UPSC  >  Mental Ability, Analytical & Logical Reasoning- Solved Questions(1995-2020)- 3

# Mental Ability, Analytical & Logical Reasoning- Solved Questions(1995-2020)- 3 - Notes | Study UPSC Topic Wise Previous Year Questions - UPSC

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Question 1: Four tests-Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics and Biology are to be conducted on four consecutive days, not necessarily in the same order. The Physics test is held before the test which is conducted after Biology. Chemistry is conducted exactly after two tests are held. Which is the last test held?    [2017-II]
(a) Physics
(b) Biology
(c) Mathematics
(d) Chemistry

Given information can be represented as:-

Question 2: If second and fourth Saturdays and all the Sundays are taken as only holidays for an office, what would be the minimum number of possible working days of any month of any year?    [2017-II]
(a) 23
(b) 22
(c) 21
(d) 20

Minimum Number of working days in any month = 28 days (February)
If the month begins on sunday then
1st, 8th, 15th, and 22nd are Sundays. While 14th and 28th days are 2nd and Fourth Saturday. Hence, 28 – (2 + 4) = 22 working days.

Question 3: DIRECTIONS : Consider the given information and answer the two items that follow.
No supporters of 'party X', who knew Z and supported his campaign strategy, agreed for the alliance with 'party Y'; but some of them had friends in 'party Y'.
With reference to the above information, which one among the following statements must be true?    [2017-II]
(a) Some supporters of 'party Y' did not agree for the alliance with the 'party X'.
(b) There is at least one supporter of 'party Y' who knew some supporters of 'party X' as a friend.
(c) No supporters of 'party X' supported Z's campaign strategy.
(d) No supporters of 'party X' knew Z.

The line “ but some of them had Friends in party Y” clearly indicates statement (b) is correct. Best answer is (b).

Question 4: DIRECTIONS : Consider the given information and answer the two items that follow.
No supporters of 'party X', who knew Z and supported his campaign strategy, agreed for the alliance with 'party Y'; but some of them had friends in 'party Y'.
With reference to the above information, consider the following statements :

1. Some supporters of 'party X' knew Z.
2. Some supporter s of 'par ty X', who opposed Z's campaign strategy, knew Z.
3. No supporters of 'party X' supported Z 's campaign strategy.

Which of the statements given above is/are not correct?    [2017-II]

(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

Statement 1 is correct. Statement 2 is correct, there are some people who opposed Z’s campaign strategy knew Z. Hence the best answer is option (c).

Question 5: Consider the following statements.
1. The rate of population growth is increasing in the country
2. The death rate is declining faster in the country compared to birth rate
3. The birth rate is declining faster in the country compared to death rate
4. Rural-urban migration is taking place regularly in the country
Which one of the following conclusions may be true in the light of the above facts?    [2016-II]

(a) The rate of population growth is increasing due to rural-urban migration
(b) The rate of population growth is increasing due to decline in death rate only
(c) The rate of population growth is increasing due to increase in birth rate only
(d) The rate of population growth is increasing due to faster decline in death rate than in birth rate

The death rate is declining more faster than in birth rate. This is the prominent reason for increament in the rate of population growth.

Question 6: A ate grapes and pineapple; B ate grapes and oranges; C ate oranges, pineapple and apple; D ate grapes, apple and pineapple. After taking fruits, B and C fell sick. In the light of the above facts, it can be said that the cause of sickness was:    [2016-II]
(a) Apple
(b) Pineapple
(c) Grapes
(d) Oranges

According to given information:

B and C both ate Oranges, So, it can be said that the cause of sickness was eating of oranges.

Question 7: In a. question paper there are five questions to be attempted and answer to each question has two choices -True (T) or False (F). It is given that no two candidates have given the answers to the five questions in an identical sequence. For this to happen the maximum number of candidates is:    [2016-II]
(a) 10
(b) 18
(c) 26
(d) 32

Since, there are 5 questions to be attempted and each questions has two choices– True or False.
Therefore, the maximum number of candidates so that none of them gives the answers to the five questions in an identical sequence is an arrangement of 2 different objects at 5 places.

