NCERT Solution - Introducing Indian Society, Class 12, Sociology
Ques 1: What are the main problems of national integration in India?
Ans: The problems of India are linguistic identity, regionalism, demand for separate states and terrorism, etc. create hindrances in the way of national integration. Due to these. problems usually strike, riots and mutual fights take place, which has posed a severe threat to national unity and integration.
Ques 2: Why is sociology a distinct subject in comparison with all other subjects?
Ans: Sociology is a subject with which everyone knows something about society. Other subjects are learned at home, school or elsewhere through instructions but much of our growth in years as it appears to be acquired naturally or automatically.
Ques 3: What are the basic functions of a society?
Ans: Sociologists and social anthropologists have adopted the term function from biological sciences where it has been used for certain organic processes necessary for the maintenance of the organisms. Basic functions necessary for continuity and survival of any society are :
(i) Recruitment of members
(iii) Production and distribution of goods and services and preservation of order.
Ques 4: What do you understand by social structure?
Ans: A society consists of (i)Males and females, adults and children, various occupational and religious groups and so on.
(ii)The interrelationship between various that of parents and children and between various groups.
(iii)Finally, all the parts of the society are put together and the system is interrelated and complementary concepts.
Ques 5: Why is the social map provided to us in childhood by the deluding socialization essential?
Ans: Social maps are provided by our parents, siblings, relatives and neighbors. It may be specific and partial. It provides us only with common sense or unlearnt or perceivable knowledge which may or may not be real.
Proper use and application of reflexivity are essential for drawing other kinds of maps. It is a sociological perspective that teaches us the procedure of drawing social maps, wholesome and exclusive.
Ques 6: What is community identity? Discuss its characteristics.
Ans: Community that provides us the language and cultural values through which we comprehend the world. It is based on birth and belongings and never on some form of acquired qualification or accomplishment. Birth based identity is called ascriptive because this does not involve any choice on the part of the individual’s concerned. It is actually worthless and discriminating. These ascriptive identities are very hard to shake off because irrespective of our efforts to disown them, others may continue to identify us by those very markers of belonging.
Such an ascriptive identity is the most deterrent to self-realization. Expanding and overlapping circles of community ties i.e. family, kinship, caste, ethnicity, language, region or religion give meaning to our world and give us a sense of identity, of who we are.
Ques 7: What is Self-reflexivity?
Ans: Sociology can show us what we look like to others. It can teach us how to look at ourselves from the outside, so to speak. It is called “Self-reflexivity’ or sometimes just “Reflexivity’.
Ques 8: ‘Sociology can help us to map the links and connections between ‘personal troubles’ and ‘social issues’. Discuss.
Ans: C. Wright Mills a famous American Sociologist has mentioned, “Sociology can help us to map the links and connections between personal troubles and social issues.” As far as personal troubles are concerned Mills means the kinds of individual worries, problems or concerns that everyone has.
Ques 9: How colonial rule facilitated Indian consciousness to emerge? Discuss.
Ans: 1. Colonial rule unified all of Indian for the first time politically and administratively.
2. Colonial rule brought in the forces of modernization and Capitalist economic change.
3. However, this economic, political and administrative unification of India under colonial rule was got at great expense.
4. Colonial exploitation and domination scared the whole Indian society in different ways.
5. Colonialism also gave birth to its own enemy—nationalism. The concept of modern Indian nationalism took shape under British Colonialism.
6. The rampant exploitation and the shared experience of colonial domination helped unity and exercise different sections of Indian society. It also created new classes and communities. The Urban middle classes were the prime carrier of nationalism.
Ques 10: What steps were taken by colonial rules for the smooth functioning of its rule
Ans: The steps taken by colonial rules for the smooth functioning of its rule were that they:
(i)Used new mechanical techniques in production.
(ii)Started a new market system in trade.
(iii)Develop means of transport and communication.
(iv)Formed bureaucracy based on civil service of all India nature.
(v)Established formal and written law.
Ques 11: Which social reformers carried out social reform movements during the British colonialism in India?
Ans: The prominent leaders of the reform movements were Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, Dayanand Saraswati, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Mahatma Gandhi, and others.
Ques 12: State the processes began during the British colonialism in India.
Ans. This was the period when the modem period began in India and the external forces of modernization, westernization, industrialization entered.
Ques 13: State main differences between Sociology and other subjects.
Ans: 1.Sociology is a subject in which no one starts from Zero, as everyone already knows about society. However, other subjects are taught at school, at home or elsewhere.
2. Being an integral part of the process of growing up, knowledge about society seems to be obtained naturally or automatically.
In the case of other subjects, no child is expected to already know something.
3. It means we know a lot about the society in which we live and interact.
As far as other subjects are concerned, prior knowledge is almost negligible.
4. However, this prior knowledge or familiarity with society is both an advantage and disadvantage for sociology.
In the absence of prior knowledge, there is no question of advantage or disadvantage in the case of other subjects.