Extent of India
- From Kashmir in North to Kanniyakumari in the South and Arunachal Pradesh in the East to Gujarat in the West.
- Territorial limit- 12 nautical miles (21.9 km) from the coast, towards the sea.
- Southern Boundary- 6°45' N latitude in the Bay of Bengal.
- Latitudinal and Longitudinal Extent of India - roughly 30 degrees.
- Distance between North and South extremity- 3,214 km.
- Distance between East and West extremities - 2,933 km.
- The southern part of the country- lies within the tropics and the Northern part of the country - lies within the subtropical zone or warm temperate zone. This leads to large variations in landforms, climate, soil types, and natural vegetation.
- India has an area of 3.28 million sq km, which accounts for 2.4 percent of the world’s land surface area.
- India is the seventh-largest country in the world, in terms of area.
- From the values of longitude - there is a difference of 30 degrees - between the easternmost and the westernmost part of the country- hence a time difference of nearly two hours is caused.
- Countries generally select Standard Meridian as multiples of 7°30' of longitude.
- India selected 82°30' as the ‘Standard Meridian’, which passes through Mirzapur, UP.
- Indian Standard Time - 5hrs and 30 min, ahead of Greenwich Mean Time.
- Some countries have more than one Standard Meridian because of the vast East-West extent.
- The USA has seven time zones and Russia has eleven time zones.
Question 1:Consider the following statements regarding the Standard Time Zones?
The number of time zones a country practices mostly depends on the size of the country. For example, it’s impossible for a country as huge as Russia with the area of 17.1 million km² to process on only one time zone –this might create a problem of day-night difference within the same country.So Russia has 11 time zones and USA has 6 time zones. However, there are certain exceptions like china which works on only one time zone despite its size. Indian Standard Time is calculated on the basis of 82.58° E longitude and its uniform all around the country. India is 5.5 hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time.
- The subcontinent includes countries - Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, and India.
- Himalayas- with other ranges have acted as a formidable barrier in the past.
- Except for a few passes like Khyber, the Bolan, the Shipkila, the Nathula, the Bomdila, etc., it was difficult to cross the Himalayas.
- The Peninsula part of India extends towards the Indian Ocean.
- Provided the country with a coastline of 6,100 km in the mainland and 7,517 km in the entire geographical coast of the mainland plus the island groups.
- Andaman and Nicobar are located in the Bay of Bengal.
- The Lakshadweep islands are located in the Arabian Sea.
India and its neighbours
- India is located in the Southcentral part of Asia, bordering the Indian Ocean and its two arms extend in the form of Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal.
- Maritime location of Peninsular India helps in linking it to the neighbouring regions through the sea and air routes.
- Indian neighbouring countries located in the Indian Ocean- Maldives and Sri Lanka (both are island countries)
- Sri Lanka is separated from India by - Gulf of Mannar and Palk Strait.