Above figure shows that each question can be filled with 2 choices.
So, required numbered of candidates = 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 = 32

Question 8: DIRECTIONS: Consider the given-information and answer the three items that follow.
Six boxes A, B, C, D, E and F have been painted with six different colours viz., violet, indigo, blue, green, yellow and orange and arranged from left to right (not necessarily either kept or painted with the colours in the same order). Each box contains a ball of any one of the following six games: cricket, hockey, tennis, golf, football and volleyball (not necessarily in the same order). The golf ball is in violet box and is not in the box D. The box A which contains tennis ball is orange in colour and is at the extreme right.
The hockey ball is neither in box D nor in box E. The box C having cricket ball is painted green. The hockey ball is neither in the box painted blue nor in the box painted yellow. The box C is fifth from right and next to box B. The box B contains volleyball. The box containing the hockey ball is between the boxes containing golf ball and volleyball.

Which one of the following boxes contains the golf ball?    [2016-II]
(a) F
(b) E
(c) D
(d) None of the above

According to the given information, the arrangement of six boxes is as following:

E boxes contains the golfball.

Question 9: DIRECTIONS: Consider the given-information and answer the three items that follow.
Six boxes A, B, C, D, E and F have been painted with six different colours viz., violet, indigo, blue, green, yellow and orange and arranged from left to right (not necessarily either kept or painted with the colours in the same order). Each box contains a ball of any one of the following six games: cricket, hockey, tennis, golf, football and volleyball (not necessarily in the same order). The golf ball is in violet box and is not in the box D. The box A which contains tennis ball is orange in colour and is at the extreme right.
The hockey ball is neither in box D nor in box E. The box C having cricket ball is painted green. The hockey ball is neither in the box painted blue nor in the box painted yellow. The box C is fifth from right and next to box B. The box B contains volleyball. The box containing the hockey ball is between the boxes containing golf ball and volleyball.

Which of the following statements is/are correct?     [2016-II]
(a) D is painted yellow
(b) F is painted indigo
(c) B is painted blue
(d) All of the above

According to the given information, the arrangement of six boxes is as following:

F is painted indigo is the correct statement.

Question 10: DIRECTIONS: Consider the given-information and answer the three items that follow.
Six boxes A, B, C, D, E and F have been painted with six different colours viz., violet, indigo, blue, green, yellow and orange and arranged from left to right (not necessarily either kept or painted with the colours in the same order). Each box contains a ball of any one of the following six games: cricket, hockey, tennis, golf, football and volleyball (not necessarily in the same order). The golf ball is in violet box and is not in the box D. The box A which contains tennis ball is orange in colour and is at the extreme right.
The hockey ball is neither in box D nor in box E. The box C having cricket ball is painted green. The hockey ball is neither in the box painted blue nor in the box painted yellow. The box C is fifth from right and next to box B. The box B contains volleyball. The box containing the hockey ball is between the boxes containing golf ball and volleyball.

The football is in the box of which colour?    [2016-II]
(a) Yellow
(b) Indigo
(c) Cannot be determined as data are inadequate
(d) Blue

According to the given information, the arrangement of six boxes is as following:

We cannot determined that the football is in the box of which colour.

Question 11: Consider the following statements:
1. Either A and B are of the same age or A is older than B
2. Either C and D are of the same age or D is older than C
3. B is older than C
Which of the following conclusions can be drawn from the above statements?    [2016-II]
(a) A is older than B
(b) B and D are of the same age
(c) D is older than C
(d) A is older than C

From statement 1, A ≥ B
From statement 2, C ≤ D
and from statement 3 B > C
By combining the above three statements, we get A ³ B > C £ D
Here, A ≥ B > C ≤ D
or A = B > C = D
A > C
So, A is older than C.

