NCERT Solution - Chapter 4: MANGOES ROUND THE YEAR, Class 5, Environmental Studies
1. How did Aman know that the potato sabji had got spoiled?
He came to know this from its smell.
2. Have you ever seen some food that has gone spoiled? How did you know that it has supplied?
Yes, I have seen foods that have gone spoiled. When a food spoils, it smells bad and its color also changes.
3. Preeti told Nitu not to eat the potato sabji. What would have happened if she had eaten it?
If Nitu had eaten the potato sabji, she might have fallen ill.
4. Look at your friend’s list and discuss in the class.
My friend’s list has almost the same foods as milk, dal, roti, cooked rice, green vegetables, etc. which can get spoiled in two or three days. Potato, onion, some sweets like murabba etc. It can last upto a week and rice flour, pulses, spices, ghee, pickles can easily be used upto a month or even more.
5. Will your last be the same for all reasons?
In winter, green vegetables may not spoil in two-three days. Similarly, if pickles, murabba etc. are not kept safe from moisture in the rainy season, they may get spoiled soon.
6. When food gets spoiled in your house, what do you do with it?
When food gets spoiled in my house, we dump it in the garbage box.
7. Look at the picture of the bread packed here and guess why Biji returned it? How did she find the bread had got spoiled?
Biji returned the bread because its expiry date would have been passed. The expiry date of a branded food product is usually mentioned in it.
8. What can we know from what is written on the packet?
We know about the price, weight, manufacturing date and expiry date of the product.
9. When you buy anything from the market, what do you look for on the packet?
I check out its manufacturing and expiry dates, its maximum retail price (MRP) and its weight.
10. The whole class can do this experiment together. Take a piece of bread or roti. Sprinkle a few drops of water on it, and put in a box. Close the box. See the bread or roti every day until you find some changes on it. Make this table on a chart paper and put it up in the classroom. Fill up the chart every day after discussing the changes seen.
11. Find out the reason for these changes? From where did the fungus come on the bread?
These changes occur due to the rotting of the bread. The spores of the fungus are present in the air, which begin to grow when they get a conductive condition.
12. Different kinds of food items spoil due to different reasons. Some foods spoil soon, some stay good for long. List some seasons and conditions which food spoils quickly.
Food spoils quickly in the rainy and summer seasons.
Conditions in which food spoils quickly:
(i) The cooked food is left open.
(ii) If milk is not boiled properly.
(iii) If green vegetables are not kept in a cool place e.g. refrigerator.
(iv) If pickles, murabba etc. are not produced from moisture.
13. Why was sugar and jaggery mixed into the mango pulp and dried in the sun?
To make mamidi tandra (aam papad).
14. Why did Appa first choose the most ripe mangoes to be used for making the mamidi tandra?
To make mamidi tandra, first they bought a mat, casuarina, poles, string made of coconut husk, some jiggery and sugar. In a sunny spot in the backyard they made a high platform by using poles and mat. Then in a vessel, they extracted pulp and juice from ripe mangoes and after adding jaggery and sugar in equal amounts, they spread this pulp into a thin layer over the mat. The thin layer was left to dry in the sum. The process was repeated day after day until the layer grew four centimetres thick. Then after a few days, the layer was taken out and cut into pieces.
15. What things are made in your house from ripe and unripe mangoes?
In my house pickles, chutney etc. are made from unripe mangoes and aam papad is made from ripe mangoes.
16. Make a list of all the different types of pickles that you know about?
Pickles are made up of
(i) Mango (sweet and sour)
(ii) Amla (both sweet and sour)
(iii) Chilli (red and green)
17. Is there any kind of pickle made in your house? What kind of pickle is it? Who makes it? From whom did they learn to make the pickle?
Yes, in my house pickles of mango, lemon, amla and chilli are made. My mother makes these pickles. She learned this from her mother.
18. What all things are needed to make anyone type of pickle in your house. How is the pickle made? Find out the read and write.
To make a pickle, the things needed are the fruit or vegetable of which the pickle has to make garlic, chilly powder, turmeric powder, ginger, aniseed, methi, salt, mustard oil etc.
Procedure to make a pickle:
First, the fruit or vegetable of which pickle is to be made is cut and dried up thoroughly in the sun. Then after mixing it with all the spices, salt and oil, it is kept in a dry glass jar and left undisturbed for a few weeks. In this way, pickles are made.
19. How are these things made in your house?
Papad, Chutney, Badiyan.
Papad: It is of different types like papad made up of urad, sago (Saboodnana), potato, etc. To make papad of urad, first urad grains are boiled and grinded up. Then salt and different spices are mixed up in it according to one’s taste and dough is prepared. After that, small pieces of this dough are taken and rolled out to make thin round like structures. These are then dried up.
Chutney: The fruit or vegetable for which the chutney is to be made is grinded up and according to taste, salt and spices are added to it.
Badiyan: To make badiyan, urad grains are soaked in water and then grinded up. After that, salt and spices are added up according to taste. Then small lumps of it are taken and put on a clean cloth and dried up in the sun.
20. It is a two-day journey by train from Pune to Kolkata. If you were to go on this trip, what food items would you carry with you? How would you pack them? Make a list on the blackboard of all the packed food. What food would you eat first?
I will carry those food items which would not get spoiled upto two or three days and will keep these things in dry containers or packets.
I will carry roti or paranthas, subji, biscuits, chips, fruits, dry fruits, curd, sattu, chiwda, sweets like peda, lady, murabba, etc.
First I will consume roti or paranthas, curd and subji, because these can spoil soon.
21. Glass jars and bottles are dried well in the sun before filling them with pickles. Why is this done? Do you remember what happened to the bread in the experiment?
This is done to make these glass jars and bottles moisture-free. I do remember what happened to bread in the experiment. When a moist bread was left in a cool, damp place, it spoiled due to fungus. If any moisture is left out in these containers, the result may be the same.