Mineral & Energy Resources Important Questions (With Solutions) Class 10 Notes | EduRev

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Class 10 : Mineral & Energy Resources Important Questions (With Solutions) Class 10 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


                      NM    ISB - 104 -
CHAPTER-5-  MINERALS AND ENERGY RESOURCES 
 
1. What are minerals? What is its importance?       
i) Minerals are natural chemical compounds uniform in composition and structure and are 
constituents of rocks and ores. 
ii) These are homogenous, naturally occurring substance with a definable internal structure.  
iii) These are formed through various geological processes taking place in the earth.  
iv) Minerals are naturally found in solid, liquid and gaseous states ranging from the hardest 
diamond to the softest talc. 
iii) Minerals are one of the most important resources of a country. It provides sound base for 
economic and industrial development. 
Importance:  
a) Minerals are indispensable part of our lives. Almost everything that we use, from a 
tiny pin to a towering building or a big ship, all are made from minerals. 
b) The railway lines and the pavements of the roads, our implements and  machinery too 
are made of minerals.  
c) Cars , buses, trains, airplanes are manufactured from minerals and run on power 
resources derived from the earth. 
d) Even the food that we eat contains minerals. In the stages of development, human 
beings use minerals for their livelihood, decoration, festivals and religious and 
ceremonial rites. 
2. What are the properties of minerals?  
i. Minerals are in wide range of colours, hardness, crystal forms, luster and density, 
because, these are formed from, a certain combination of elements depends upon the 
physical and chemical conditions under which the material forms.  
ii. Minerals are naturally found in solid, liquid and gaseous states ranging from the   
   hardest diamond to the softest talc. (any other points from answer 1) 
3. What are the different types of formations of minerals? OR   Where do different  forms   
  of minerals  generally occur? 
i. In igneous and metamorphic rocks, minerals occur in the cracks, crevices, faults or 
joints. The smaller occurrences are called VEINS and the larger are called LODES.  
They are formed when minerals in molten and gaseous forms are forced upward 
through cavities towards the earth’s surface. They cool and solidify as they rise.  
ii. In sedimentary rocks, a number of minerals occur in beds or layers. They have been 
formed as a result of deposition, accumulation, and concentration in horizontal strata.  
Coal and some forms of iron ore have been concentrated as a result of great pressure 
for a long period. Another group of sedimentary minerals is gypsum, potash salt and 
sodium salt. These are formed as a result of evaporation especially in arid regions. 
Page 2