Question 12: There is an order of 19000 quantity of a particular product from a customer. The firm produces 1000 quantity of that product per day out of which 5% are unfit for sale. In how many days will the order be completed?    [2016-II]
(a) 18
(b) 19
(c) 20
(d) 22

Quantity of product to be completed = 19000
Firm production per day = 1000 – 5% of 1000 = 950
Firm production in 19 days = 19000 – 5% of 19000

So, firm needs one extra day other than 19 days to complete the order.
∴ Firm will complete the order in 20 days.

Question 13: DIRECTIONS: Consider the following information and answer the five items that follow:
There are five persons in a group — P, Q, R, S and T. The group has one doctor, one lawyer and one artist. P and S are unmarried students. T is a man married to one of the group members. Q is the brother of P and is neither doctor nor artist. R is not doctor.
Who is the doctor?    [2016-II]
(a) T
(b) P
(c) Q
(d) R

According to the given information, the arrangement of five persons in a group is as following :

S is also unmarried.
T is the Doctor.

Question 14: DIRECTIONS: Consider the following information and answer the five items that follow:
There are five persons in a group — P, Q, R, S and T. The group has one doctor, one lawyer and one artist. P and S are unmarried students. T is a man married to one of the group members. Q is the brother of P and is neither doctor nor artist. R is not doctor.
Who is the artist?    [2016-II]

(a) P
(b) Q
(c) R
(d) T

According to the given information, the arrangement of five persons in a group is as following :

S is also unmarried.
R is the Artist.

Question 15: DIRECTIONS: Consider the following information and answer the five items that follow:
There are five persons in a group — P, Q, R, S and T. The group has one doctor, one lawyer and one artist. P and S are unmarried students. T is a man married to one of the group members. Q is the brother of P and is neither doctor nor artist. R is not doctor.
Who is the spouse of R?    [2016-II]

(a) P
(b) T
(c) Q
(d) S

According to the given information, the arrangement of five persons in a group is as following :

S is also unmarried.
T is the spouse of R.

Question 16: DIRECTIONS: Consider the following information and answer the five items that follow:
There are five persons in a group — P, Q, R, S and T. The group has one doctor, one lawyer and one artist. P and S are unmarried students. T is a man married to one of the group members. Q is the brother of P and is neither doctor nor artist. R is not doctor.
Who is the lawyer?    [2016-II]

(a) P
(b) Q
(c) R
(d) S

According to the given information, the arrangement of five persons in a group is as following :

S is also unmarried.
Q is the Lawyer

Question 17: DIRECTIONS: Consider the following information and answer the five items that follow:
There are five persons in a group — P, Q, R, S and T. The group has one doctor, one lawyer and one artist. P and S are unmarried students. T is a man married to one of the group members. Q is the brother of P and is neither doctor nor artist. R is not doctor.
Who of the following is definitely a man?    [2016-II]

(a) P
(b) S
(c) Q
(d) None of the above

According to the given information, the arrangement of five persons in a group is as following :

S is also unmarried.
Q is definitely a man.

Question 18: There are some nectar-filled flowers on a tree and some bees are hovering on it. If one bee lands on each flower, one bee will be left out. If two bees land on each flower, one flower will be left out. The number of flowers and bees respectively are:     [2016-II]
(a) 2 and 4
(b) 3 and 2
(c) 3 and 4
(d) 4 and 3

No. of bee > Flower. So, checking by option there are 3 and 4.

Question 19: There are five hobby clubs in a college —photography, yachting, chess, electronics and gardening. The gardening group meets every second day, the electronics group meets every third day, the chess group meets every fourth day, the yachting group meets every fifth day and the photography group meets every sixth day. How many times do all the five groups meet on the same day within 180 days?    [2016-II]
(a) 5
(b) 18
(c) 10
(d) 3

Here, we need to take the L.C.M. of 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 to find out the number of days after which all these 5 groups meet on the same day.
So, L.C.M. (2, 3, 4, 5, 6) = 60
We can say that the 5 groups meet on the same day on every 60th day.
∴ Number of times all the 5 groups meet on the same day within 180 days = 180/60 = 3.

