UPSC  >  NCERT Solutions: Population

# Population NCERT Solutions - Geography for UPSC CSE

### Q1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.

(i) Migrations change the number, distribution and composition of the population in
(a) the area of departure
(b) the area of arrival
(c) both the area of departure and arrival
(d) None of the above
Ans: (c) both the area of departure and arrival

(ii) A large proportion of children in a population is a result of
(a) high birth rates
(b) high life expectancies
(c) high death rates
(d) more married couples
Ans: (a) high birth rates

(iii) The magnitude of population growth refers to:
(a) the total population of an area
(b) the number of persons added each year
(c) the rate at which the population increases
(d) the number of females per thousand males
Ans: (b) the number of persons added each year

(iv) According to the Census, a “literate” person is one who
(a) can read and write his/her name
(b) can read and write any language
(c) is 7 years old and can read and write any language with understanding
(d) knows the 3 ‘R’s (reading, writing, arithmetic)
Ans: (c) is 7 years old and can read and write any language with understanding

### Q2. Answer the following questions briefly.

(i) Why is the rate of population growth in India declining since 1981?

Ans: The rate of population growth in India has been declining since 1981, primarily due to a decrease in birth rates. This gradual decline can be attributed to various factors, including the implementation of effective family planning and birth control measures, increased awareness about the importance of smaller families, improvements in healthcare, and an overall shift in societal attitudes towards reproduction. These concerted efforts have played a significant role in reducing the rate of population growth in the country.

(ii) Discuss the major components of population growth.
Ans: The major components of population growth are:

• Birth rate: It is the number of live births per thousand persons in a year. It is a major component of growth because in, India, birth rates have always been higher than the death rates.
• Death rate: It is the number of deaths per thousand persons in a year. The main cause of the rate of growth of the Indian population has been the rapid decline in the death rate.
• Migration: Migration is the movement of people across regions and territories. Migration can be internal (within the country) or international (between countries).
The difference between birth rate and death rate accounts for a natural increase in population. Immigration refers to the inflow of people into a region from other regions.

(iii) Define age structure, death rate and birth rate.
Ans:

• Age structure, also known as age distribution, refers to the proportion of individuals within various age groups in a given population. It provides a comprehensive view of the population's demographic makeup, including the proportions of children, working-age individuals, and elderly people.
• Birth rate, often expressed as the crude birth rate, represents the number of live births occurring within a population during a specific time period, usually one year. It is typically measured per 1,000 individuals, providing an easily comparable metric to assess population growth or decline across different regions or time periods.
• Death rate, or crude death rate, similarly denotes the number of deaths within a population during a specified time frame, also typically measured per 1,000 individuals. This metric allows for the evaluation of mortality patterns and trends, and when combined with the birth rate, it can be used to calculate the natural rate of population growth or decline, excluding migration factors.

(iv) How is migration a determinant factor of population change?
Ans: Migration refers to the process of people moving from one region or territory to another, resulting in a shift in the population and demographics of both the departure and arrival areas. This movement plays a significant role in population change, affecting the size and composition of populations in the involved regions. Migration can be categorized into two primary types: internal and international. Internal migration occurs within a country's borders, while international migration involves crossing national boundaries.

Q3. Distinguish between population growth and population change.
Ans:

 Population Growth Population Change (i) Growth of population refers to change in the number of people of a country during a specific period of time. (i) It refers to the change in population due to birth rate, death rate and migration. (ii) It tells the increase or decline of population in numbers. (ii) It tells the changes in the population in terms of age and sex composition and distribution.

Q4. What is the relation between occupational structure and development?
Ans: The distribution of the population according to different types of occupations is referred to as the occupational structure which is classified as primary, secondary and tertiary. The primary activities include building and constructional work and tertiary activities cover transport, communication, commerce, administration, etc. The proportion of people engage in different activities varies in developed and developing countries. Developed nations have a high proportion of people in secondary and tertiary activities. Developing countries have a higher proportion of the workforce engaged in primary activities. In India, there has been a shift in favour of secondary and tertiary sectors because of growing industrialisation and urbanisation.

Q5. What are the advantages of having a healthy population?
Ans:
The advantages of having a healthy population are:

• A healthy individual is much more efficient and productive than an unhealthy individual.
• He or she is able to realise his or her potential and plays an important role in social and national development.
• Absenteeism is low where the workers are healthy.

Q6. What are the significant features of the National Population Policy 2000?
Ans: The significant features of the National Population Policy 2000 are as follows:

• Imparting free and compulsory school education up to 14 years of age.
• Reducing infant mortality rate to below 30 per 1000 live births.
• Achieving universal immunisation of children against all vaccine-preventable diseases.
• Promoting delayed marriage and childbearing.
• Making family welfare a people-centred programme.
• Providing nutritional services and food supplements to adolescents.
• Protecting adolescents from unwanted pregnancies and sexually-transmitted diseases, and educating them about the risks of unprotected sex.
• Making contraceptive services accessible and affordable.
The document Population NCERT Solutions | Geography for UPSC CSE is a part of the UPSC Course Geography for UPSC CSE.
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## Geography for UPSC CSE

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## FAQs on Population NCERT Solutions - Geography for UPSC CSE

 1. What are the factors that affect population growth?
Ans. Population growth is influenced by various factors such as birth rate, death rate, migration, and government policies. These factors collectively determine the growth or decline of a population.
 2. How does birth rate impact population growth?
Ans. Birth rate refers to the number of births per 1,000 individuals in a population. Higher birth rates contribute to population growth, while lower birth rates can lead to a decline in the population. Factors like fertility rates, access to healthcare, and cultural norms play a significant role in determining birth rates.
 3. What is the significance of death rate in population dynamics?
Ans. Death rate, also known as mortality rate, measures the number of deaths per 1,000 individuals in a population. It is an important factor in population dynamics as it affects population growth. Higher death rates can result in population decline, while lower death rates contribute to population growth. Factors like access to healthcare, life expectancy, and disease prevalence impact death rates.
 4. How does migration impact population composition?
Ans. Migration refers to the movement of individuals from one place to another. It can have a significant impact on population composition. In-migration, or the arrival of individuals in a particular area, can lead to population growth and change in the demographic characteristics of the population. Out-migration, or the departure of individuals, can result in population decline and alter the composition of the remaining population.
 5. What role do government policies play in population management?
Ans. Government policies play a crucial role in population management. They can influence birth rates, death rates, and migration patterns through measures such as family planning programs, healthcare initiatives, immigration policies, and incentives for population control. These policies aim to achieve a balanced and sustainable population growth that aligns with the economic and social goals of a country.

## Geography for UPSC CSE

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