Chapter 2, Forest and Wildlife Resources
NCERT Questions Answers
Q.1: Multiple choice questions:
(i) Which of these statements is not a valid reason for depletion of flora and fauna?
(a) Agricultural expansion
(b) Large scale developmental projects
(c) Grazing and fuel wood collection
(d) Rapid industrialization and urbanization
(ii) Which of the following conservation strategies do not directly involve community participation?
(a) Joint forest management
(b) Chipko movement
(c) Beej Bachao Andolan
(d) Demarcation of wildlife sanctuaries
Ans: (i) c. (ii) d
Q.2: Match the following animals with their category of existence
Animals / Plants
Category of Existence
2. Asiatic elephant
3. Andaman wild pig
4. Himalayan brown bear
5. Pink head duck
Ans: 1-c. 2-d. 3-e. 4-b. 5-a.
Q.3: Match the following:
1. Reserved Forests
2. Protected Forests
3. Un-classed Forests
a. Other forests and wastelands belonging to both government and private individuals and communities.
b. Forests are regarded as most valuable as far as the conservation of forests and wildlife resources concerned.
c. Forest lands are protected from any further depletion.
Ans: 1-b. 2-c. 3-a.
Q.4: Answer the following questions:
(i) What is biodiversity? Why biodiversity is important for human lives?
(ii) How have human activities affected the depletion of flora and fauna? Explain.
(i) Biodiversity is immensely rich in wildlife and cultivated species, diverse in form and function, but closely integrated in a system through multiple networks of interdependencies.
Biodiversity is important is important for human lives because the human beings, along with the biodiversity, form a complete web of ecological system in which we are only a part and are very much dependent on this system for our own existence.
(ii) Human activities have been the major causes for the depletion of flora and fauna. Various such activities are -
1. Agricultural expansion
2. Shifting cultivation (Jhum), a type of ‘slash and burn’ agriculture.
3. Large scale development projects.
4. Mining activities.
5. Habitat destruction, hunting, poaching, over-exploitation of forest products, environmental degradation, forest-fire are some other factors which have led to the decline of India’s biodiversity.
6. Environmental destruction due to unequal access, inequitable consumption of resources and differential sharing of responsibilities for environmental well-being are also responsible for the depletion of flora and fauna.
Q.5: Answer the following in about 120 words:
(i) Describe how communities have conserved and protected forests and wildlife in India.
(ii) Write a note on good practices towards conserving forest and wildlife.
(i) India has a multi-cultural and multi-religious society where protection of forests and wildlife is a part of their daily life. Contributions by these communities towards the protection of forests and wildlife can be explained as given below:
1. The inhabitants of five villages in Alwar district of Rajasthan have declared 1200 hectares of forest as the Bhairodev Dakav ‘Sonchuri’, declaring their own set of rules and regulations which do not allow hunting, and are protecting the wildlife against any outside encroachments.
2. Some trees are considered sacred by different communities e.g. the Mundas and Santhals of Chotanagpur region worship Mahua and Kadamba trees, and the tribals of Orissa and Bihar worship the Tamarind and Mango trees during weddings.
3. In and around Bishnoi villages in Rajasthan, herds of blackbuck, nilgai and peacock can be seen as an integral part of the community and no one harms them.
4. The Chipko Movement in Uttaranchal has successfully resisted cutting of trees as forests are home to different communities and hilly people.
(ii) In the conservation of forests and wildlife many good practices have been evolved over the years which are social-cultural on one hand and legal on the other hand such as,
1. Worshipping of many sacred trees.
2. Worshipping of many sacred animals because of their ecological importance.
3. Use of flora and fauna in religious functions.
4. Making of National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuary and Bio-Reserves to protect endangered species of plants and animals.
5. Implementing laws / acts to forbid killing and cutting of trees, make such acts punishable etc.
6. Involving mass media to highlight problems associated with environmental degradation.
7. Running community awareness programmes such as Vanmahotsav etc. from time to time.