Question 20: Five people A, B, C, D and E are seated about a round table. Every chair is spaced equidistant from adjacent chairs.
(i) C is seated next to A
(ii) A is seated two seats from D
(iii) B is not seated next to A
On the basis of above information, which of the following must be true?
1. D is seated next to B
2. E is seated next to A
3. D and C are separated by two seats
Select the correct answer using the code given below:    [2016-II]
(a) 1 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 3 only
(d) Neither 1 nor 2 nor 3

The arrangement is in circular table

• C is seated next to A
Conclusion : AC – or CA
• A is seated two seats from D
Conclusion : A – D or D – A
• B is not seated next to A
Conclusion : E must be next to A

Combining, A C D B E

(There can be many arrangements)
So, only statement 1 and 2 are correct.

Question 21: There were 50 faculty members comprising 30 males and the rest females. No male faculty member knew music, but many of the female faculty members did. The Head of the institution invited six faculty members to a tea party by draw of lots. At the party it was discovered that no member knew music. The conclusion is that:    [2016-II]
(a) the party comprised male faculty members only
(b) the party comprised only those female faculty members who could not give renderings in music
(c) the party comprised both male and female faculty members
(d) nothing can be said about the gender composition of the party

Question does not say anything about the gen der composition of the group invited for party. Further, we do not know which specific female faculty know music.
So either all in party were males, or some males and some females who did not know music were present in the party. So (d) is definitely correct.

Question 22: Consider the following statement:
“We shall go either for a picnic or for trekking”.
Which of the following, if true, would falsify this claim?    [2016-II]
(a) We go for a picnic but not for trekking
(b) Activities such as picnic and trekking are encouraged by the health authorities
(c) We go for trekking and not for picnic
(d) We do not go either for picnic or for trekking

Option (d) is the just contradiction of given statement, if it is true, it would falsify the given statement.

Question 23: A person X was driving in a place where all roads ran either north-south or east-west, forming a grid. Roads are at a distance of 1 km from each other in a parallel. He started at the intersection of two roads, drove 3 km north, 3 km west and 4 km south. Which further route could bring him back to his starting point, if the same route is not repeated?    [2016-II]
(a) 3 km east, then 2 km south
(b) 3 km east, then 1 km north
(c) 1 km north, then 2 km west
(d) 3 km south, then 1 km north

• X starts from point A, passes through point B and C and reaches point D.
• X returns from point D, passes through point E and reaches point A back.

Question 24: In a class of 60 students, where the number of girls is twice that of boys, Kamal, a boy, ranked seventeenth from the top. If there are 9 girls ahead of Kamal, the number of boys in rank after him is:    [2016-II]
(a) 13
(b) 12
(c) 7
(d) 3

Let the number of boys be x, then numbers of girls = 2x
∴ x + 2x = 60; or 3x = 60; or x = 20
So numbers of boys = 20 and numbers of girls = 40
Numbers of student behind Kamal in rank = (60 – 17) = 43
Numbers of girls ahead of Kamal in rank = 9
∴ Numbers of boys behind Kamal in rank = (43 – 31) = 12

Question 25: A military code writes SYSTEM as SYSMET and NEARER as AENRER. Using the same code, FRACTION can be written as:    [2016-II]
(a) CARFTION
(b) FRACNOIT
(c) NOITCARF
(d) CARFNOIT

Similarly,

Question 26: A cube has all its faces painted with different colours. It is cut into smaller cubes of equal sizes such that the side of the small cube is one-fourth the big cube. The number of small cubes with only one of the sides painted is:    [2016-II]
(a) 32
(b) 24
(c) 16
(d) 8

