UPSC  >  Mental Ability, Analytical & Logical Reasoning- Solved Questions(1995-2020)- 6

# Mental Ability, Analytical & Logical Reasoning- Solved Questions(1995-2020)- 6 - Notes | Study UPSC Topic Wise Previous Year Questions - UPSC

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Question 1: Consider the following statements:
1. All machines consume energy.
2. Electricity provides energy.
3. Electrically operated machines are cheap to maintain.
4. Electrically operated machines do not cause pollution.
Which one of the following inferences can be drawn from the above statements?    [2012 - II]
(a) All machines are run by electric energy.
(b) There is no form of energy other than electricity.
(c) Most machines are operated on electric energy.
(d) Electrically operated machines are preferable to use.

Question 2: DIRECTIONS: Examine the information given in the following paragraph and answer the items there follow:
Guest lectures on five subjects viz., Economics, History, Statistics, English and Mathematics have to be arranged in a week from Monday to Friday. Only one lecture can be arranged on each day.
Economics cannot be scheduled on Tuesday. Guest faculty for History is available only on Tuesday. Mathematics lecture has to be scheduled immediately after the day of Economics lecture.
English lecture has to be scheduled immediately before the day of Economics lecture.

Which lecture is scheduled on Monday?    [2012 - II]
(a) History
(b) Economics
(c) Mathematics
(d) Statistics

Question 3: DIRECTIONS: Examine the information given in the following paragraph and answer the items there follow:
Guest lectures on five subjects viz., Economics, History, Statistics, English and Mathematics have to be arranged in a week from Monday to Friday. Only one lecture can be arranged on each day.
Economics cannot be scheduled on Tuesday. Guest faculty for History is available only on Tuesday. Mathematics lecture has to be scheduled immediately after the day of Economics lecture.
English lecture has to be scheduled immediately before the day of Economics lecture.

Which lecture is scheduled between Statistics and English?    [2012 - II]
(a) Economics

(b) History
(c) Mathematics
(d) No lecture

Question 4: DIRECTIONS: Examine the information given in the following paragraph and answer the items there follow:
Guest lectures on five subjects viz., Economics, History, Statistics, English and Mathematics have to be arranged in a week from Monday to Friday. Only one lecture can be arranged on each day.
Economics cannot be scheduled on Tuesday. Guest faculty for History is available only on Tuesday. Mathematics lecture has to be scheduled immediately after the day of Economics lecture.
English lecture has to be scheduled immediately before the day of Economics lecture.

Which lecture is the last one in the week?    [2012 - II]
(a) History

(b) English
(c) Mathematics
(d) Economics

Question 4: DIRECTIONS: Examine the information given in the following paragraph and answer the items there follow:
Guest lectures on five subjects viz., Economics, History, Statistics, English and Mathematics have to be arranged in a week from Monday to Friday. Only one lecture can be arranged on each day.
Economics cannot be scheduled on Tuesday. Guest faculty for History is available only on Tuesday. Mathematics lecture has to be scheduled immediately after the day of Economics lecture.
English lecture has to be scheduled immediately before the day of Economics lecture.

Which lecture is the last one in the week?    [2012 - II]
(a) History

(b) English
(c) Mathematics
(d) Economics

Question 5: DIRECTIONS: Examine the information given in the following paragraph and answer the items there follow:
Guest lectures on five subjects viz., Economics, History, Statistics, English and Mathematics have to be arranged in a week from Monday to Friday. Only one lecture can be arranged on each day.
Economics cannot be scheduled on Tuesday. Guest faculty for History is available only on Tuesday. Mathematics lecture has to be scheduled immediately after the day of Economics lecture.
English lecture has to be scheduled immediately before the day of Economics lecture.

Which lecture is scheduled on Wednesday?    [2012 - II]
(a) Statistics

(b) Economics
(c) English
(d) History

Question 6: DIRECTIONS: Examine the information given in the following paragraph and answer the items there follow:
Guest lectures on five subjects viz., Economics, History, Statistics, English and Mathematics have to be arranged in a week from Monday to Friday. Only one lecture can be arranged on each day.
Economics cannot be scheduled on Tuesday. Guest faculty for History is available only on Tuesday. Mathematics lecture has to be scheduled immediately after the day of Economics lecture.
English lecture has to be scheduled immediately before the day of Economics lecture.

