Q.1. Match the following:
|subadar||a revenue farmer|
|faujdar||a high noble|
|misl||Maratha peasant warriors|
|chauth||a Mughal military commander|
|kunbis||a band of Sikh warriors|
|umara||tax levied by the Marathas|
|faujdar||a Mughal military commander|
|ijaradar||a revenue farmer|
|misl||a band of Sikh warriors|
|chauth||a tax levied by the Marathas|
|Kunis||Maratha peasant warriors|
|umara||a high noble|
Q.2. Fill in the blanks:
(a) Aurangzeb fought a protracted war in the ________.
(b) Umara and jagirdars constituted powerful sections of the Mughal ________.
(c) Asaf Jah was given charge of the Deccan subadari in _______.
(d) The founder of the Awadh nawabi was _______.
(a) Aurangzeb fought a protracted war in the Deccan.
(b) Umara and jagirdars constituted powerful sections of the Mughal administration.
(c) Asaf Jah founded the Hyderabad state in 1724.
(d) The founder of the Awadh state was Burhan-ul-mulk-Sa’adat Khan.
Q.3. State whether true or false:
(a) Nadir Shah invaded Bengal.
(b) Sawai Raja Jai Singh was the ruler of Indore.
(c) Guru Gobind Singh was the tenth Guru of the Sikhs.
(d) Poona became the capital of the Marathas in the eighteenth century.
Q.4. What were the offices held by Sa‘adat Khan?
Ans. Sa‘adat Khan held the combined offices of Subadar, Diwani and Faujdar.
Q.5. Why did the Nawabs of Awadh and Bengal try to do away with the jagirdari system?
(i) Nawabs of Awadh and Bengal try to do away with the jagirdari system to decrease the influence of Mughal in their provinces.
(ii) The jagirdars appointed at the time of Mughals were corrupt so he reduced the size of jagirs, and appointed his own loyal servants to vacant positions.
(iii) They checked the accounts of jagirdars to prevent cheating and corruption. The revenues of all districts were reassessed by officials appointed by the Nawab’s court.
(iv) In an effort to reduce the Mughal influence in Bengal, Murshid Quli Khan transferred all Mughal jagirdars to Orissa and ordered a major reassessment of the revenues of Bengal. Revenue was collected in cash with great strictness from all zamindars. As a result, many zamindars had to borrow money from bankers and moneylenders.
Q.6. How were the Sikhs organised in the eighteenth century?
(i) The Sikhs organized themselves into a number of bands called jathas, and later on misls under a number of able leaders.
Fig: Sikh Khalsa
(ii) The combined forces of Sikhs known as the grand army (dal Khalsa) used to meet at Amritsar at the time of Baisakhi and Diwali to take collective decisions.
(iii) They offered protection to the cultivators on the payment of a tax of 20 per cent of the produce called rakhi.
(iv) Guru Gobind Singh had inspired the Khalsa with the belief that their destiny was to rule.
Q.7. Why did the Marathas want to expand beyond the Deccan?
Ans. The marathas wanted to expand to the Deccan because of the following reasons:
(i) Marathas wanted to establish their unquestioned rule over the subcontinent by defeating Mughals.
(ii) They wanted to expand beyond the Deccan to receive tribute and control trade and agriculture.
Q.8. What were the policies adopted by Asaf Jah to strengthen his position?
Ans. In order to strengthen his position Asaf Jah brought skilled soldiers and administrators from northern India who welcomed the new opportunities in the south. He appointed mansabdar's and granted jagirs.Although he was still a servant of the Mughal emperor, he ruled quiteindependently without seeking any direction from Delhi or facing anyi nterference.
Q.9. Do you think merchants and bankers today have the kind of influence they had in the eighteenth century?
Ans. In today's world, merchants and bankers don't have the kind of influence they had in the eighteenth century. The idea of democracy has changed the whole scenario. Everything from revenue share to the price in the market comes under a rule which is governed by the higher authorities chosen itself by people unlike in the 18th century.