The number of small cubes with only one of the sides painted on each face = 4. Hence, number of total small cube with one face painted = 4 × 6 = 24

Question 27: A person walks 12 km due north, then 15 km due east, after that 19 km due west and then 15 km due south. How far is he from the starting point?    [2016-II]
(a) 5 km
(b) 9 km
(c) 37 km
(d) 61 km

The direction diagram of a person is as follows:

The required distance is,
In DOAE
OA = DB = 4 km
OE = AX = 3 km
AE2 = OA2 + OE2
AE2 = 42 + 32
AE2 = 25
AE = 5 km

Question 28: DIRECTIONS:  Consider the given information and answer the three items that follow.
When three friends A, B and C met, it was found that each of them wore an outer garment of a different colour. In random order, the garments are: jacket, sweater and tie; and the colours are: blue, white and black. Their surnames in random order are : Ribeiro, Kumar and Singh.
Further, we know that :
1. neither B nor Ribeiro wore a white sweater
2. C wore a tie
3. Singh’s garment was not white
4. Kumar does not wear a jacket
5. Ribeiro does not like to wear the black colour
6. Each of the friends wore only one outer garment of only one colour

What is C’s surname?    [2016-II]
(a) Riberio
(b) Kumar
(c) Singh
(d) Cannot be determined

On the basis of given information, the arrangement is as following:

C’s surname is Riberio.

Question 29: DIRECTIONS:  Consider the given information and answer the three items that follow.
When three friends A, B and C met, it was found that each of them wore an outer garment of a different colour. In random order, the garments are: jacket, sweater and tie; and the colours are: blue, white and black. Their surnames in random order are : Ribeiro, Kumar and Singh.
Further, we know that :
1. neither B nor Ribeiro wore a white sweater
2. C wore a tie
3. Singh’s garment was not white
4. Kumar does not wear a jacket
5. Ribeiro does not like to wear the black colour
6. Each of the friends wore only one outer garment of only one colour

What is the colour of the tie?    [2016-II]
(a) Black
(b) Blue
(c) White
(d) Cannot be determined

On the basis of given information, the arrangement is as following:

The colour of the tie is Blue.

Question 30: DIRECTIONS:  Consider the given information and answer the three items that follow.
When three friends A, B and C met, it was found that each of them wore an outer garment of a different colour. In random order, the garments are: jacket, sweater and tie; and the colours are: blue, white and black. Their surnames in random order are : Ribeiro, Kumar and Singh.
Further, we know that :
1. neither B nor Ribeiro wore a white sweater
2. C wore a tie
3. Singh’s garment was not white
4. Kumar does not wear a jacket
5. Ribeiro does not like to wear the black colour
6. Each of the friends wore only one outer garment of only one colour

Who wore the sweater?    [2016-II]
(a) A
(b) B
(c) C
(d) Cannot be determined

On the basis of given information, the arrangement is as following:

A wore the sweater.

Question 31: A person climbs a hill in a straight path from point ‘O’ on the ground in the direction of north-east and reaches a point ‘A’ after travelling a distance of 5 km. Then, from the point ‘A’ he moves to point ‘B’ in the direction of northwest. Let the distance AB be 12 km. Now, how far is the person away from the starting point ‘O’?    [2016-II]
(a) 7 km
(b) 13 km
(c) 17 km
(d) 11 km

According to the given information, the direction diagram of a person is as shown below:

∴ Required distance,
BO2 = BA2 + OA2
BO2 = 122 + 52
BO2 = 144 + 25
BO2 = 169
BO = 13 km
So, he is 13 km far away from the starting point O.

