NCERT Solution Chapter - 6, TISSUES (Class - 9) Class 9 Notes | EduRev

Class 9 : NCERT Solution Chapter - 6, TISSUES (Class - 9) Class 9 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


NCERT SOLUTION  
Chapter - 6, TISSUES 
Q.1: Define the term ‘tissue’?  
Ans: The group of cells similar in structure that work together to achieve a particular 
function forms a tissue. This group of cells has a common origin.  
Q.2: How many types of elements together make up the xylem tissue? Name them. 
Ans: Xylem is a complex tissue. It is made up of following four kinds of cells or 
elements: 
(a) Tracheids 
(b) Vessels 
(c) Xylem parenchyma 
(d) Xylem fibres.  
Q.3: How are simple tissues different from complex tissues in plants? 
Ans: Simple tissues are made up of one type of cells which coordinate to perform a 
common function. Complex tissues are made up of more than one type of cells. all 
these coordinate to perform a common function.  
Q.4: Differentiate between parenchyma, collenchymas and sclerenchyma on the 
basis of their cell wall.  
Ans: The differences between cell walls of parenchyma, collenchymas and 
sclerenchyma are given in the following table: 
Parenchyma Collenchyma Sclerenchyma 
1. Cell wall is primary 
2. Cells have thin walls and made up 
of cellulose. 
1. Cell wall is primary. 
2. Cell walls are thickened at the 
corners due to protein deposition. 
1. Cell wall is secondary. 
2. Cell wall is very thick due to 
lignin deposition. 
Q.5: What are the functions of Stomata?  
Ans: The small pores present in the epidermis of the leaf are stomata. Stomata are 
enclosed by two kidney shaped cells called guard cells. 
Functions of Stomata 
1. Exchange of gases, particularly CO
2
 and O
2
, with atmosphere. 
2. Loss of water in the form of vapour during transpiration.  
Q.6: Diagrammatically show the difference between the three types of muscle fibres.  
Ans:  
Page 2


NCERT SOLUTION  
Chapter - 6, TISSUES 
Q.1: Define the term ‘tissue’?  
Ans: The group of cells similar in structure that work together to achieve a particular 
function forms a tissue. This group of cells has a common origin.  
Q.2: How many types of elements together make up the xylem tissue? Name them. 
Ans: Xylem is a complex tissue. It is made up of following four kinds of cells or 
elements: 
(a) Tracheids 
(b) Vessels 
(c) Xylem parenchyma 
(d) Xylem fibres.  
Q.3: How are simple tissues different from complex tissues in plants? 
Ans: Simple tissues are made up of one type of cells which coordinate to perform a 
common function. Complex tissues are made up of more than one type of cells. all 
these coordinate to perform a common function.  
Q.4: Differentiate between parenchyma, collenchymas and sclerenchyma on the 
basis of their cell wall.  
Ans: The differences between cell walls of parenchyma, collenchymas and 
sclerenchyma are given in the following table: 
Parenchyma Collenchyma Sclerenchyma 
1. Cell wall is primary 
2. Cells have thin walls and made up 
of cellulose. 
1. Cell wall is primary. 
2. Cell walls are thickened at the 
corners due to protein deposition. 
1. Cell wall is secondary. 
2. Cell wall is very thick due to 
lignin deposition. 
Q.5: What are the functions of Stomata?  
Ans: The small pores present in the epidermis of the leaf are stomata. Stomata are 
enclosed by two kidney shaped cells called guard cells. 
Functions of Stomata 
1. Exchange of gases, particularly CO
2
 and O
2
, with atmosphere. 
2. Loss of water in the form of vapour during transpiration.  
Q.6: Diagrammatically show the difference between the three types of muscle fibres.  
Ans:  
 
Fig: Striated muscles 
 
Fig: Smooth (Un-striated) muscles 
Page 3


NCERT SOLUTION  
Chapter - 6, TISSUES 
Q.1: Define the term ‘tissue’?  
Ans: The group of cells similar in structure that work together to achieve a particular 
function forms a tissue. This group of cells has a common origin.  
Q.2: How many types of elements together make up the xylem tissue? Name them. 
Ans: Xylem is a complex tissue. It is made up of following four kinds of cells or 
elements: 
(a) Tracheids 
(b) Vessels 
(c) Xylem parenchyma 
(d) Xylem fibres.  
Q.3: How are simple tissues different from complex tissues in plants? 
Ans: Simple tissues are made up of one type of cells which coordinate to perform a 
common function. Complex tissues are made up of more than one type of cells. all 
these coordinate to perform a common function.  
Q.4: Differentiate between parenchyma, collenchymas and sclerenchyma on the 
basis of their cell wall.  
Ans: The differences between cell walls of parenchyma, collenchymas and 
sclerenchyma are given in the following table: 
Parenchyma Collenchyma Sclerenchyma 
1. Cell wall is primary 
2. Cells have thin walls and made up 
of cellulose. 
1. Cell wall is primary. 
2. Cell walls are thickened at the 
corners due to protein deposition. 
1. Cell wall is secondary. 
2. Cell wall is very thick due to 
lignin deposition. 
Q.5: What are the functions of Stomata?  
Ans: The small pores present in the epidermis of the leaf are stomata. Stomata are 
enclosed by two kidney shaped cells called guard cells. 
Functions of Stomata 
1. Exchange of gases, particularly CO
2
 and O
2
, with atmosphere. 
2. Loss of water in the form of vapour during transpiration.  
Q.6: Diagrammatically show the difference between the three types of muscle fibres.  
Ans:  
 