Which lecture is scheduled before the Mathematics lecture?    [2012 - II]
(a) Economics

(b) History
(c) Statistics
(d) English

Question 7: Which one of the figures shown below occupies the blank space (?) in the matrix given above?     [2012 - II]

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

In the first and 2nd row, the dark part of the circle rotates 180° clockwise at every new step.

Question 8: Three views of a cube following a particular motion are given below:

What is the letter opposite to A?    [2012 - II]
(a) H
(b) P
(c) B
(d) M

Question 9: In the above figure, circle P represents hardworking people, circle Q represents intelligent people, circle R represents truthful people, and circle S represents honest people. Which region represents the people who are intelligent, honest and truthful but not hardworking?    [2012 - II]

(a) 6
(b) 7
(c) 8
(d) 11

The region (6) represents, the people who are intelligent, honest, truthful but not hardworking.

Question 10: Six squares are coloured, front and back, red (R), blue (B), yellow (Y), green (G), white (W) and orange (O) and are hinged together as shown in the figure given below. If they are folded to form a cube, what would be the face opposite to the white face?    [2012 - II]

(a) R
(b) G
(c) B
(d) O

Case 1 : When G is arranged to the base, B is the back face and W is the front face. Thus, B is opposite to W.
Case 2 : Let Y be the top and fold G, O and W down. Then, B will fold to become the back face and be opposite W.

Question 11: The elements of the problem figures given below are changing with a certain rule as we observe them from left to right:

According to this rule, which of the following would be the next figure if the changes were continued with the same rule?    [2012 - II]
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Question 12: Consider the following statement:
The Third World War, if it ever starts, will end very quickly with the possible end of civilization. It is only the misuse of nuclear power which will trigger it.
Based on the above statement, which one of the following inferences is correct?    [2012 - II]
(a) Nuclear power will be used in the Third World War.
(b) There will be no civilization left after the Third World War.
(c) The growth of nuclear power will destroy civilization in the long run.
(d) The Third World War will not take place.

Question 13: Consider the following statements:
1. All X-brand cars parked here are white.
2. Some of them have radial tyres.
3. All X-brand cars manufactured after 1986 have radial tyres.
4. All cars are not X-brand.
Which one of the following conclusions can be drawn from the above statements?    [2012 - II]
(a) Only white cars are parked here.
(b) Some white X-brand cars with radial tyres are parked here.
(c) Cars other than X-brand cannot have radial tyres.
(d) Most of the X-brand cars are manufactured before 1986.

Question 14: Four political parties W, X, Y and Z decided to set up a joint candidate for the coming parliamentary elections. The formula agreed by them was the acceptance of a candidate by most of the parties. Four aspiring candidates, A, B, C and D approached the parties for their tickets.
A was acceptable to W but not to Z.
B was acceptable to Y but not to X.
C was acceptable to W and Y.
D was acceptable to W and X.
When candidate B was preferred by W and Z, candidate C was preferred by X and Z, and candidate A was acceptable to X but not to Y; who got the ticket?    [2012 - II]
(a) A
(b) B
(c) C
(d) D

Now  B was preferred by W & Z
C was preferred by X & Z
A was acceptable to X but not to Y.
Since C was acceptable Y & W and preferred by X & Z.
Thus C would got the ticket.

Question 15: Examine the following statements:
1. None but students are members of the club.
2. Some members of the club are married persons.
3. All married persons are invited for dance.
Which one of the following conclusions can be drawn from the above statements?
(a) All students are invited for dance.
(b) All married students of the club are invited for dance.
(c) All members of the club are married persons.
(d) None of the above conclusions can be drawn.

Question 16: Only six roads A, B, C, P, Q and R connect a military camp to the rest of the country. Only one out of A, P and R is open at any one time. If B is closed, so is Q. Only one of A and B is open during storms. P is closed during floods. In this context, which one of the following statements is correct?    [2012 - II]
(a) Under normal conditions only three roads are open.
(b) During storms at least one road is open.
(c) During floods only three roads are open.
(d) During calamities all roads are closed.

