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NCERT Exemplar: Biodiversity & its Conservation - 1 Notes | Study Biology Class 12 - NEET

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MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 

Q.1. Which of the following countries has the highest biodiversity?
(a) Brazil
(b) South Africa
(c) Russia
(d) India
Ans. 
(a)
Solution.
Brazil has the highest biodiversity because it is located near equator.

Q.2. Which of the following is not a cause for loss of biodiversity?
(a) Destruction of habitat
(b) Invasion by alien species
(c) Keeping animals in zoological parks
(d) Over-exploitation of natural resources
Ans.
(c)
Solution.
Destruction of habitat, invasion by alien species, and over-exploitation, of natural resources are cause for loss of biodiversity.

Q.3. Which of the following is not an invasive alien species in the Indian context?
(a) Lantana
(b) Cynodon
(c) Parthenium
(d) Eichhornia
Ans.
(b)
Solution.
Carrot grass (Parthenium), Lantana and water hyacinth (Eichhomia crassipe) are invasive weeds that cause environment damage.

Q.4. Where among the following will you find pitcher plant?
(a) Rain forest of North-East India
(b) Sunderbans
(c) Thar Desert
(d) Western Ghats
Ans. 
(a)
Solution.
Pitcher plants are found at rain forest’ of North-East India.

Q.5. Which one of the following is not a major characteristic feature of biodiversity hot spots?
(a) Large number of species
(b) Abundance of endemic species
(c) Mostly located in the tropics
(d) Mostly located in the polar regions
Ans.
(c)
Solution.
Characteristic feature of biodiversity hot spots are large number of species, abundance of endemic species and mostly located in the tropics.

Q.6. Match the animals given in column I with their location in column II:

Column I Column II
 A. Dodo i. Africa
 B. Quagga ii. Russia
 C. Thylacine iii. Mauritius
 D. Stellar's sea cow iv. Australia

Choose the correct match from the following:
(a) A-i, B-iii, C-ii, D-iv
(b) A-iv, B-iii, C-i, D-ii
(c) A-iii, B-i, C-ii, D-iv
(c) A-iii, B-i, C-iv, D-ii

Ans. (d)
Solution.

Column I Column II
 A. Dodo iii. Mauritius 
 B. Quagga i. Africa
 C. Thylacine iv. Australia
 D. Stellar's sea cow ii. Russia


Q.7. What is common to the following plants: Nepenthes, Psilotum, Rauwolfia and Aconitum?
(a) All are ornamental plants
(b) All are phylogenic link species
(c) All are prone to over exploitation
(d) All are exclusively present in the Eastern Himalayas.
Ans.
(c)
Solution.
Nepenthes, Psilotum, Rauwolfia  and Aconitum, all are prone to over-exploitation.

Q.8. The one-horned rhinoceros is specific to which of the following sanctuary
(a) Bhitar Kanika
(b) Bandipur
(c) Kaziranga
(c) Corbett park
Ans.
(c)
Solution.
NCERT Exemplar: Biodiversity & its Conservation - 1 Notes | Study Biology Class 12 - NEET

Q.9. Amongst the animal groups given below, which one appears to be more vulnerable to extinction?
(a) Insects
(b) Mammals
(c) Amphibians
(d) Reptiles
Ans.
(c)
Solution.
Presently, 12% all the birds species, 23% all mammals species, 31% all gymnosperms species and 32% all amphibian species in world face the threat of extinctions.

Q.10. Which one of the following is an endangered plant species of India?
(a) Rauwolfia serpentina
(b) Santalum album (Sandal wood)
(c) Cycas beddonei
(d) All of the above
Ans. 
(d)
Solution.
Endangered (ER): It is facing a high risk of extinction in the wild in the near future if conservation measures are not promptly taken.
Example: Red panda (AHums fulgens)

  • Giant panda
  • Largest lemur Idri idri of Madagascar
  • Asiatic Wild Ass (Asinus hemionus khur now restricted to Rann of Kutch)-
  • Lion Tailed Macaque
  • Bald Eagle
  • Asiatic lion
  • Drosera indica
  • Nepenthes
  • Hombill
  • Indian Aconite
  • Bentinckia nicobarica
  • Snow leopard
  • Rauwolfia serpentina
  • Santalum album (Sandal wood)
  • Cycas beddomei 


Q.11. What is common to Lantana, Eichhornia and African catfish?
(a) All are endangered species of India.
(b) All are keystone species.
(c) All are mammals found in India.
(d) All the species are neither threatened nor indigenous species of India.
Ans.
(d)
Solution.
Lantana, Eichhomia and African catfish, all the species are neither threatened nor indigenous species of India.

Q.12. The extinction of passenger pigeon was due to:
(a) Increased number of predatory birds.
(b) Over exploitation by humans.
(c) Non-availability of the food.
(d) Bird flu virus infection.
Ans.
(b)
Solution.
Humans have always depended on nature for food and shelter but when ‘need’ turns to ‘greed’ it leads to over-exploitation of natural resources. In the last 500 years many species extinctions (Steller’s sea cow, passenger’s pigeon) were due to over-exploitation by human.

Q.13. Which of the following statements is correct?
(a)
Parthenium is an endemic species of our country.
(b) African catfish is not a threat to indigenous catfishes.
(c) Steller’s sea cow is an extinct animal.
(d) Lantana is popularly known as carrot grass.
Ans. (c)

Q.14. Among the ecosystem mentioned below, where can one find maximum biodiversity?
(a) Mangroves
(b) Desert
(c) Coral reefs
(d) Alpine meadows
Ans.
(c)
Solution.
Coral reefs has maximum biodiversity among above options.