                      NM    ISB - 104 -
CHAPTER-5-  MINERALS AND ENERGY RESOURCES 
 
1. What are minerals? What is its importance?       
i) Minerals are natural chemical compounds uniform in composition and structure and are 
constituents of rocks and ores. 
ii) These are homogenous, naturally occurring substance with a definable internal structure.  
iii) These are formed through various geological processes taking place in the earth.  
iv) Minerals are naturally found in solid, liquid and gaseous states ranging from the hardest 
diamond to the softest talc. 
iii) Minerals are one of the most important resources of a country. It provides sound base for 
economic and industrial development. 
Importance:  
a) Minerals are indispensable part of our lives. Almost everything that we use, from a 
tiny pin to a towering building or a big ship, all are made from minerals. 
b) The railway lines and the pavements of the roads, our implements and  machinery too 
are made of minerals.  
c) Cars , buses, trains, airplanes are manufactured from minerals and run on power 
resources derived from the earth. 
d) Even the food that we eat contains minerals. In the stages of development, human 
beings use minerals for their livelihood, decoration, festivals and religious and 
ceremonial rites. 
2. What are the properties of minerals?  
i. Minerals are in wide range of colours, hardness, crystal forms, luster and density, 
because, these are formed from, a certain combination of elements depends upon the 
physical and chemical conditions under which the material forms.  
ii. Minerals are naturally found in solid, liquid and gaseous states ranging from the   
   hardest diamond to the softest talc. (any other points from answer 1) 
3. What are the different types of formations of minerals? OR   Where do different  forms   
  of minerals  generally occur? 
i. In igneous and metamorphic rocks, minerals occur in the cracks, crevices, faults or 
joints. The smaller occurrences are called VEINS and the larger are called LODES.  
They are formed when minerals in molten and gaseous forms are forced upward 
through cavities towards the earth’s surface. They cool and solidify as they rise.  
ii. In sedimentary rocks, a number of minerals occur in beds or layers. They have been 
formed as a result of deposition, accumulation, and concentration in horizontal strata.  
Coal and some forms of iron ore have been concentrated as a result of great pressure 
for a long period. Another group of sedimentary minerals is gypsum, potash salt and 
sodium salt. These are formed as a result of evaporation especially in arid regions. 
                      NM    ISB - 105 -
iii. Another mode of formation involves the decomposition of surface rock, and the 
removal of soluble constituents, leaving a residual mass of weathered material 
containing ores. Bauxite is formed this way. 
iv. Certain minerals may occur as alluvial deposits in sands of valley floors and the 
base of hills. These deposits are called ‘placer deposits’ and generally contain 
minerals which are not corroded by water. Gold, silver, tin and platinum are most 
important among such minerals. 
v. The ocean water contains vast quantities of minerals, but most of these are too 
widely diffused to be of economic significance. However, common salt, magnesium 
and bromine are largely derived from ocean waters. The ocean beds too are rich in 
manganese nodules. 
4. How are minerals formed in igneous and metamorphic rocks?  (Ans. Point  i above) 
5.  Describe the diversity in the distribution of mineral resources in India. State an   
       important reason for this diversity. 
i. The peninsular rocks contain most of the reserves of coal, metallic minerals, mica and 
many other non metallic minerals. 
ii. Sedimentary rocks on the western and eastern sides of the peninsula in Gujarat and 
Assam have most of the petroleum deposits. 
iii. Rajasthan has reserves of many non-ferrous minerals. 
iv. These variations exist because of the difference in the geological structure, processes 
and time involved in the formation of minerals. 
6. Distinguish between ferrous and non-ferrous metals. 
i. Ferrous metals are those metals, which have iron content in it where as non-ferrous 
metals   do not have iron content in it. 
ii. Normally ferrous metals are available in plenty whereas non ferrous metals are 
available in limited quantity. 
iii.  Iron ore, manganese ore, chromate, pyrite, tungsten, nickel, and cobalt are some 
examples of ferrous metals.  Copper , bauxite, lead, zinc, and gold are examples of 
non ferrous metals. 
iv. Ferrous minerals provide a strong base for the development of metallurgical 
industries. Non ferrous minerals play an important role in a number of metallurgical, 
engineering and electrical industries. 
7. Which are the important iron ore belts in India?  
i. Orissa Jharkhand belt:  High-grade hematite ore is found in Badampahar mines in the 
Mayurbhanj and Kendujhar districts of Orissa.  It is found in Gua and Noamundi 
mines of Singhbhum districts of Jharkhand too.  
ii. Durg-Bastar-Chandrapur belt in Chhatisgarh:  Very high-grade hematite is found in 
the Bailadila range of hills in the Bastar district of Chhatisgarh. It is found in Durg 
and Dantewara districts of Chhatisgarh. 
Page 3