Question 17: Examine the following statements:

1. I watch TV only if I am bored.
2. I am never bored when I have my brother ’s company.
3. Whenever I go to the theatre I take my brother along.

Which one of the following conclusions is valid in the context of the above statements?    [2012 - II]
(a) If I am bored, I watch TV.
(b) If I am bored, I seek my brother ’s company.
(c) If I am not with my brother, then I watch TV.
(d) If I am not bored, I do not watch TV.

Question 18: Given that,

1. A is the brother of B.
2. C is the father of A.
3. D is the brother of E.
4. E is the daughter of B.

Then, the uncle of D is    [2012 - II]
(a) A
(b) B
(c) C
(d) E

Question 19: Gita is prettier than Sita but not as pretty as Rita. Then,    [2012 - II]
(a) Sita is not as pretty as Gita.
(b) Sita is prettier than Rita.
(c) Rita is not as pretty as Gita.
(d) Gita is prettier than Rita.

Rita > Gita > Sita

Question 20: Consider the following statement:
“Though quite expensive, television is not a luxury item, as one can learn many things through television.”
Which one of the following is a valid inference from the above statement?    [2012 - II]
(a) All expensive things are regarded as luxury.
(b) All essential things for learning are not luxury.
(c) Television is essential for learning.
(d) Television is not a luxury item.

Question 21: Read the passage given below and the two statements that follow (given on the basis of the passage):
Four men are waiting at Delhi airport for a Mumbai flight.
Two are doctors and the other two are businessmen. Two speak Gujarati and two speak Tamil. No two of the same profession speak the same language. Two are Muslims and two are Christians. No two of the same religion are of the same profession, nor do they speak the same language.
The Tamil-speaking doctor is a Christian.

2. The Gujarati-speaking doctor is a Muslim.

Which of the above statements is/are correct conclusion/ conclusions?    [2012 - II]
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Question 22: Ten new TV shows started in January — 5 sitcoms, 3 drama and 2 news magazines. By April, only seven of the new shows were still on, five of them being sitcoms. Based on the above information, four conclusions, as given below, have been made. Which one of these logically follows from the information given above?    [2012 - II]
(a) Only one news magazine show is still on.
(b) Only one of the drama shows is still on.
(c) At least one discontinued show was a drama.
(d) Viewers prefer sitcoms over drama.

Question 23: Three persons A, B and C wore shirts of black, blue and orange colours (not necessarily in that order) and pants of green, yellow and orange colours (not necessarily in that order). No person wore shirt and pants of the same colour. Further, it is given that

1. A did not wear shirt of black colour.
2. B did not wear shirt of blue colour.
3. C did not wear shirt of orange colour.
4. A did not wear pants of green colour.
5. B wore pants of orange colour.

What were the colours of the pants and shirt worn by C, respectively?    [2012 - II]
(a) Orange and black
(b) Green and blue
(c) Yellow and blue
(d) Yellow and black

Colour of C’s Pant-Green and Colour of C’s Shirt-Blue.

Question 24: During the last summer vacation. Ankit went to a summer camp where he took part in hiking, swimming and boating.
This summer, he is looking forward to a music camp where he hopes to sing, dance and learn to play the guitar.
Based on the above information, four conclusions, as given below, have been made. Which one of these logically follows from the information given above?    [2012 - II]
(a) Ankit's parents want him to play the guitar.
(b) Ankit prefers music to outdoor activities.
(c) Ankit goes to some type of camp every summer.
(d) Ankit likes to sing and dance.

No reason are specified in the question for going to different camps. Since, Ankit goes for different camps for different years. So, it can be said that be goes to some type of camp every year.

Question 25: Examine the following statements:

1. Only those who have a pair of binoculars can become the members of the birdwatcher’s club.
2. Some members of the birdwatcher ’s club have cameras.
3. Those members who have cameras can take part in photo-contests.