Q.15. Which of the following forests is known as the ‘lungs of the planet Earth’?
(a)
Taiga forest
(b) Tundra forest
(c) Amazon rain forest
(d) Rain forests of North East India
Ans. (c)
Solution.
Amazon rain forest is known as the ‘lungs of the planet Eart

Q.16. The active chemical drug reserpine is obtained from:
(a) Datura
(b) Rauwolfia
(c) Atropa
(d) Papaver
Ans.
(b)
Solution.
The genetic variation shown by the medicinal plant Rauwolfia vomitoria growing in different Himalayan ranges might be in terms of potency and concentration of the active chemical (Reserpine) obtained from roots of plants.

Q.17. Which of the following group exhibit more species diversity?
(a) Gymnosperms
(b) Algae
(c) Bryophytes
(d) Fungi
Ans. (d)

Q.18. Which of the below mentioned regions exhibit less seasonal variations?
(a) Tropics
(b) Temperates
(c) Alpines
(d) Both (a) and (b)
Ans.
(a)
Solution.
Tropical regions exhibit less seasonal variations.

Q.19. The historic convention on Biological Diversity held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 is known as:
(a) CITES Convention
(b) The Earth Summit
(c) G-16 Summit
(D) MAB Programme
Ans.
(b)
Solution.
The Earth Summit: This historical convention on biological diversity held in Rio-de-Janeiro, Brazil in 1992. Attending nations take appropriate measure for conservation of biodiversity and sustainable utilization of its benefits.

Q.20. What is common to the techniques (i) in vitro fertilisation, (ii) Cryo preservation and (iii) tissue culture?
(a) All are in situ conservation methods.
(b) All are ex situ conservation methods.
(c) All require ultra modern equipment and large space.
(d) All are methods of conservation of extinct organisms.
Ans.
(b)
Solution.

NCERT Exemplar: Biodiversity & its Conservation - 1 Notes | Study Biology Class 12 - NEET


VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

Q.1. What characteristics make a community stable?
Ans. Characteristics that make a community stable are:
(i) A stable community should not show too much variation in productivity from year to year
(ii) It must be either resistant or resilient to occasional disturbances (natural or man-made)
(iii) It must also be resistant to invasions by alien species.

Q.2. What could have triggered mass extinctions of species in the past?
Ans.
 
(i) Volcanic eruption
(ii) Earthquake
(iii) Extremes of temperatures
(iv) Glaciations
(v) Continental drift

Q.3. What accounts for the greater ecological diversity of India?
Ans. 
India with its deserts, rain forests, mangroves, coral reefs, wetlands, estuaries, and alpine meadows has a greater ecosystem diversity.

Q.4. According to David Tilman, greater the diversity, greater is the primary productivity. Can you think of a very low diversity man-made ecosystem that has high productivity?
Ans.
Agricultural fields like wheat field / paddy field which are also examples of monoculture practices.

Q.5. What does 'Red' indicate in the IUCN Red list (2004)?
Ans.
Red indicates the species that are at the verge of extinction or threatened species.

Q.6. Explain as to how protection of biodiversity hot spots alone can reduce up to 30% of the current rate of species extinction.
Ans.
Although all the biodiversity hot spots put together cover less than 2 percent of the earth’s land area, the number of species they collectively harbour is extremely high and strict protection of these hot spots could reduce the ongoing mass extinctions by almost 30 percent.

Q.7. What is the difference between endemic and exotic species?
Ans.
Endemic species are restricted, native to a particular geographical region. Exotic species are speeds which are introduced from other geographical regions into an area.

Q.8. How does species diversity differ from ecological diversity?
Ans.
Species diversity is the diversity at the species level while ecological diversity is at the ecosystem level diversity.

Q.9. Why is genetic variation important in the plant Rauwolfia vomitoria?
Ans.
Genetic variation affects the production of the drug principle reserpine in the medicinal plant Rauwolfia.

Q.10. What is Red Data Book?
Ans.
The Red data book is a compilation of data on species threatened with extinction, maintained by IUCN.

Q.11. Define gene pool.
Ans. 
Total genes and their alleles in a population is called gene pool.

Q.12. What does the term ‘Frugivorous’ mean?
Ans.
Frugivorous means fruit eating organisms.

Q.13. What is the expanded form of IUCN?
Ans.
International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.

Q.14. Define the terms (i) Bioprospecting (ii) Endemism
Ans.
 
(i) Bioprospecting: Exploring molecular, genetic and species-level diversity for products of economic importance.
(ii) Endemism: Species confined to that region and not found anywhere else.

Q.15. What is common to the species shown in figures A and B?

NCERT Exemplar: Biodiversity & its Conservation - 1 Notes | Study Biology Class 12 - NEET NCERT Exemplar: Biodiversity & its Conservation - 1 Notes | Study Biology Class 12 - NEET

Ans. Both are invasive weed species.

Q.16. What is common to the species shown in figures A and B?

NCERT Exemplar: Biodiversity & its Conservation - 1 Notes | Study Biology Class 12 - NEETNCERT Exemplar: Biodiversity & its Conservation - 1 Notes | Study Biology Class 12 - NEET

Ans. Both are examples for Keystone species.

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