NCERT - Mineral & Power Resources Class 8 Notes | EduRev

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Class 8 : NCERT - Mineral & Power Resources Class 8 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Kiri is visiting Sukant in his 
native place near Dhanbad. Kiri 
is amazed to see that large areas 
were black. “Sukant, why is this 
place so black and dusty?” “This is 
because of the coal mines nearby. 
Do you see the trucks? They are 
carrying the mineral coal”.
“What are minerals?,” asks 
Kiri. Sukant says, “Have you ever 
seen a baker baking biscuits? The 
flour, milk, sugar and sometimes 
eggs are mixed together. While 
eating the baked biscuits can you 
see these ingredients separately? Just as in the biscuits,
there are a number of things that you cannot see, 
rocks on this earth have several materials called
minerals mixed in them. These minerals are scattered 
throughout the earth’s rocky crust”.
A naturally occurring substance that has a definite 
chemical composition is a mineral. Minerals are not 
evenly distributed over space. They are concentrated in 
a particular area or rock formations. Some minerals are 
found in areas which are not easily accessible such as 
the Arctic ocean bed and Antarctica. 
Minerals are formed in different types of geological 
environments, under varying conditions. They are 
created by natural processes without any human 
interference. They can be identified on the basis of their 
physical properties such as colour, density, hardness 
and chemical property such as solubility.
Do you know? 
The salt in your 
food and graphite in 
your pencil are also 
minerals.
Mineral and
Power Resources
Fig. 3.1: Uploading of a truck in
a coal mine
Page 2


Kiri is visiting Sukant in his 
native place near Dhanbad. Kiri 
is amazed to see that large areas 
were black. “Sukant, why is this 
place so black and dusty?” “This is 
because of the coal mines nearby. 
Do you see the trucks? They are 
carrying the mineral coal”.
“What are minerals?,” asks 
Kiri. Sukant says, “Have you ever 
seen a baker baking biscuits? The 
flour, milk, sugar and sometimes 
eggs are mixed together. While 
eating the baked biscuits can you 
see these ingredients separately? Just as in the biscuits,
there are a number of things that you cannot see, 
rocks on this earth have several materials called
minerals mixed in them. These minerals are scattered 
throughout the earth’s rocky crust”.
A naturally occurring substance that has a definite 
chemical composition is a mineral. Minerals are not 
evenly distributed over space. They are concentrated in 
a particular area or rock formations. Some minerals are 
found in areas which are not easily accessible such as 
the Arctic ocean bed and Antarctica. 
Minerals are formed in different types of geological 
environments, under varying conditions. They are 
created by natural processes without any human 
interference. They can be identified on the basis of their 
physical properties such as colour, density, hardness 
and chemical property such as solubility.
Do you know? 
The salt in your 
food and graphite in 
your pencil are also 
minerals.
Mineral and
Power Resources
Fig. 3.1: Uploading of a truck in
a coal mine
Do you know? 
A rock is an 
aggregate of one or 
more minerals but 
without definite 
composition of 
constituent of 
mineral. Rocks 
from which 
minerals are mined 
are known as ores.
Although more 
than 2,800 types 
of minerals have 
been identified, 
only about 100 
are considered ore
minerals. Thus one 
can easily notice 
that all minerals 
are rocks but 
all rocks are not 
minerals.
TYPES OF MINERALS
There are over three thousand different minerals. 
On the basis of composition, minerals are classified 
mainly as metallic and non-metallic minerals (Fig. 3.2).
Minerals
Metallic
Ferrous
Non-metallic
Non-ferrous
Fig. 3.2: Classification of Minerals
Extraction of Minerals
Mining
Open cast
mining
Drilling
Shaft
mining
Quarrying
Fig. 3.3: Extraction of Minerals
The metallic minerals contain metal in raw form. Metals 
are hard substances that conduct heat and electricity and 
have a characteristic lustre or shine. Iron ore, bauxite, 
manganese ore are some examples. Metallic minerals 
may be ferrous or non-ferrous. Ferrous minerals like 
iron ore, manganese and chromites contain iron. A
non-ferrous mineral does not contain iron but may contain 
some other metal such as gold, silver, copper or lead.