                      NM    ISB - 104 -
CHAPTER-5-  MINERALS AND ENERGY RESOURCES 
 
1. What are minerals? What is its importance?       
i) Minerals are natural chemical compounds uniform in composition and structure and are 
constituents of rocks and ores. 
ii) These are homogenous, naturally occurring substance with a definable internal structure.  
iii) These are formed through various geological processes taking place in the earth.  
iv) Minerals are naturally found in solid, liquid and gaseous states ranging from the hardest 
diamond to the softest talc. 
iii) Minerals are one of the most important resources of a country. It provides sound base for 
economic and industrial development. 
Importance:  
a) Minerals are indispensable part of our lives. Almost everything that we use, from a 
tiny pin to a towering building or a big ship, all are made from minerals. 
b) The railway lines and the pavements of the roads, our implements and  machinery too 
are made of minerals.  
c) Cars , buses, trains, airplanes are manufactured from minerals and run on power 
resources derived from the earth. 
d) Even the food that we eat contains minerals. In the stages of development, human 
beings use minerals for their livelihood, decoration, festivals and religious and 
ceremonial rites. 
2. What are the properties of minerals?  
i. Minerals are in wide range of colours, hardness, crystal forms, luster and density, 
because, these are formed from, a certain combination of elements depends upon the 
physical and chemical conditions under which the material forms.  
ii. Minerals are naturally found in solid, liquid and gaseous states ranging from the   
   hardest diamond to the softest talc. (any other points from answer 1) 
3. What are the different types of formations of minerals? OR   Where do different  forms   
  of minerals  generally occur? 
i. In igneous and metamorphic rocks, minerals occur in the cracks, crevices, faults or 
joints. The smaller occurrences are called VEINS and the larger are called LODES.  
They are formed when minerals in molten and gaseous forms are forced upward 
through cavities towards the earth’s surface. They cool and solidify as they rise.  
ii. In sedimentary rocks, a number of minerals occur in beds or layers. They have been 
formed as a result of deposition, accumulation, and concentration in horizontal strata.  
Coal and some forms of iron ore have been concentrated as a result of great pressure 
for a long period. Another group of sedimentary minerals is gypsum, potash salt and 
sodium salt. These are formed as a result of evaporation especially in arid regions. 
                      NM    ISB - 105 -
iii. Another mode of formation involves the decomposition of surface rock, and the 
removal of soluble constituents, leaving a residual mass of weathered material 
containing ores. Bauxite is formed this way. 
iv. Certain minerals may occur as alluvial deposits in sands of valley floors and the 
base of hills. These deposits are called ‘placer deposits’ and generally contain 
minerals which are not corroded by water. Gold, silver, tin and platinum are most 
important among such minerals. 
v. The ocean water contains vast quantities of minerals, but most of these are too 
widely diffused to be of economic significance. However, common salt, magnesium 
and bromine are largely derived from ocean waters. The ocean beds too are rich in 
manganese nodules. 
4. How are minerals formed in igneous and metamorphic rocks?  (Ans. Point  i above) 
5.  Describe the diversity in the distribution of mineral resources in India. State an   
       important reason for this diversity. 
i. The peninsular rocks contain most of the reserves of coal, metallic minerals, mica and 
many other non metallic minerals. 
ii. Sedimentary rocks on the western and eastern sides of the peninsula in Gujarat and 
Assam have most of the petroleum deposits. 
iii. Rajasthan has reserves of many non-ferrous minerals. 
iv. These variations exist because of the difference in the geological structure, processes 
and time involved in the formation of minerals. 
6. Distinguish between ferrous and non-ferrous metals. 
i. Ferrous metals are those metals, which have iron content in it where as non-ferrous 
metals   do not have iron content in it. 
ii. Normally ferrous metals are available in plenty whereas non ferrous metals are 
available in limited quantity. 
iii.  Iron ore, manganese ore, chromate, pyrite, tungsten, nickel, and cobalt are some 
examples of ferrous metals.  Copper , bauxite, lead, zinc, and gold are examples of 
non ferrous metals. 
iv. Ferrous minerals provide a strong base for the development of metallurgical 
industries. Non ferrous minerals play an important role in a number of metallurgical, 
engineering and electrical industries. 
7. Which are the important iron ore belts in India?  
i. Orissa Jharkhand belt:  High-grade hematite ore is found in Badampahar mines in the 
Mayurbhanj and Kendujhar districts of Orissa.  It is found in Gua and Noamundi 
mines of Singhbhum districts of Jharkhand too.  
ii. Durg-Bastar-Chandrapur belt in Chhatisgarh:  Very high-grade hematite is found in 
the Bailadila range of hills in the Bastar district of Chhatisgarh. It is found in Durg 
and Dantewara districts of Chhatisgarh. 
                      NM    ISB - 106 -
iii. Bellary-Chitradurga-Chikmaglur-Tumkur belt in Karnataka: It has the largest reserves 
of iron ore. The Kudremukh mines located in the Western Ghats of Karnataka are 
known to be one of the largest in the world.  
iv. Maharashtra –Goa belt: The iron ore of the North Goa district of Goa and Ratnagiri 
district of Maharashtra are not of high quality, yet they are efficiently exploited. 
8.  Differentiate between magnetite and hematite. 
  These are the two important types of iron ores. Magnetite is the finest iron ore with a 
very high content of iron up to 70 %. It has excellent magnetic qualities and is valuable 
in the electrical industry. Hematite is the most important industrial iron ore in terms of 
quantity used. It has a lower content of iron from 50 to 60 %. 
9.  What are the uses of manganese as a mineral? Name any two states producing  
      manganese ores. 
i. Manganese is used in the manufacturing of steel and ferro-manganese alloy. It is also 
used in manufacturing bleaching powder, insecticides, and paints.  
ii. Odisha is the largest producer of manganese ores in India. It accounted for one-third 
of the country’s production in 2001.  
10. State any two uses of copper. Name the states where it is produced. 
i. Copper is used in electrical cables, electronics and chemical industries. 
ii. The Balaghat mines in Madhya Pradesh produce 29% of copper .Copper is produced   
    in Singbhum district of Jharkhand (16 %) and Khetri mines in Rajasthan (48%).  
11.  What are the advantages of bauxite as a metal ore? Where is it found?   
i. Bauxite is the ore from which aluminium is obtained. Aluminium is a light metal 
used in manufacture of airplanes, utensils and other household goods. 
ii. Aluminium is an important metal because it combines the strength of metals like iron 
with extreme lightness and with good conductivity and malleability. 
iii. Odisha is the largest bauxite producing state with 34.97 % of the country’s total 
production in 2009-10. Panchpatmali in Koraput district is the important bauxite 
producing centre in Odisha.      
12.  What are the properties of mica as a mineral? What are its uses? Where is it found? 
i. Mica is made up of a series of thin plates or leaves.  
ii. Mica has insulating properties and has the quality to withstand high voltage and 
temperature. Hence it is used in electrical and electronic industries 
iii. It is clear, black, green, red yellow or brown.  
iv. Mica is found in northern edge of Chotanagpur plateau. Koderma Gaya – Hazaribagh 
belt of Jharkhand is the leading producer of mica. Ajmer in Rajasthan and Nellore in 
Andhra Pradesh are the other areas, producing mica. 
 