Fig: Striated muscles 
 
Fig: Smooth (Un-striated) muscles 
 
Fig: Cardiac muscles 
Q.7: What is the specific function of cardiac muscle? 
Ans: Cardiac muscles are involuntary muscles which show characteristics of both 
smooth and striated muscles. These muscles occur in the walls of the heart.  
Functions of Cardiac Muscles  
1. Cardiac muscles contract and relax rapidly, rhythmically and tirelessly throughout 
life. They contract endlessly from early embryonic stage until death.  
2. The contraction and relaxation of heart muscles help to pump and distribute blood to 
various parts of body.  
Q.8: Differentiate between striated, unstriated and cardiac muscles on the basis of 
their structure and site / location in the body.  
Ans: Striated, Unstriated and Cardiac muscles are three types of muscle tissues. 
Their different characteristics are as follows: 
Character Striated Muscles Unstriated Muscles Cardiac Muscles 
1. Shape of cells 
Cells are long cylindrical, 
non-tapering and un-
branched 
Cells are long with tapering 
ends (spindle shape) and 
un-branched. 
Cells are non-tapering, 
cylindrical and branched. 
2. Nucleus  
Many nuclei (multi-
nucleated) which are 
situated towards the 
periphery of muscle fibre. 
The cells have only one 
nucleus (uni-nucleated) 
situated in the center. 
Each cell contains one or 
two nuclei situated in the 
center. 
3. Striation 
Transverse alternate light 
and dark bands present. 
Striations or strips are 
absent. 
Cells have faint striations. 
4. Mode of 
Contraction 
Voluntary contract rapidly 
but soon undergo fatigue. 
Involuntarily not at our will. 
Contract comparatively slow 
but do not fatigue. 
Involuntary, rhythmically 
contract and relax 
throughout life without 
fatigue under normal 
conditions. 
5. Example of 
location 
Hands, legs and other 
skeletal muscles. 
Stomach wall, intestine, 
ureter, bronchi etc. 
Present in heart.  
Q9: Draw a labeled diagram of neuron.  
Page 4


NCERT SOLUTION  
Chapter - 6, TISSUES 
Q.1: Define the term ‘tissue’?  
Ans: The group of cells similar in structure that work together to achieve a particular 
function forms a tissue. This group of cells has a common origin.  
Q.2: How many types of elements together make up the xylem tissue? Name them. 
Ans: Xylem is a complex tissue. It is made up of following four kinds of cells or 
elements: 
(a) Tracheids 
(b) Vessels 
(c) Xylem parenchyma 
(d) Xylem fibres.  
Q.3: How are simple tissues different from complex tissues in plants? 
Ans: Simple tissues are made up of one type of cells which coordinate to perform a 
common function. Complex tissues are made up of more than one type of cells. all 
these coordinate to perform a common function.  
Q.4: Differentiate between parenchyma, collenchymas and sclerenchyma on the 
basis of their cell wall.  
Ans: The differences between cell walls of parenchyma, collenchymas and 
sclerenchyma are given in the following table: 
Parenchyma Collenchyma Sclerenchyma 
1. Cell wall is primary 
2. Cells have thin walls and made up 
of cellulose. 
1. Cell wall is primary. 
2. Cell walls are thickened at the 
corners due to protein deposition. 
1. Cell wall is secondary. 
2. Cell wall is very thick due to 
lignin deposition. 
Q.5: What are the functions of Stomata?  
Ans: The small pores present in the epidermis of the leaf are stomata. Stomata are 
enclosed by two kidney shaped cells called guard cells. 
Functions of Stomata 
1. Exchange of gases, particularly CO
2
 and O
2
, with atmosphere. 
2. Loss of water in the form of vapour during transpiration.  
Q.6: Diagrammatically show the difference between the three types of muscle fibres.  
Ans:  
 