Which of the following conclusions can be drawn from the above statements?    [2012 - II]

(a) All those  who have a pair of binoculars are members of the birdwatcher’s club.
(b) All members of the birdwatcher ’s club have a pair of binoculars.
(c) All those who take part in photo-contests are members of the birdwatcher’s club.
(d) No conclusion can be drawn.

Having a pair of binoculars and be a member of the birdwatcher's club

Question 26: Examine the following statements:

1. Either A and B are of the same age or A is older than B.
2. Either C and D are of the same age or D is older than C.
3. B is older than C.

Which one of the following conclusions can be drawn from the above statements?    [2012 - II]
(a) A is older than B
(b) B and D are of the same age
(c) D is older than C
(d) A is older than C

(1) A ≥ B (2) D ≥ C (3) B > C
Then either B & D are of same age or B is older than D and Both D & B is older than C. Thus A will older than C.

Question 27: Consider the following statements:

1. All artists are whimsical.
2. Some artists are drug addicts.
3. Frustrated people are prone to become drug addicts.

From the above three statements it may be concluded that    [2012 - II]
(a) Artists are frustrated.
(b) Some drug addicts are whimsical.
(c) All frustrated people are drug addicts.
(d) Whimsical people are generally frustrated.

Thus some drug addicts are whimsical.

Question 28: A person stood alone in a desert on a dark night and wanted to reach his village which was situated 5 km east of the point where he was standing. He had no instruments to find the direction but he located the polestar. The most convenient way now to reach his village is to walk in the    [2012 - I]
(a) direction facing the polestar
(b) direction opposite to the polestar
(c) direction keeping the polestar to his left
(d) direction keeping the polestar to his right

Question 29: Consider the figure given below and answer the items that follows :

In the figure shown above, OP 1 and OP 2 are two plane mirrors kept perpendicular to each other. S is the direction of a beam of light falling on the mirror OP 1. The direction of the reflected beam of light from the mirror OP 2 will be    [2011 - II]
(a) Perpendicular to the direction S.
(b) At 45° to the direction S.
(c) Opposite and parallel to the direction S.
(d) At 60° to the direction S.

In the above figure, dotted line shows the reflected beam of light from mirror OP2.

Question 30: Consider the following figure and answer the item that follows :

What is the total number of triangles in the above grid?    [2011 - II]
(a) 27
(b) 26
(c) 23
(d) 22

Let the side of the smallest triangle be 1 unit, then:
number of the smallest triangle (with side 1 unit) = 12
number of triangles with side 2 units = 7
number of triangles with side 3 units = 3
number of triangles with side 4 units = 1
Total number of triangles in given grid = 12 + 7 + 3 + 1  = 23

Question 31: Study the following figure :

A person goes from A to B always moving to the right or downwards along the lines. How many different routes can he adopt?
Select the correct answer from the codes given below:    [2011 - II]
(a) 4
(b) 5
(c) 6
(d) 7

Different routes can be shown as follows:

These routes are:
A 1 2 B, A 1 4 5 B,
A 1 4 7 B, A 3 4 5 B
A 3 4 7 B, A 3 6 B

Question 32: Consider the following figures :

What is the missing number?    [2011 - II]
(a) 7
(b) 8
(c) 9
(d) 10

Question 33: The houses of A and B face each other on a road going north-south, A’s being on the western side. A comes out of his house, turns left, travels 5 km, turns right, travels 5 km to the front of D’s house. B does exactly the same and reaches the front of C’s house. In this context, which one of the following statements is correct?    [2011 - II]
(a) C and D live on the same street.
(b) C’s house faces south.
(c) The houses of C and D are less than 20 km apart.
(d) None of the above

Given information diagrammatically can be shown as follows :

Distance between C and D house

From the above diagram, it is clear that the houses of C and D are less than 20 km apart.

Question 34: Consider the following argument :
"In order to be a teacher one must graduate from college.
All poets are poor. Some Mathematicians are poets. No college graduate is poor."
Which one of the following is not a valid conclusion regarding the above argument?    [2011 - II]
(a) Some Mathematicians are not teachers.
(b) Some teachers are not Mathematicians.
(c) Teachers are not poor,
(d) Poets are not teachers.