 
 
Page 4


                      NM    ISB - 104 -
CHAPTER-5-  MINERALS AND ENERGY RESOURCES 
 
1. What are minerals? What is its importance?       
i) Minerals are natural chemical compounds uniform in composition and structure and are 
constituents of rocks and ores. 
ii) These are homogenous, naturally occurring substance with a definable internal structure.  
iii) These are formed through various geological processes taking place in the earth.  
iv) Minerals are naturally found in solid, liquid and gaseous states ranging from the hardest 
diamond to the softest talc. 
iii) Minerals are one of the most important resources of a country. It provides sound base for 
economic and industrial development. 
Importance:  
a) Minerals are indispensable part of our lives. Almost everything that we use, from a 
tiny pin to a towering building or a big ship, all are made from minerals. 
b) The railway lines and the pavements of the roads, our implements and  machinery too 
are made of minerals.  
c) Cars , buses, trains, airplanes are manufactured from minerals and run on power 
resources derived from the earth. 
d) Even the food that we eat contains minerals. In the stages of development, human 
beings use minerals for their livelihood, decoration, festivals and religious and 
ceremonial rites. 
2. What are the properties of minerals?  
i. Minerals are in wide range of colours, hardness, crystal forms, luster and density, 
because, these are formed from, a certain combination of elements depends upon the 
physical and chemical conditions under which the material forms.  
ii. Minerals are naturally found in solid, liquid and gaseous states ranging from the   
   hardest diamond to the softest talc. (any other points from answer 1) 
3. What are the different types of formations of minerals? OR   Where do different  forms   
  of minerals  generally occur? 
i. In igneous and metamorphic rocks, minerals occur in the cracks, crevices, faults or 
joints. The smaller occurrences are called VEINS and the larger are called LODES.  
They are formed when minerals in molten and gaseous forms are forced upward 
through cavities towards the earth’s surface. They cool and solidify as they rise.  
ii. In sedimentary rocks, a number of minerals occur in beds or layers. They have been 
formed as a result of deposition, accumulation, and concentration in horizontal strata.  
Coal and some forms of iron ore have been concentrated as a result of great pressure 
for a long period. Another group of sedimentary minerals is gypsum, potash salt and 
sodium salt. These are formed as a result of evaporation especially in arid regions. 
                      NM    ISB - 105 -
iii. Another mode of formation involves the decomposition of surface rock, and the 
removal of soluble constituents, leaving a residual mass of weathered material 
containing ores. Bauxite is formed this way. 
iv. Certain minerals may occur as alluvial deposits in sands of valley floors and the 
base of hills. These deposits are called ‘placer deposits’ and generally contain 
minerals which are not corroded by water. Gold, silver, tin and platinum are most 
important among such minerals. 
v. The ocean water contains vast quantities of minerals, but most of these are too 
widely diffused to be of economic significance. However, common salt, magnesium 
and bromine are largely derived from ocean waters. The ocean beds too are rich in 
manganese nodules. 
4. How are minerals formed in igneous and metamorphic rocks?  (Ans. Point  i above) 
5.  Describe the diversity in the distribution of mineral resources in India. State an   
       important reason for this diversity. 
i. The peninsular rocks contain most of the reserves of coal, metallic minerals, mica and 
many other non metallic minerals. 
ii. Sedimentary rocks on the western and eastern sides of the peninsula in Gujarat and 
Assam have most of the petroleum deposits. 
iii. Rajasthan has reserves of many non-ferrous minerals. 
