Question 1: What is a Cash Flow Statement?
Answer: A Cash Flow Statement is a statement showing inflows and outflows of cash and cash equivalents from operating, investing and financing activities of a company during a particular period. It explains the reasons of receipts and payments in cash and change in cash balances during an accounting year in a company.
Question 2: How are the various activities classified (as per AS-3 revised) while preparing cash flow statement?
Answer: As per the Revised Accounting Standard 3 (AS-3), preparation of Cash Flow Statement for each period is mandatory. AS-3 also specifies the classification of all inflows and outflows basically under the following heads:
1. Cash Flow from Operating Activities
2. Cash Flow from Investing Activities
3. Cash Flow from Financing Activities
Question 3: State the uses of cash flow statement?
Answer: The uses of cash flow statement are as follows:
1. It is useful for short term financial planning about inflows and outflow of cash.
2. It helps in analysing the reason for the change in cash and cash equivalent balances of a company
3. It assists in determining and assessing liquidity and solvency positions of a company.
4. It enables to analyse and study the trends of receipts and payments of cash from various activities of a company and thereby helps in drafting various policy measures and short term planning.
5. It enables the segregation of cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities of the business separately.
6. It assists in making decision about distribution of profit with reference to the availability of cash.
Question 4: What are the objectives of preparing cash flow statement?
Answer: The important objectives for preparing Cash Flow Statement are as follows:
1. The most important objective that is fulfilled by preparing Cash Flow Statement is to ascertain the gross inflows and outflows of cash and cash equivalents from various activities.
2. Secondly, Cash Flow Statement helps in analysing various reasons responsible for change in the cash balances during an accounting year.
3. This statement helps in analysing and understanding the liquidity and solvency of a company , thereby, depicting the true liquidity position to the creditors and the investors.
4. Cash Flow Statement also helps in ascertaining the requirement and availability of cash in near future.
Question 5: State the meaning of the terms : Cash Equivalents, Cash flows.
Answer: Cash equivalents are short term, highly liquid investments that are easily convertible into cash and which are subject to an insignificant risk of change in value. In other words, cash equivalents are held for the purpose of meeting short term cash commitments rather than for investment or any other purpose. An investment held for short-term maturity, say three months can be regarded as cash equivalent. Some examples of cash equivalents are treasury bills, commercial papers, etc. On the other hand, cash flows are inflows and outflows of cash and cash equivalents. A cash inflow results in increase in the total cash balance and a cash outflow results in decrease in the total cash balance.
Question 6: Prepare a format of cash flow from operating activities under_*_ and indirect method.
* Preapre Cash Flow from Operating Activities using both the methods i.e. Direct and Indirect Method.
Answer: The format of cash flow from operating activities is as follows:
Cash Flow from Operating Activities:
Cash receipts from customers
Cash paid to suppliers and employers
Cash generated from operations
Income tax paid
Cash flow before extraordinary items
+/– Extraordinary items
Net Cash from operating activities
Cash Flow from Operating Activities:
Net Profit before tax and extraordinary items
Non-Cash Expenses and Non-Operating Expenses
Loss on sale of fixed assets
Non Operating Incomes.
Profit on sale of fixed assets
Operating profit before working capital changes
Add: Decrease in Current Assets
Increase in Current Liabilities
Less: Increase in Current Assets
Decrease in Current Liabilities
Cash generated from Operating Activities
Income tax paid
Cash Flow before Extraordinary Items
Add/Less: Extra ordinary Items
Net Cash Flow from Operating Activities
Note: Preparation of Cash Flow Statement using Direct Method has been excluded from the prescribed syllabus. The format is given since the question has not specified the method explicitly. Students can refer to the direct method for the knowledge purpose.
Question 7: State clearly what would constitute the operating activities for the following types of enterprises:
(ii) Film production house
(iii) Financial enterprise
(iv) Media enterprise
(v) Steel manufacturing unit
(vi) Software development business unit
1. Receipts from sale of goods to customer.
2. Payment of wages and salaries, electricity, food items and other items used in accommodation.
(ii) Film Production House:
1. Receipts from selling film rights of a film to the distributors.
2. Payment to the staff, actors, actresses, directors, etc.
(iii) Financial Enterprises:
1. Receipts from repayment of loans, interest incomes from investments, etc.
2. Repayment of loans, recovery expenditure for recover of loans etc, salaries of employees.
(iv) Media Enterprises:
1. Receipts from advertisements.
2. Payments to staff, reporters, photographers, etc.
(v) Steel Manufacturing Unit:
1. Receipts from sale of steel sheets, steel castings, steel rods, etc.
2. Payment for iron, coal, salaries to staff, etc.
(vi) Software Business Unit:
1. Receipts from sale of software and renewal of licenses.
2. Payment of salaries to their employees, etc.
Question 8: “The nature/type of enterprise can change altogether the category into which a particular activity may be classified.” Do you agree? Illustrate your answer.
Answer: Yes, the nature or type of an enterprise can change the category into which a particular activity may be classified. This can be better understood with the help of an example of two firms. One engaged in financial services and the other engaged in manufacturing services. For the firm that is engaged in financial services, interests received or paid are classified under operating activities whereas for the firm that is engaged in manufacturing business, interests paid are classified under financing activities and interest received as investing activities. Therefore, the classification of activities depends on the nature and type of enterprise.