Metals And Non - Metals - Notes, Chemistry, IAS UPSC Notes | EduRev

General Science(Prelims) by IRS Divey Sethi

UPSC : Metals And Non - Metals - Notes, Chemistry, IAS UPSC Notes | EduRev

The document Metals And Non - Metals - Notes, Chemistry, IAS UPSC Notes | EduRev is a part of the UPSC Course General Science(Prelims) by IRS Divey Sethi.
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Metals & Non-Metals

Types of substances

  • Elements
  • Compounds

Elements

  • Robert Boyle was the first scientist to use the term element in 1661.
  • Antoine Laurent Lavoisier (1743-94), a French chemist, defined an element as a basic form of matter that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical reactions.

Elements can be normally divided into:

  • Metals,
  • Mon-metals and
  • Metalloids.

 

Metals And Non - Metals - Notes, Chemistry, IAS UPSC Notes | EduRev
Metals And Non - Metals - Notes, Chemistry, IAS UPSC Notes | EduRev

 

Physical Properties of Metal

  • They have a lustre (shine).
  • They have silvery-grey or golden-yellow colour.
  • They conduct heat and electricity.
  • They are ductile (can be drawn into wires).
  • They are malleable (can be hammered into thin sheets).
  • They are sonorous (make a ringing sound when hit).
    • Mercury is the only metal that is liquid at room temperature.

Chemical Properties of Metal

  • Almost all metals combine with oxygen to form metal oxides.
  • Most metal oxides are insoluble in water but some of these dissolve in water to form alkalis.
  • Metals react with acids to give a salt and hydrogen gas
  • Usually have 1-3 electrons in their outer shell.

Relative reactivity of metals

Metals And Non - Metals - Notes, Chemistry, IAS UPSC Notes | EduRev

Physical Properties of Non-Metals

  • Poor conductors of heat and electricity.
  • Brittle - if a solid.
  • Non-ductile.
  • Do not possess metallic lustre.
  • Transparent as a thin sheet.
  • Solids, liquids or gases at room temperature.

Chemical Properties of Non-Metals

  • Usually have 4-8 electrons in their outer shell.
  • Gain or share valence electrons easily.
  • Form oxides that are acidic
  • Are good Oxidizing aqents
  • Have higher electro- negativities

Metalloids

  • Some elements have intermediate properties between those of metals and non-metals, they are called metalloids; examples are boron,  silicon, germanium etc.

COMPOUNDS

  • A compound is a substance composed of two or more elements, chemically combined with one another in a fixed proportion.
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