iv. These variations exist because of the difference in the geological structure, processes 
and time involved in the formation of minerals. 
6. Distinguish between ferrous and non-ferrous metals. 
i. Ferrous metals are those metals, which have iron content in it where as non-ferrous 
metals   do not have iron content in it. 
ii. Normally ferrous metals are available in plenty whereas non ferrous metals are 
available in limited quantity. 
iii.  Iron ore, manganese ore, chromate, pyrite, tungsten, nickel, and cobalt are some 
examples of ferrous metals.  Copper , bauxite, lead, zinc, and gold are examples of 
non ferrous metals. 
iv. Ferrous minerals provide a strong base for the development of metallurgical 
industries. Non ferrous minerals play an important role in a number of metallurgical, 
engineering and electrical industries. 
7. Which are the important iron ore belts in India?  
i. Orissa Jharkhand belt:  High-grade hematite ore is found in Badampahar mines in the 
Mayurbhanj and Kendujhar districts of Orissa.  It is found in Gua and Noamundi 
mines of Singhbhum districts of Jharkhand too.  
ii. Durg-Bastar-Chandrapur belt in Chhatisgarh:  Very high-grade hematite is found in 
the Bailadila range of hills in the Bastar district of Chhatisgarh. It is found in Durg 
and Dantewara districts of Chhatisgarh. 
                      NM    ISB - 106 -
iii. Bellary-Chitradurga-Chikmaglur-Tumkur belt in Karnataka: It has the largest reserves 
of iron ore. The Kudremukh mines located in the Western Ghats of Karnataka are 
known to be one of the largest in the world.  
iv. Maharashtra –Goa belt: The iron ore of the North Goa district of Goa and Ratnagiri 
district of Maharashtra are not of high quality, yet they are efficiently exploited. 
8.  Differentiate between magnetite and hematite. 
  These are the two important types of iron ores. Magnetite is the finest iron ore with a 
very high content of iron up to 70 %. It has excellent magnetic qualities and is valuable 
in the electrical industry. Hematite is the most important industrial iron ore in terms of 
quantity used. It has a lower content of iron from 50 to 60 %. 
9.  What are the uses of manganese as a mineral? Name any two states producing  
      manganese ores. 
i. Manganese is used in the manufacturing of steel and ferro-manganese alloy. It is also 
used in manufacturing bleaching powder, insecticides, and paints.  
ii. Odisha is the largest producer of manganese ores in India. It accounted for one-third 
of the country’s production in 2001.  
10. State any two uses of copper. Name the states where it is produced. 
i. Copper is used in electrical cables, electronics and chemical industries. 
ii. The Balaghat mines in Madhya Pradesh produce 29% of copper .Copper is produced   
    in Singbhum district of Jharkhand (16 %) and Khetri mines in Rajasthan (48%).  
11.  What are the advantages of bauxite as a metal ore? Where is it found?   
i. Bauxite is the ore from which aluminium is obtained. Aluminium is a light metal 
used in manufacture of airplanes, utensils and other household goods. 
ii. Aluminium is an important metal because it combines the strength of metals like iron 
with extreme lightness and with good conductivity and malleability. 
iii. Odisha is the largest bauxite producing state with 34.97 % of the country’s total 
production in 2009-10. Panchpatmali in Koraput district is the important bauxite 
producing centre in Odisha.      
12.  What are the properties of mica as a mineral? What are its uses? Where is it found? 
i. Mica is made up of a series of thin plates or leaves.  
ii. Mica has insulating properties and has the quality to withstand high voltage and 
temperature. Hence it is used in electrical and electronic industries 
iii. It is clear, black, green, red yellow or brown.  
iv. Mica is found in northern edge of Chotanagpur plateau. Koderma Gaya – Hazaribagh 
belt of Jharkhand is the leading producer of mica. Ajmer in Rajasthan and Nellore in 
Andhra Pradesh are the other areas, producing mica. 
 
