Ques.1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.
(i) A landmass bound by sea on three sides is referred to as
(d) None of the above
Ans. (c) Peninsula
(ii) Mountain ranges in the eastern part of India forming its boundary with Myanmar are collectivity called
(d) None of the above
Ans. (c) Purvachal
(iii) The western coastal strip, south of Goa is referred to as
(d) Northern Circar
Ans. (c) Kannad
(iv) The highest peak in the Eastern Ghats is
(a) Anai Mudi
Ans. (c) Mahendragiri
Ques.2. Answer the following questions briefly.
(i) What is the bhabar?
Ans. Bhabar is a narrow belt of the Ganga plain covered with pebbles lies along the foothills of the Shiwaliks.
(ii) Name the three major divisions of the Himalayas from north to south.
Ans. (a) The Greater Himalayas or Himadri (Inner Himalayas)
(b) Himachal or Lesser Himalayas (Middle Himalayas)
(c) The Shiwaliks (Outer Himalayas)
(iii) Which plateau lies between the Aravali and the Vindhyan ranges?
Ans. Malwa plateau lies between the Aravali and the Vindhyan range.
(iv) Name the island group of India having coral origin.
Ans. Lakshadweep islands are the island group having coral origin.
Ques.3. Distinguish between
(i) Bhangar and Khadar
(a) This is a highland composed of old alluvium.
(a) This is a lowland composed of new alluvium.
(b) It is always above the level of flood plain.
(b) It is flooded almost every year and new alluvium is deposited.
(c) It is often saturated with calcareous nodules known as kankar.
(c) It is often characterised by clay soil, which is very fertile.
(d) This is not much suited for cultivation.
(d) It is ideal for intensive agriculture.
(ii) Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats
(a) