Q.1. Find out what could be the reasons of uneven distribution of population in India.
Ans. Rugged terrain and unfavourable climatic conditions are primarily responsible for sparse population in some areas. Hilly, dissected and rocky nature of the terrain, moderate to low rainfall, shallow and less fertile soils influence population in hilly areas. Flat plains with fertile soils and abundant rainfall have led a large number of people to settle in the densely populated Northern Plains.
Q.2. Table 6.1 reveals that despite the decline growth rates, the numbers of people being added every decade is steadily increasing. Why?
Ans. increased facilities provided to live a comfortable life and better medical facilities that have brought down the death rate is the cause for increase in people being added every decade despite the decline in growth rate.
Q.3. Find out what could be the reasons for such (sex ratio) variations. (Page 58)
Ans. The reasons for sex ratio variations in the states of India are the social makeup of India. The people here have remained in favour of male child leading to female foeticide and dowry problems which make people think of female children as a burden. In states like Kerala there are well educated people who also follow matriarchal society rules and sex ratio in Kerala is 1058 females per 1000 males. In Haryana female child is looked down upon and most female foeticide cases occur here. Thus it has sex ratio of 861 females per 1000 males.
Q.4. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below:
(i) Migrations change the number, distribution and composition of the population in:
(a) The area of departure
(b) both the area of departure and arrival
(c) The area of arrival
(d) none of the above
Ans. Both the area of departure and arrival
(ii) A large proportion of children in a population is a result of
(a) High birth rates
(b) High life expectancies
(c) High death rates
(d) More married couples
Ans. High birth rates
(iii) The magnitude of population growth refers to:
(a) The total population of an area
(b) The number of persons added each year
(c) The rate at which the population increases
(d) The number of females per thousand males
Ans. The total population of an area
(iv) According to the Census 2001, a literate person is one who
(a) can read and write his/her name
(b) can read and write any language
(c) is 7 year old and can read and write any language with understanding
(d) knows 3 Rs (reading, writing, arithmetic)
Ans. Is seven year old and can read and write any language with understanding.
Q.5. Answer the following questions briefly.
(i) Why is the rate of population growth in India declining since 1981?
Ans. The rate of population growth has been declining as a result of greater use of birth control measures.
(ii) Discuss the major components of population growth.
Ans. The major components of population growth are Birth Rate, Death Rate and Migration. The difference between birth rate and death rate accounts for natural increase in population. Adoption of family planning measures leads to decline in birth rate. Better availability of medical facilities leads to decrease in death rate.
Internal migration only changes the pattern of population over different parts of the country. International migration affects both the magnitude and the quality of population.
(iii) Define age structure, death rate and birth rate.
Ans. Birth rate is the number of live births per thousand persons in a year. Death rate is the number of deaths per thousand persons in a year. Age structure refers to the number of people in different age groups. The commonly adopted age groups are Children (0-14 years), Adults (15-59 years) and Aged (60 years and above)
(iv) How is migration a determinant of population change?
Ans. Internal migration determines population change across regions and territories within the country. In India there has been a significant migration from the rural areas to the cities. Apart from magnitude, migration also brings about change in terms of sex ratio and age composition. The migration from rural areas comprises only men. As such, the sex ratio in village registers a decline and so does the age composition. The number of able-bodied men in villages is reduced as a result of the rural-urban migration.
Q.6. Distinguish between population growth and population change.
Ans. Population growth is different from population change. Population growth is determined by the birth and death rates. Population change, on the other hand, is determined by the birth and death rates and also by migration.
Q.7 What is the relation between occupational structure and development?
Ans.Development is related to occupational structure of the population. Countries are less developed where a higher percentage of population is engaged in primary occupations like agriculture, animal husbandry, forestry and fishing.
As development takes place more people move into secondary occupations like manufacturing. In highly developed societies, there are a high percentage of people involved in tertiary occupations like banking, commerce, transport and administration.
Q.8. What are the advantages of having a healthy population?
Ans.Health is an important component of population composition, which affects the process of development. A healthy population ensures higher productive efficiency. Absenteeism is low where the workers are healthy.
Q.9. What are the significant features of the National Population Policy 2000?
Ans. The main features of the National Population Policy 2000 are:
(i) The National Population Policy 2000 aims at reducing infant mortal rate to below 30 per thousand live births.
(ii) The policy framework provides for imparting free and compulsory school education up to 14 years of age.
(iii) Some other areas of attention are promoting delayed marriages for girls and achieving universal immunization of children against all vaccine preventable diseases. Family planning programme is to be promoted on a voluntary basis.