The non-metallic minerals do not contain metals. 
Limestone, mica and gypsum are examples of such 
minerals. The mineral fuels like coal and petroleum are 
also non-metallic minerals.
Minerals can be extracted by mining, drilling or 
quarrying (Fig 3.3). 
The process of taking out minerals from rocks buried 
under the earth’s surface is called mining. Minerals that 
lie at shallow depths are taken out by removing the surface 
layer; this is known as open-cast mining. Deep bores, called 
shafts, have to be made to reach mineral deposits that lie 
at great depths. This is called shaft mining. Petroleum 
and natural gas occur far below the earth’s surface. Deep 
wells are bored to take them out, this is called drilling
(Fig 3.4). Minerals that lie near the surface are simply dug 
out, by the process known as quarrying.
Fig. 3.4: Off shore 
drilling of oil
MINERAL AND POWER RESOURCES 25
Page 3


Kiri is visiting Sukant in his 
native place near Dhanbad. Kiri 
is amazed to see that large areas 
were black. “Sukant, why is this 
place so black and dusty?” “This is 
because of the coal mines nearby. 
Do you see the trucks? They are 
carrying the mineral coal”.
“What are minerals?,” asks 
Kiri. Sukant says, “Have you ever 
seen a baker baking biscuits? The 
flour, milk, sugar and sometimes 
eggs are mixed together. While 
eating the baked biscuits can you 
see these ingredients separately? Just as in the biscuits,
there are a number of things that you cannot see, 
rocks on this earth have several materials called
minerals mixed in them. These minerals are scattered 
throughout the earth’s rocky crust”.
A naturally occurring substance that has a definite 
chemical composition is a mineral. Minerals are not 
evenly distributed over space. They are concentrated in 
a particular area or rock formations. Some minerals are 
found in areas which are not easily accessible such as 
the Arctic ocean bed and Antarctica. 
Minerals are formed in different types of geological 
environments, under varying conditions. They are 
created by natural processes without any human 
interference. They can be identified on the basis of their 
physical properties such as colour, density, hardness 
and chemical property such as solubility.
Do you know? 
The salt in your 
food and graphite in 
your pencil are also 
minerals.
Mineral and
Power Resources
Fig. 3.1: Uploading of a truck in
a coal mine
Do you know? 
A rock is an 
aggregate of one or 
more minerals but 
without definite 
composition of 
constituent of 
mineral. Rocks 
from which 
minerals are mined 
are known as ores.
Although more 
than 2,800 types 
of minerals have 
been identified, 
only about 100 
are considered ore
minerals. Thus one 
can easily notice 
that all minerals 
are rocks but 
all rocks are not 
minerals.
TYPES OF MINERALS
There are over three thousand different minerals. 
On the basis of composition, minerals are classified 
mainly as metallic and non-metallic minerals (Fig. 3.2).
Minerals
Metallic
Ferrous
Non-metallic
Non-ferrous
Fig. 3.2: Classification of Minerals
Extraction of Minerals
Mining
Open cast
mining
Drilling
Shaft
mining
Quarrying
Fig. 3.3: Extraction of Minerals
The metallic minerals contain metal in raw form. Metals 
are hard substances that conduct heat and electricity and 
have a characteristic lustre or shine. Iron ore, bauxite, 
manganese ore are some examples. Metallic minerals 
may be ferrous or non-ferrous. Ferrous minerals like 
iron ore, manganese and chromites contain iron. A
non-ferrous mineral does not contain iron but may contain 
some other metal such as gold, silver, copper or lead.
The non-metallic minerals do not contain metals. 
Limestone, mica and gypsum are examples of such 
minerals. The mineral fuels like coal and petroleum are 
also non-metallic minerals.
