Page No. 61
Q.1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.
(i) Migrations change the number, distribution and composition of the population in:
(a) the area of departure
(b) the area of arrival
(c) both the area of departure and arrival
(d) None of the above
Ans. (c) both the area of departure and arrival
(ii) A large proportion of children in a population is a result of
(a) high birth rates
(b) high life expectancies
(c) high death rates
(d) more married couples
Ans. (a) High birth rates
(iii) The magnitude of population growth refers to:
(a) the total population of an area
(b) the number of persons added each year
(c) the rate at which the population increases
(d) the number of females per thousand males
Ans. (a) the total population of an area
(iv) According to the Census 2011, a literate person is one who:
(a) can read and write his/her name
(b) can read and write any language
(c) is 7 years old and can read and write any language with understanding
(d) knows 3 ‘Rs’ (reading, writing, arithmetic)
Ans. (c) is 7 years old and can read and write any language with understanding
Q.2. Answer the following questions briefly.
(i) Why is the rate of population growth in India declining since 1981?
Ans. (i) Since 1981, the rate of population growth started declining gradually due to a reduction in the birth rates. This has been due to the efforts at birth control.
(ii) Discuss the major components of population growth.
Ans. The major components of population growth are:
(i) Birth rate: It is the number of live births per thousand persons in a year. It is a major component of growth because in, India, birth rates have always been higher than the death rates.
(ii) Death rate: It is the number of deaths per thousand persons in a year. The main cause of the rate of growth of the Indian population has been the rapid decline in the death rate.
(iii) Migration: Migration is the movement of people across regions and territories. Migration can be internal (within the country) or international (between countries).
The difference between birth rate and death rate accounts for a natural increase in population. Immigration refers to the inflow of people into a region from other regions.
(iii) Define age structure, death rate and birth rate.
Ans. The age structure of a population refers to the number of people in different age groups in that population.
Birth rate is the number of live births per thousand persons in a year.
Death rate is the number of deaths per thousand persons in a year.
(iv) How is migration a determinant of population change?
Ans. Migration is the movement of people across regions and territories. It is a determinant factor of population change as it changes the demographics (size and composition) of both the areas of departure and arrival. There are two types of migrations, internal and international.
Q.3. Distinguish between population growth and population change.
|Population Growth||Population Change|
|(i) Growth of population refers to change in the number of people of a country during a specific period of time.||(i) It refers to the change in population due to birth rate, death rate and migration.|
|(ii) It tells the increase or decline of population in numbers.||(ii) It tells the changes in the population in terms of age and sex composition and distribution.|
Q.4. What is the relation between occupational structure and development?
Ans. The distribution of the population according to different types of occupations is referred to as the occupational structure which is classified as primary, secondary and tertiary. The primary activities include building and constructional work and tertiary activities cover transport, communication, commerce, administration, etc. The proportion of people engage in different activities varies in developed and developing countries. Developed nations have a high proportion of people in secondary and tertiary activities. Developing countries have a higher proportion of the workforce engaged in primary activities. In India, there has been a shift in favour of secondary and tertiary sectors because of growing industrialisation and urbanisation.
Q.5. What are the advantages of having a healthy population?
Ans. The advantages of having a healthy population are:
• A healthy individual is much more efficient and productive than an unhealthy individual.
• He or she is able to realise his or her potential and plays an important role in social and national development.
• Absenteeism is low where the workers are healthy.
Q.6. What are the significant features of the National Population Policy 2000?
Ans. The significant features of the National Population Policy 2000 are as follows:
• Imparting free and compulsory school education up to 14 years of age.
• Reducing infant mortality rate to below 30 per 1000 live births.
• Achieving universal immunisation of children against all vaccine-preventable diseases.
• Promoting delayed marriage and childbearing.
• Making family welfare a people-centred programme.
• Providing nutritional services and food supplements to adolescents.
• Protecting adolescents from unwanted pregnancies and sexually-transmitted diseases, and educating them about the risks of unprotected sex.
• Making contraceptive services accessible and affordable.