 
 
                      NM    ISB - 107 -
13. Name an important rock mineral. What are its uses? Where is it found?  
Limestone is an important rock mineral. It is found in association with rocks composed of 
calcium carbonates or calcium or magnesium carbonates. It is found in sedimentary rocks of 
most geological formations. It is used as a raw material in cement industry . It is used in the 
blast furnace in the smelting of iron ore. It is produced in  Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, 
Rajasthan, Gujarat and Tamil Nadu. 
14. Why is conservation of minerals necessary? Suggest a few measures to conserve minerals.  
i. The total volume of workable mineral deposits is only one per cent of the earth crust. 
We are rapidly consuming mineral resources that requires millions of years to be 
created and concentrated. The rate of replenishment is very slow but the rate of 
consumption is very fast. So conservation is necessary. 
ii. Mineral resources are finite and non-renewable. Rich mineral deposits are short-lived 
possessions.  So conservation is necessary. 
iii. Continued extraction of minerals leads to increasing costs as it comes from greater 
depths along with decrease in quality. Therefore, we have to conserve it. 
 Measures:  
a) A concerted effort has to be made in order to use our mineral resources in a planned 
and sustainable manner. 
b) Improved technologies need to be constantly evolved to allow use of low-grade ores 
at low costs. 
c) Recycling of metals, using scrap metals and other substitutes are steps in conserving 
it for future. 
15. What is the significance of energy resources?       
         Energy is an indispensable requirement in modern life. It may be manual or animal and 
mechanical or electrical. Availability of energy is a pre-requisite of modern economic 
activities. Economic development of a country depends on the energy sources available in 
a country. It is needed to cook, to provide light and heat, to run vehicles and to drive 
machineries in industries. 
16. How are the sources of energy categorized?       
       The sources of energy are classified into two: 
(a) Conventional source of energy: 
              These are the sources of energy, which have been in use for a long time. Coal 
Petroleum, natural gas, and thermal and hydro electricity are conventional sources of 
energy. These are non-renewable sources of energy. 
(b) Non-conventional source of energy: 
     These are the new sources of energy developed recently. Solar, wind, tidal, geothermal, 
biogas and atomic energy are non-conventional source of energy. These are renewable 
sources of energy. 
17.  Name the two common sources of energy in rural areas. Why is its use discouraged? 
 Firewood and cattle dung are the common sources of energy in rural areas. About 70 % of   
         energy requirements in rural areas is met by these two. 
 