Minerals can be extracted by mining, drilling or 
quarrying (Fig 3.3). 
The process of taking out minerals from rocks buried 
under the earth’s surface is called mining. Minerals that 
lie at shallow depths are taken out by removing the surface 
layer; this is known as open-cast mining. Deep bores, called 
shafts, have to be made to reach mineral deposits that lie 
at great depths. This is called shaft mining. Petroleum 
and natural gas occur far below the earth’s surface. Deep 
wells are bored to take them out, this is called drilling
(Fig 3.4). Minerals that lie near the surface are simply dug 
out, by the process known as quarrying.
Fig. 3.4: Off shore 
drilling of oil
MINERAL AND POWER RESOURCES 25 26 RESOURCES AND DEVELOPMENT
DISTRIBUTION OF MINERALS
Minerals occur in different types of rocks. Some are 
found in igneous rocks, some in metamorphic rocks 
while others occur in sedimentary rocks. Generally, 
metallic minerals are found in igneous and metamorphic 
rock formations that form large plateaus. Iron-ore in 
north Sweden, copper and nickel deposits in Ontario, 
Canada, iron, nickel, chromites and platinum in South 
Africa are examples of minerals found in igneous and 
metamorphic rocks. Sedimentary rock formations of 
plains and young fold mountains contain non-metallic 
minerals like limestone. Limestone deposits of Caucasus 
region of France, manganese deposits of Georgia and 
Ukraine and phosphate beds of Algeria are some 
examples. Mineral fuels such as coal and petroleum are 
also found in the sedimentary strata.
ASIA
China and India have large iron ore deposits.
The continent produces more than half of the world’s tin. 
Do you know? 
You can always tell 
if a rock contains 
copper because 
then the rock looks 
blue in colour.
Fig. 3.5: World: Distribution of Iron, Copper and Bauxite
Page 4


Kiri is visiting Sukant in his 
native place near Dhanbad. Kiri 
is amazed to see that large areas 
were black. “Sukant, why is this 
place so black and dusty?” “This is 
because of the coal mines nearby. 
Do you see the trucks? They are 
carrying the mineral coal”.
“What are minerals?,” asks 
Kiri. Sukant says, “Have you ever 
seen a baker baking biscuits? The 
flour, milk, sugar and sometimes 
eggs are mixed together. While 
eating the baked biscuits can you 
see these ingredients separately? Just as in the biscuits,
there are a number of things that you cannot see, 
rocks on this earth have several materials called
minerals mixed in them. These minerals are scattered 
throughout the earth’s rocky crust”.
A naturally occurring substance that has a definite 
chemical composition is a mineral. Minerals are not 
evenly distributed over space. They are concentrated in 
a particular area or rock formations. Some minerals are 
found in areas which are not easily accessible such as 
the Arctic ocean bed and Antarctica. 
Minerals are formed in different types of geological 
environments, under varying conditions. They are 
created by natural processes without any human 
interference. They can be identified on the basis of their 
physical properties such as colour, density, hardness 
and chemical property such as solubility.
Do you know? 
The salt in your 
food and graphite in 
your pencil are also 
minerals.
Mineral and
Power Resources
Fig. 3.1: Uploading of a truck in
a coal mine
Do you know? 
A rock is an 
aggregate of one or 
more minerals but 
without definite 
composition of 
constituent of 
mineral. Rocks 
from which 
minerals are mined 
are known as ores.
Although more 
than 2,800 types 
of minerals have 
been identified, 
only about 100 
are considered ore
minerals. Thus one 
can easily notice 
that all minerals 
are rocks but 
all rocks are not 
minerals.
TYPES OF MINERALS
There are over three thousand different minerals. 
On the basis of composition, minerals are classified 
mainly as metallic and non-metallic minerals (Fig. 3.2).