We can draw the following two diagrams from given arguments

From case II, the option (b) is not a valid conclusion.

Question 35: Consider the following figure and answer the item that follows:

What is the minimum number of different colours required to paint the figure given above such that no two adjacent regions have the same colour?    [2011 - II]
(a) 3
(b) 4
(c) 5
(d) 6

Suppose R, B and G are three different colours to paint the following figure.

Thus, there will be three different colours required to paint the figure at the given conditions.

Question 36: There are four routes to travel from city A to city B and six routes from city B to city C. How many routes are possible to travel from the city A to city C?    [2011 - II]
(a) 24
(b) 12
(c) 10
(d) 8

Total number of possible routes from the city A to city C = 4 x 6 = 24

Question 37: DIRECTIONS: Each of the following two items consists of four statements. Of these four statements, two cannot both be true, but both can be false. Study the statements carefully and identify the two that satisfy the above condition. Select the correct answer using the codes given below each set of statements:
Examine the following statements :    [2011 - II]

1. All trains are run by diesel engine.
2. Some trains are run by diesel engine.
3. No train is run by diesel engine.
4. Some trains are not run by diesel engine.

Codes :
(a) 1 and 2
(b) 2 and 3
(c) 1 and 3
(d) 1 and 4

Statement 1 and 3 contradict each-other, hence both statements cannot be true together. But there are a situation where in both statements are false that is if some of the trains are run on diesel engine and some are not.

Question 37: DIRECTIONS: Each of the following two items consists of four statements. Of these four statements, two cannot both be true, but both can be false. Study the statements carefully and identify the two that satisfy the above condition. Select the correct answer using the codes given below each set of statements:
Examine the following statements :    [2011 - II]

1. All animals are carnivorous.
2. Some animals are not carnivorous.
3. Animals are not carnivorous.
4. Some animals are carnivorous.

Codes :
(a) 1 and 3
(b) 1 and 2
(c) 2 and 3
(d) 3 and 4

Statements 1 and 3 contradict each-other, hence both statements cannot be true together. But there is a situation where in both statements are false that is if some of the animals are carnivorous and some are not.

Question 38: In a queue, Mr. X is fourteenth from the front and Mr. Y is seventeenth from the end, while Mr. Z is exactly in between Mr. X and Mr. Y. If Mr. X is ahead of Mr. Y and there are 48 persons in the queue, how many persons are there between Mr. X and Mr. Z ?    [2011 - II]
(a) 6
(b) 7
(c) 8
(d) 9

Total number of persons in the queue = 48
Position of Mr. X from the front = 14
Position of Mr. Y from the end = 17
∴  Position of Mr. Y from the front = 48 – 17 + 1= 32
Rank of  Mr. Z from the front = (14+32)/2 = 23
Thus total number of persons between Mr. X and Mr. Z = 23 – 14 – 1 = 8

In a survey regarding a proposed measure to be introduced, 2878 persons took part of which 1652 were males. 1226 persons voted against the proposal of which 796 were males. 1425 persons voted for the proposal. 196 females were undecided.
How many females voted for the proposal ?       [2011 - II]
(a) 430
(b) 600
(c) 624
(d) 640

Now, number of female voted against
= 1226 –796 = 430
Now, number of female voted for the proposal = 1226 – (430 + 196) = 1226 – 626 = 600
No. of undecided = 2878 – (1226 + 1425) = 227
Now, No. of undecided male = 227 – 196 = 31

In a survey regarding a proposed measure to be introduced, 2878 persons took part of which 1652 were males. 1226 persons voted against the proposal of which 796 were males. 1425 persons voted for the proposal. 196 females were undecided.
How many males were undecided ?       [2011 - II]
(a) 31
(b) 227
(c) 426
(d) 581

Now, number of female voted against
= 1226 –796 = 430
Now, number of female voted for the proposal = 1226 – (430 + 196) = 1226 – 626 = 600
No. of undecided = 2878 – (1226 + 1425) = 227
Now, No. of undecided male = 227 – 196 = 31

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