Question 32: Between 6 PM and 7 PM the minute hand of a clock will be ahead of the hour hand by 3 minutes at    [2015-II]
(a) 6: 15 PM
(b) 6: 18 PM
(c) 6: 36 PM
(d) 6: 48 PM

Between 6 PM and 7 PM, the hour hand and the minute hand coincide at 6 hr ‘m’ minutes.
i.e.
Hence, the hour hand and minute hand coincide at 6 hr 32(8/11) mins.

After 3 minutes, i.e. at 6 : 36 PM the minute hand of a clock will be ahead of the hour hand by 3 minutes.

Question 33: All good athletes want to win and all athletes who want to win eat a well-balanced diet;  therefore all athletes who do not eat a well-balanced diet are bad athletes.
The best conclusion from this statement is that    [2015-II]
(a) no bad athlete wants to win.
(b) no athlete who does not eat a well-balanced diet is a good athlete.
(c) every athlete who eats a well-balanced diet is a good athlete.
(d) all athletes who want to win are good athletes.

The given statements can be represented as–

It is stated that all good athletes want to win. It does not mean that no one wants to win. Hence, (b) is true.
There can be people other than good athletes, who eat well balanced diet.

Question 34: Geeta: Naresh has become a better boxer since he started meditation.
Radha: Impossible, A boxer's most important asset is his aggressiveness.
Radha's statement reflects her belief that    [2015-II]
(a) meditation tends to make a person less aggressive.
(b) meditation has little or no effect on the person who practises it.
(c) Naresh was a poor boxer earlier because he was not aggressive enough.
(d) Naresh would not have taken to meditation as he was a boxer.

Radha did not accept the argument that a person becomes a better boxer after meditation. The reason for this is that a boxer, according to her, should be aggressive. This indicates that Radha believes that meditation makes a person less aggressive.

Question 35: Consider the following statements :
1. A man had a wife, two sons and daughters in his family
2. The daughters were invited to a feast and the male members of the family went out to take part in a picnic
3. The man's father did not return from his work.
Which of the following statements is true?    [2015]
(a) Only the man's wife was left at home.
(b) It is likely that the man's wife was left at home.
(c) None was left at home
(d) More than one person was left at home.

All the male member of the family went out to take part in a picnic. It is given that daughters were invited to a feast.
Nothing is specified about men’s wife. Hence, the statement that the man’s wife is likely to be left at home is true.

Question 36: Four persons A, B, C and D consisting of two married couples are in a group. Both the women are shorter than their respective husbands. A is the tallest among the four. C is taller than B. D is B's brother. In this context, which one of the following statements is not correct?    [2015]
(a) All four have family ties.
(b) B is the shortest among the four.
(c) C is taller than D.
(d) A is B's husband.

Given, A is tallest among the four. Hence, A is male, D is also male, as D is the brother of B. Then, B and C are females. D is the husband of C. D is the shorter than A and is taller than B. Again, C is taller than B. Thus, B is the shortest among all. Hence C is taller than D is incorrect.

Question 37: A father is nine times as old as his son and the mother is eight times as old as the son. The sum of the father's and the mother's age is 51 years. What is the age of the son?    [2015]
(a) 7 years
(b) 5 years
(c) 4 years
(d) 3 years

Let age of son = x years
Age of father = 9x
Age of mother = 8x
Now, According to question,
8x + 9x = 51
17x = 51
x = 3 years

Question 38: In a test, a candidate attempted only 8 questions and secured 50% marks in each of the questions. If he obtained a total of 40% in the test and all questions in the test carried equal marks, how many questions were there in the test?     [2015]
(a) 8
(b) 10
(c) 15
(d) 16

Let marks of each question = x
According to question,

∴ Total questions in test = 100/10 = 10

Question 39: Four cardboard pieces of specific shapes are shown in the following figure:

Which one of the following figures given can be formed by joining these pieces together?    [2015-II]
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

By combining the given fragment, we get figure (d).

Question 40: What is the missing number 'X' of the series 7, X, 21, 31, 43?    [2015-II]
(a) 11
(b) 12
(c) 13
(d) 14

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