Page 5


                      NM    ISB - 104 -
CHAPTER-5-  MINERALS AND ENERGY RESOURCES 
 
1. What are minerals? What is its importance?       
i) Minerals are natural chemical compounds uniform in composition and structure and are 
constituents of rocks and ores. 
ii) These are homogenous, naturally occurring substance with a definable internal structure.  
iii) These are formed through various geological processes taking place in the earth.  
iv) Minerals are naturally found in solid, liquid and gaseous states ranging from the hardest 
diamond to the softest talc. 
iii) Minerals are one of the most important resources of a country. It provides sound base for 
economic and industrial development. 
Importance:  
a) Minerals are indispensable part of our lives. Almost everything that we use, from a 
tiny pin to a towering building or a big ship, all are made from minerals. 
b) The railway lines and the pavements of the roads, our implements and  machinery too 
are made of minerals.  
c) Cars , buses, trains, airplanes are manufactured from minerals and run on power 
resources derived from the earth. 
d) Even the food that we eat contains minerals. In the stages of development, human 
beings use minerals for their livelihood, decoration, festivals and religious and 
ceremonial rites. 
2. What are the properties of minerals?  
i. Minerals are in wide range of colours, hardness, crystal forms, luster and density, 
because, these are formed from, a certain combination of elements depends upon the 
physical and chemical conditions under which the material forms.  
ii. Minerals are naturally found in solid, liquid and gaseous states ranging from the   
   hardest diamond to the softest talc. (any other points from answer 1) 
3. What are the different types of formations of minerals? OR   Where do different  forms   
  of minerals  generally occur? 
i. In igneous and metamorphic rocks, minerals occur in the cracks, crevices, faults or 
joints. The smaller occurrences are called VEINS and the larger are called LODES.  
They are formed when minerals in molten and gaseous forms are forced upward 
through cavities towards the earth’s surface. They cool and solidify as they rise.  
ii. In sedimentary rocks, a number of minerals occur in beds or layers. They have been 
formed as a result of deposition, accumulation, and concentration in horizontal strata.  
Coal and some forms of iron ore have been concentrated as a result of great pressure 
for a long period. Another group of sedimentary minerals is gypsum, potash salt and 
sodium salt. These are formed as a result of evaporation especially in arid regions. 
                      NM    ISB - 105 -
iii. Another mode of formation involves the decomposition of surface rock, and the 
removal of soluble constituents, leaving a residual mass of weathered material 
containing ores. Bauxite is formed this way. 
iv. Certain minerals may occur as alluvial deposits in sands of valley floors and the 
base of hills. These deposits are called ‘placer deposits’ and generally contain 
minerals which are not corroded by water. Gold, silver, tin and platinum are most 
important among such minerals. 
v. The ocean water contains vast quantities of minerals, but most of these are too 
widely diffused to be of economic significance. However, common salt, magnesium 
and bromine are largely derived from ocean waters. The ocean beds too are rich in 
manganese nodules. 
4. How are minerals formed in igneous and metamorphic rocks?  (Ans. Point  i above) 
5.  Describe the diversity in the distribution of mineral resources in India. State an   
       important reason for this diversity. 
i. The peninsular rocks contain most of the reserves of coal, metallic minerals, mica and 
many other non metallic minerals. 
ii. Sedimentary rocks on the western and eastern sides of the peninsula in Gujarat and 
Assam have most of the petroleum deposits. 
iii. Rajasthan has reserves of many non-ferrous minerals. 
iv. These variations exist because of the difference in the geological structure, processes 
and time involved in the formation of minerals. 
6. Distinguish between ferrous and non-ferrous metals. 
i. Ferrous metals are those metals, which have iron content in it where as non-ferrous 
metals   do not have iron content in it. 
ii. Normally ferrous metals are available in plenty whereas non ferrous metals are 
available in limited quantity. 
iii.  Iron ore, manganese ore, chromate, pyrite, tungsten, nickel, and cobalt are some 
examples of ferrous metals.  Copper , bauxite, lead, zinc, and gold are examples of 
non ferrous metals. 
iv. Ferrous minerals provide a strong base for the development of metallurgical 
industries. Non ferrous minerals play an important role in a number of metallurgical, 
engineering and electrical industries. 
7. Which are the important iron ore belts in India?  
i. Orissa Jharkhand belt:  High-grade hematite ore is found in Badampahar mines in the 
Mayurbhanj and Kendujhar districts of Orissa.  It is found in Gua and Noamundi 
mines of Singhbhum districts of Jharkhand too.  
ii. Durg-Bastar-Chandrapur belt in Chhatisgarh:  Very high-grade hematite is found in 
the Bailadila range of hills in the Bastar district of Chhatisgarh. It is found in Durg 
and Dantewara districts of Chhatisgarh. 
                      NM    ISB - 106 -
iii. Bellary-Chitradurga-Chikmaglur-Tumkur belt in Karnataka: It has the largest reserves 
of iron ore. The Kudremukh mines located in the Western Ghats of Karnataka are 
known to be one of the largest in the world.  
iv. Maharashtra –Goa belt: The iron ore of the North Goa district of Goa and Ratnagiri 
district of Maharashtra are not of high quality, yet they are efficiently exploited. 
8.  Differentiate between magnetite and hematite. 
  These are the two important types of iron ores. Magnetite is the finest iron ore with a 
very high content of iron up to 70 %. It has excellent magnetic qualities and is valuable 
in the electrical industry. Hematite is the most important industrial iron ore in terms of 
quantity used. It has a lower content of iron from 50 to 60 %. 
9.  What are the uses of manganese as a mineral? Name any two states producing  
      manganese ores. 
i. Manganese is used in the manufacturing of steel and ferro-manganese alloy. It is also 
used in manufacturing bleaching powder, insecticides, and paints.  
ii. Odisha is the largest producer of manganese ores in India. It accounted for one-third 
of the country’s production in 2001.  
10. State any two uses of copper. Name the states where it is produced. 
i. Copper is used in electrical cables, electronics and chemical industries. 
ii. The Balaghat mines in Madhya Pradesh produce 29% of copper .Copper is produced   
    in Singbhum district of Jharkhand (16 %) and Khetri mines in Rajasthan (48%).  
11.  What are the advantages of bauxite as a metal ore? Where is it found?   
i. Bauxite is the ore from which aluminium is obtained. Aluminium is a light metal 
used in manufacture of airplanes, utensils and other household goods. 
ii. Aluminium is an important metal because it combines the strength of metals like iron 
with extreme lightness and with good conductivity and malleability. 
iii. Odisha is the largest bauxite producing state with 34.97 % of the country’s total 
production in 2009-10. Panchpatmali in Koraput district is the important bauxite 
producing centre in Odisha.      
12.  What are the properties of mica as a mineral? What are its uses? Where is it found? 
i. Mica is made up of a series of thin plates or leaves.  
ii. Mica has insulating properties and has the quality to withstand high voltage and 
temperature. Hence it is used in electrical and electronic industries 
iii. It is clear, black, green, red yellow or brown.  
iv. Mica is found in northern edge of Chotanagpur plateau. Koderma Gaya – Hazaribagh 
belt of Jharkhand is the leading producer of mica. Ajmer in Rajasthan and Nellore in 
Andhra Pradesh are the other areas, producing mica. 
 