Fig: Striated muscles 
 
Fig: Smooth (Un-striated) muscles 
 
Fig: Cardiac muscles 
Q.7: What is the specific function of cardiac muscle? 
Ans: Cardiac muscles are involuntary muscles which show characteristics of both 
smooth and striated muscles. These muscles occur in the walls of the heart.  
Functions of Cardiac Muscles  
1. Cardiac muscles contract and relax rapidly, rhythmically and tirelessly throughout 
life. They contract endlessly from early embryonic stage until death.  
2. The contraction and relaxation of heart muscles help to pump and distribute blood to 
various parts of body.  
Q.8: Differentiate between striated, unstriated and cardiac muscles on the basis of 
their structure and site / location in the body.  
Ans: Striated, Unstriated and Cardiac muscles are three types of muscle tissues. 
Their different characteristics are as follows: 
Character Striated Muscles Unstriated Muscles Cardiac Muscles 
1. Shape of cells 
Cells are long cylindrical, 
non-tapering and un-
branched 
Cells are long with tapering 
ends (spindle shape) and 
un-branched. 
Cells are non-tapering, 
cylindrical and branched. 
2. Nucleus  
Many nuclei (multi-
nucleated) which are 
situated towards the 
periphery of muscle fibre. 
The cells have only one 
nucleus (uni-nucleated) 
situated in the center. 
Each cell contains one or 
two nuclei situated in the 
center. 
3. Striation 
Transverse alternate light 
and dark bands present. 
Striations or strips are 
absent. 
Cells have faint striations. 
4. Mode of 
Contraction 
Voluntary contract rapidly 
but soon undergo fatigue. 
Involuntarily not at our will. 
Contract comparatively slow 
but do not fatigue. 
Involuntary, rhythmically 
contract and relax 
throughout life without 
fatigue under normal 
conditions. 
5. Example of 
location 
Hands, legs and other 
skeletal muscles. 
Stomach wall, intestine, 
ureter, bronchi etc. 
Present in heart.  
Q9: Draw a labeled diagram of neuron.  
Ans: 
 
Fig: Neuron  
Q.10: Name the following: 
(a) Tissue that forms inner lining of our mouth. 
(b) Tissue that connects muscle to bone in humans. 
(c) Tissue that transports food in plants. 
(d) Tissue that stores fat in our body. 
(e) Connective tissue with a fluid matrix. 
(f) Tissue present in brain.  
Ans:  
(a) Squamous epithelium (b) Tendon (c) Phloem (d) Adipose tissue (e) Blood (f) 
Nervous tissue.  
Q.11: Identify the type of tissue in the following: 
Skin, bark of tree, bone, lining of kidney tubule, vascular bundle. 
Ans:  
(i) Skin - Striated Squamous epithelium  
(ii) Bark of tree - Cork protective tissue 
(iii) Bone - Connective tissue 
(iv) Lining of kidney tubule - Cuboidal epithelium (Cuboidal epithelial tissue) 
(v) Vascular bundle - Complex permanent tissue (Xylem and Phloem)  
Q.12: Name the regions in which parenchyma tissue is present.  
Ans: Parenchyma is a simple permanent tissue of angiospermic plants. It is present 
in cortex and pith of stem and roots. It is also present in mesophyll of leaves. When it 
contains chlorophyll, it is called Chlorenchyma, found in green leaves.  
Q.13: What is the role of epidermis in plants?  
Ans: Epidermis is a protective tissue of angiospermic plants. It provides protections 
to underlying tissues. Epidermis forms outer covering of various plant organs such 
as roots, stem, leaves, and flowers and remains in direct contact with the 
environment. Any substance whether solid, liquid or gas can enter into the plant or 
move outside only after passing through this layer. Epidermis helps in absorption, 
Page 5


NCERT SOLUTION  
Chapter - 6, TISSUES 
Q.1: Define the term ‘tissue’?  
Ans: The group of cells similar in structure that work together to achieve a particular 
function forms a tissue. This group of cells has a common origin.  
Q.2: How many types of elements together make up the xylem tissue? Name them. 
Ans: Xylem is a complex tissue. It is made up of following four kinds of cells or 
elements: 
(a) Tracheids 
(b) Vessels 
(c) Xylem parenchyma 
(d) Xylem fibres.  
Q.3: How are simple tissues different from complex tissues in plants? 
Ans: Simple tissues are made up of one type of cells which coordinate to perform a 
common function. Complex tissues are made up of more than one type of cells. all 
these coordinate to perform a common function.  
Q.4: Differentiate between parenchyma, collenchymas and sclerenchyma on the 
basis of their cell wall.  
Ans: The differences between cell walls of parenchyma, collenchymas and 
sclerenchyma are given in the following table: 
Parenchyma Collenchyma Sclerenchyma 
1. Cell wall is primary 
2. Cells have thin walls and made up 
of cellulose. 
1. Cell wall is primary. 
2. Cell walls are thickened at the 
corners due to protein deposition. 
1. Cell wall is secondary. 
2. Cell wall is very thick due to 
lignin deposition. 
Q.5: What are the functions of Stomata?  
Ans: The small pores present in the epidermis of the leaf are stomata. Stomata are 
enclosed by two kidney shaped cells called guard cells. 
Functions of Stomata 
1. Exchange of gases, particularly CO
2
 and O
2
, with atmosphere. 
2. Loss of water in the form of vapour during transpiration.  
Q.6: Diagrammatically show the difference between the three types of muscle fibres.  
Ans:  
 
