
3. Source of Water 
4. Availability of Capital 
and Finance 
5. Demand in Market 
6. Skilled Labourers and 
Workers 
7.Banking and Insurance 
8. Transport and 
Communication 
 
 
Cotton Textile Industry and Its Problems 
 
? It is an agro-based and the oldest industry in India. First 
cotton mill was established in 1854 in Mumbai. At present, it 
the largest industry in our country. There are about 1600 
cotton textile mills in our country. 
? Cotton textile mills are mainly concentrated in Maharastra 
and Gujarat due to favourable conditions. Important centres 
are Mumbai, Pune, Ahmedabad, Suar, Rajkot etc. Other 
centres are Agra, Kanpur, Hugli, Chennai, Madurai etc. 
? Cotton textile is produced by three methods in India: a) 
Handloom, b) Power-looms and c) Mills 
? Cotton textile industry involves ginning, spinning, weaving, 
dyeing, designing, tailoring and packaging to produce 
readymade garments. 
? India export yarn and readymade garments to USA, Japan, 
UK, France, Nepal, Sri Lanka etc. 
? Cotton textile industries are facing many problems such as: 
a) scarcity of good quality cotton, b) main cotton growing 
area went to Pakistan, c) old machinery, d) erratic power 
supply, e) low productivity of labour, f) tough competition 
from synthetic fibers. 
 
Iron & Steel Industry and Its Problems 
 
? This industry is called as basic industry because it provide 
raw material to many other industries such as machine an 
tools, transport equipment, construction material etc. It is 
also called as heavy industry because raw materials [iron 
ore, coal, limestone] are bulky in nature. 
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