 
 
                      NM    ISB - 107 -
13. Name an important rock mineral. What are its uses? Where is it found?  
Limestone is an important rock mineral. It is found in association with rocks composed of 
calcium carbonates or calcium or magnesium carbonates. It is found in sedimentary rocks of 
most geological formations. It is used as a raw material in cement industry . It is used in the 
blast furnace in the smelting of iron ore. It is produced in  Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, 
Rajasthan, Gujarat and Tamil Nadu. 
14. Why is conservation of minerals necessary? Suggest a few measures to conserve minerals.  
i. The total volume of workable mineral deposits is only one per cent of the earth crust. 
We are rapidly consuming mineral resources that requires millions of years to be 
created and concentrated. The rate of replenishment is very slow but the rate of 
consumption is very fast. So conservation is necessary. 
ii. Mineral resources are finite and non-renewable. Rich mineral deposits are short-lived 
possessions.  So conservation is necessary. 
iii. Continued extraction of minerals leads to increasing costs as it comes from greater 
depths along with decrease in quality. Therefore, we have to conserve it. 
 Measures:  
a) A concerted effort has to be made in order to use our mineral resources in a planned 
and sustainable manner. 
b) Improved technologies need to be constantly evolved to allow use of low-grade ores 
at low costs. 
c) Recycling of metals, using scrap metals and other substitutes are steps in conserving 
it for future. 
15. What is the significance of energy resources?       
         Energy is an indispensable requirement in modern life. It may be manual or animal and 
mechanical or electrical. Availability of energy is a pre-requisite of modern economic 
activities. Economic development of a country depends on the energy sources available in 
a country. It is needed to cook, to provide light and heat, to run vehicles and to drive 
machineries in industries. 
16. How are the sources of energy categorized?       
       The sources of energy are classified into two: 
(a) Conventional source of energy: 
              These are the sources of energy, which have been in use for a long time. Coal 
Petroleum, natural gas, and thermal and hydro electricity are conventional sources of 
energy. These are non-renewable sources of energy. 
(b) Non-conventional source of energy: 
     These are the new sources of energy developed recently. Solar, wind, tidal, geothermal, 
biogas and atomic energy are non-conventional source of energy. These are renewable 
sources of energy. 
17.  Name the two common sources of energy in rural areas. Why is its use discouraged? 
 Firewood and cattle dung are the common sources of energy in rural areas. About 70 % of   
         energy requirements in rural areas is met by these two. 
 
                      NM    ISB - 108 -
        Since forest area is decreasing, the use of firewood is discouraged to prevent further   
        decreasing of forests.  The use of cattle dung is discouraged because it consumes most   
        valuable manure which could be used in agriculture.  
18. How is coal formed?  What is its use?        
a)  Coal is formed due to the compression of plant material over millions of years. It is found 
in a variety of forms depending on the degrees of compression, depth, and time of burial. It 
is found in sedimentary rocks beneath the earth’s surface.  
      b) Coal is the main source of power in India. It is used for power generation, to supply   
           energy to industries as well as domestic needs.  
      c)  It is also used as a raw material in chemical industries. It is used in Iron and steel 
industries as a raw material to reduce its temper. Coal is so useful that it is called ‘black 
gold’. 
      19. What are the four different types of coal? (Black gold) Write its characteristics. 
(a) Anthracite is the best quality coal. It is hard black and compact. 
(b) Bituminous is the most popular coal for commercial use. High grade bituminous coal   
         is the metallurgical coal which has a special value for smelting iron in blast furnaces. 
(c)    Lignite is a low-grade brown coal, which is soft with high moisture content and is   
        used for generating electricity. 
            (d)   Peat has low carbon and high moisture content  and low heating capacity. It burns   
        like wood and gives more smoke and less heat. 
     20.  Differentiate between peat and bituminous.  
 i.  Peat has low carbon and high moisture content where as bituminous has high carbon and   
             low moisture content. 
        ii. Peat has low heating capacity. It burns like wood and gives more smoke and less heat   
            where as bituminous has high heating capacity, it gives more heat and less smoke. 
         iii. Peat is not widely used where as bituminous is the most popular coal for commercial use.   
              High grade bituminous coal is the metallurgical coal which has a special value for smelting   
              iron in blast furnaces. 
    21. Name the main rock series of geological ages where coal occurs in India. Or ( Name the   
          main rock series of  coal found in India) 
 a. Gondwana coal,  a little over 200 million years in age , is found in Damodar valley in   
               West Bengal and Jharkhand.  
 b. Tertiary coal, only about 55 million years old, is found in north-eastern states of  
               Meghalaya, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, and Nagaland. 
   22. State the importance of petroleum production in India. Where does it occur in the rock   
        formations? 
 i. Petroleum is the second major energy source after coal.  
           ii. It provides fuel for heating and lighting, lubricants for machineries and raw materials for a   
               number of manufacturing industries. 
          iii. Petroleum refineries act as a nodal industry for synthetic textile, fertilizer and a numerous   
               chemical industries. 
 a)  Most of the petroleum occurrences in India are associated with anticlines and fault traps   
                 in the rock formations of the tertiary age.  
b) In regions of folding, anticlines or domes, it occurs where oil is trapped in the crest of the   
    up fold.  
 
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