Minerals
Metallic
Ferrous
Non-metallic
Non-ferrous
Fig. 3.2: Classification of Minerals
Extraction of Minerals
Mining
Open cast
mining
Drilling
Shaft
mining
Quarrying
Fig. 3.3: Extraction of Minerals
The metallic minerals contain metal in raw form. Metals 
are hard substances that conduct heat and electricity and 
have a characteristic lustre or shine. Iron ore, bauxite, 
manganese ore are some examples. Metallic minerals 
may be ferrous or non-ferrous. Ferrous minerals like 
iron ore, manganese and chromites contain iron. A
non-ferrous mineral does not contain iron but may contain 
some other metal such as gold, silver, copper or lead.
The non-metallic minerals do not contain metals. 
Limestone, mica and gypsum are examples of such 
minerals. The mineral fuels like coal and petroleum are 
also non-metallic minerals.
Minerals can be extracted by mining, drilling or 
quarrying (Fig 3.3). 
The process of taking out minerals from rocks buried 
under the earth’s surface is called mining. Minerals that 
lie at shallow depths are taken out by removing the surface 
layer; this is known as open-cast mining. Deep bores, called 
shafts, have to be made to reach mineral deposits that lie 
at great depths. This is called shaft mining. Petroleum 
and natural gas occur far below the earth’s surface. Deep 
wells are bored to take them out, this is called drilling
(Fig 3.4). Minerals that lie near the surface are simply dug 
out, by the process known as quarrying.
Fig. 3.4: Off shore 
drilling of oil
MINERAL AND POWER RESOURCES 25 26 RESOURCES AND DEVELOPMENT
DISTRIBUTION OF MINERALS
Minerals occur in different types of rocks. Some are 
found in igneous rocks, some in metamorphic rocks 
while others occur in sedimentary rocks. Generally, 
metallic minerals are found in igneous and metamorphic 
rock formations that form large plateaus. Iron-ore in 
north Sweden, copper and nickel deposits in Ontario, 
Canada, iron, nickel, chromites and platinum in South 
Africa are examples of minerals found in igneous and 
metamorphic rocks. Sedimentary rock formations of 
plains and young fold mountains contain non-metallic 
minerals like limestone. Limestone deposits of Caucasus 
region of France, manganese deposits of Georgia and 
Ukraine and phosphate beds of Algeria are some 
examples. Mineral fuels such as coal and petroleum are 
also found in the sedimentary strata.
ASIA
China and India have large iron ore deposits.
The continent produces more than half of the world’s tin. 
Do you know? 
You can always tell 
if a rock contains 
copper because 
then the rock looks 
blue in colour.
Fig. 3.5: World: Distribution of Iron, Copper and Bauxite
MINERAL AND POWER RESOURCES 27
Do you know? 
Switzerland has 
no known mineral 
deposit in it.
Let’s do
Identify
Canadian Shield, 
Appalachians,
Western Cordilleras 
and Lake Superior 
with the help of an 
atlas.
China, Malaysia and Indonesia are among the world’s 
leading tin producers. China also leads in production of 
lead, antimony and tungsten. Asia also has deposits of 
manganese, bauxite, nickel, zinc and copper.
EUROPE
Europe is the leading producer of iron-ore in the world. 
The countries with large deposits of iron ore are Russia, 
Ukraine, Sweden and France. Minerals deposits of 
copper, lead, zinc, manganese and nickel are found in 
eastern Europe and European Russia.
NORTH AMERICA
The mineral deposits in North America are located in 
three zones: the Canadian region north of the Great 
Lakes, the Appalachian region and the mountain ranges 
of the west. Iron ore, nickel, gold, uranium and copper 
are mined in the Canadian Shield Region, coal in the 
Appalachians region. Western Cordilleras have vast 
deposits of copper, lead, zinc, gold and silver.
Fig 3.6: World: Distribution of Mineral Oil and Coal
Page 5


Kiri is visiting Sukant in his 
native place near Dhanbad. Kiri 
is amazed to see that large areas 
were black. “Sukant, why is this 
place so black and dusty?” “This is 
because of the coal mines nearby. 