Fig: Striated muscles 
 
Fig: Smooth (Un-striated) muscles 
 
Fig: Cardiac muscles 
Q.7: What is the specific function of cardiac muscle? 
Ans: Cardiac muscles are involuntary muscles which show characteristics of both 
smooth and striated muscles. These muscles occur in the walls of the heart.  
Functions of Cardiac Muscles  
1. Cardiac muscles contract and relax rapidly, rhythmically and tirelessly throughout 
life. They contract endlessly from early embryonic stage until death.  
2. The contraction and relaxation of heart muscles help to pump and distribute blood to 
various parts of body.  
Q.8: Differentiate between striated, unstriated and cardiac muscles on the basis of 
their structure and site / location in the body.  
Ans: Striated, Unstriated and Cardiac muscles are three types of muscle tissues. 
Their different characteristics are as follows: 
Character Striated Muscles Unstriated Muscles Cardiac Muscles 
1. Shape of cells 
Cells are long cylindrical, 
non-tapering and un-
branched 
Cells are long with tapering 
ends (spindle shape) and 
un-branched. 
Cells are non-tapering, 
cylindrical and branched. 
2. Nucleus  
Many nuclei (multi-
nucleated) which are 
situated towards the 
periphery of muscle fibre. 
The cells have only one 
nucleus (uni-nucleated) 
situated in the center. 
Each cell contains one or 
two nuclei situated in the 
center. 
3. Striation 
Transverse alternate light 
and dark bands present. 
Striations or strips are 
absent. 
Cells have faint striations. 
4. Mode of 
Contraction 
Voluntary contract rapidly 
but soon undergo fatigue. 
Involuntarily not at our will. 
Contract comparatively slow 
but do not fatigue. 
Involuntary, rhythmically 
contract and relax 
throughout life without 
fatigue under normal 
conditions. 
5. Example of 
location 
Hands, legs and other 
skeletal muscles. 
Stomach wall, intestine, 
ureter, bronchi etc. 
Present in heart.  
Q9: Draw a labeled diagram of neuron.  
Ans: 
 
Fig: Neuron  
Q.10: Name the following: 
(a) Tissue that forms inner lining of our mouth. 
(b) Tissue that connects muscle to bone in humans. 
(c) Tissue that transports food in plants. 
(d) Tissue that stores fat in our body. 
(e) Connective tissue with a fluid matrix. 
(f) Tissue present in brain.  
Ans:  
(a) Squamous epithelium (b) Tendon (c) Phloem (d) Adipose tissue (e) Blood (f) 
Nervous tissue.  
Q.11: Identify the type of tissue in the following: 
Skin, bark of tree, bone, lining of kidney tubule, vascular bundle. 
Ans:  
(i) Skin - Striated Squamous epithelium  
(ii) Bark of tree - Cork protective tissue 
(iii) Bone - Connective tissue 
(iv) Lining of kidney tubule - Cuboidal epithelium (Cuboidal epithelial tissue) 
(v) Vascular bundle - Complex permanent tissue (Xylem and Phloem)  
Q.12: Name the regions in which parenchyma tissue is present.  
Ans: Parenchyma is a simple permanent tissue of angiospermic plants. It is present 
in cortex and pith of stem and roots. It is also present in mesophyll of leaves. When it 
contains chlorophyll, it is called Chlorenchyma, found in green leaves.  
Q.13: What is the role of epidermis in plants?  
Ans: Epidermis is a protective tissue of angiospermic plants. It provides protections 
to underlying tissues. Epidermis forms outer covering of various plant organs such 
as roots, stem, leaves, and flowers and remains in direct contact with the 
environment. Any substance whether solid, liquid or gas can enter into the plant or 
move outside only after passing through this layer. Epidermis helps in absorption, 
secretion, gaseous exchange and transpiration. It helps in preventing the entry of 
pathogens.  
Q.14: How does the cork act as a protective tissue? 
Ans: The cork cells are dead cells and do not have any intercellular spaces. The cell 
wall of the cork cells are coated with suberin (a waxy substance). Suberin makes 
these cells impermeable to water and gases. Cork is protective in function; it protects 
underlying tissues from desiccation, infection and mechanical injury. 
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