Do you see the trucks? They are 
carrying the mineral coal”.
“What are minerals?,” asks 
Kiri. Sukant says, “Have you ever 
seen a baker baking biscuits? The 
flour, milk, sugar and sometimes 
eggs are mixed together. While 
eating the baked biscuits can you 
see these ingredients separately? Just as in the biscuits,
there are a number of things that you cannot see, 
rocks on this earth have several materials called
minerals mixed in them. These minerals are scattered 
throughout the earth’s rocky crust”.
A naturally occurring substance that has a definite 
chemical composition is a mineral. Minerals are not 
evenly distributed over space. They are concentrated in 
a particular area or rock formations. Some minerals are 
found in areas which are not easily accessible such as 
the Arctic ocean bed and Antarctica. 
Minerals are formed in different types of geological 
environments, under varying conditions. They are 
created by natural processes without any human 
interference. They can be identified on the basis of their 
physical properties such as colour, density, hardness 
and chemical property such as solubility.
Do you know? 
The salt in your 
food and graphite in 
your pencil are also 
minerals.
Mineral and
Power Resources
Fig. 3.1: Uploading of a truck in
a coal mine
Do you know? 
A rock is an 
aggregate of one or 
more minerals but 
without definite 
composition of 
constituent of 
mineral. Rocks 
from which 
minerals are mined 
are known as ores.
Although more 
than 2,800 types 
of minerals have 
been identified, 
only about 100 
are considered ore
minerals. Thus one 
can easily notice 
that all minerals 
are rocks but 
all rocks are not 
minerals.
TYPES OF MINERALS
There are over three thousand different minerals. 
On the basis of composition, minerals are classified 
mainly as metallic and non-metallic minerals (Fig. 3.2).
Minerals
Metallic
Ferrous
Non-metallic
Non-ferrous
Fig. 3.2: Classification of Minerals
Extraction of Minerals
Mining
Open cast
mining
Drilling
Shaft
mining
Quarrying
Fig. 3.3: Extraction of Minerals
The metallic minerals contain metal in raw form. Metals 
are hard substances that conduct heat and electricity and 
have a characteristic lustre or shine. Iron ore, bauxite, 
manganese ore are some examples. Metallic minerals 
may be ferrous or non-ferrous. Ferrous minerals like 
iron ore, manganese and chromites contain iron. A
non-ferrous mineral does not contain iron but may contain 
some other metal such as gold, silver, copper or lead.
The non-metallic minerals do not contain metals. 
Limestone, mica and gypsum are examples of such 
minerals. The mineral fuels like coal and petroleum are 
also non-metallic minerals.
Minerals can be extracted by mining, drilling or 
quarrying (Fig 3.3). 
The process of taking out minerals from rocks buried 
under the earth’s surface is called mining. Minerals that 
lie at shallow depths are taken out by removing the surface 
layer; this is known as open-cast mining. Deep bores, called 
shafts, have to be made to reach mineral deposits that lie 
at great depths. This is called shaft mining. Petroleum 
and natural gas occur far below the earth’s surface. Deep 
wells are bored to take them out, this is called drilling
(Fig 3.4). Minerals that lie near the surface are simply dug 
out, by the process known as quarrying.
Fig. 3.4: Off shore 
drilling of oil
MINERAL AND POWER RESOURCES 25 26 RESOURCES AND DEVELOPMENT
DISTRIBUTION OF MINERALS
Minerals occur in different types of rocks. Some are 
found in igneous rocks, some in metamorphic rocks 
while others occur in sedimentary rocks. Generally, 
metallic minerals are found in igneous and metamorphic 
rock formations that form large plateaus. Iron-ore in 
north Sweden, copper and nickel deposits in Ontario, 
Canada, iron, nickel, chromites and platinum in South 
Africa are examples of minerals found in igneous and 
metamorphic rocks. Sedimentary rock formations of 
plains and young fold mountains contain non-metallic 
minerals like limestone. Limestone deposits of Caucasus 
region of France, manganese deposits of Georgia and 
Ukraine and phosphate beds of Algeria are some 
examples. Mineral fuels such as coal and petroleum are 
also found in the sedimentary strata.
ASIA
China and India have large iron ore deposits.
The continent produces more than half of the world’s tin. 
Do you know? 
You can always tell 
if a rock contains 
copper because 
then the rock looks 
blue in colour.
Fig. 3.5: World: Distribution of Iron, Copper and Bauxite
MINERAL AND POWER RESOURCES 27
Do you know? 
Switzerland has 
no known mineral 
deposit in it.
Let’s do
Identify
Canadian Shield, 
Appalachians,
Western Cordilleras 
and Lake Superior 
with the help of an 
atlas.
China, Malaysia and Indonesia are among the world’s 
leading tin producers. China also leads in production of 
lead, antimony and tungsten. Asia also has deposits of 
manganese, bauxite, nickel, zinc and copper.
EUROPE
Europe is the leading producer of iron-ore in the world. 
The countries with large deposits of iron ore are Russia, 
Ukraine, Sweden and France. Minerals deposits of 
copper, lead, zinc, manganese and nickel are found in 
eastern Europe and European Russia.
NORTH AMERICA
The mineral deposits in North America are located in 
three zones: the Canadian region north of the Great 
Lakes, the Appalachian region and the mountain ranges 
of the west. Iron ore, nickel, gold, uranium and copper 
are mined in the Canadian Shield Region, coal in the 
Appalachians region. Western Cordilleras have vast 
deposits of copper, lead, zinc, gold and silver.
Fig 3.6: World: Distribution of Mineral Oil and Coal
28 RESOURCES AND DEVELOPMENT
Activity
On an outline map 
of India, mark 
the distribution 
of iron, bauxite, 
manganese and 
mica with the help 
of an atlas.
SOUTH AMERICA
Brazil is the largest producer of high grade iron-ore 
in the world. Chile and Peru are leading producers of 
copper. Brazil and Bolivia are among the world’s largest 
producers of tin. South America also has large deposits of 
gold, silver, zinc, chromium, manganese, bauxite, mica, 
platinum, asbestos and diamond. Mineral oil is found 
in Venezuela, Argentina, Chile, Peru and Columbia.
AFRICA
Africa is rich in mineral resources. It is the world’s 
largest producer of diamonds, gold and platinum. South 
Africa, Zimbabwe and Zaire produce a large portion of 
the world’s gold. The other minerals found in Africa 
are copper, iron ore, chromium, uranium, cobalt and 
bauxite. Oil is found in Nigeria, Libya and Angola.
AUSTRALIA
Australia is the largest producer of bauxite in the world. 
It is a leading producer of gold, diamond, iron ore, tin 
and nickel. It is also rich in copper, lead, zinc and 
manganese. Kalgoorlie and Coolgardie areas of  western 
Australia have the largest deposits of gold.
ANTARCTICA
The geology of Antarctica is sufficiently well known to 
predict the existence of a variety of mineral deposits, 
some probably large. Significant size of deposits of coal in 
the Transantarctic Mountains and iron near the Prince 
Charles Mountains of East Antarctica is forecasted. Iron 
ore, gold, silver and oil are also present in commercial 
quantities.
DISTRIBUTION IN INDIA
Iron: India has deposits of high grade iron ore. The 
mineral is found mainly in Jharkhand, Orissa,
Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Goa, Maharashtra and
Karnataka.
Bauxite: Major bauxite producing areas are Jharkhand, 
Orissa, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat,
Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu.
Do you know? 
• A green 
diamond is the 
rarest diamond.
• The oldest rocks 
in the world 
are in Western 
Australia. They 
date from 4,300 
million years 
ago, only 300 
million years 
after the earth 
was formed.
Read More
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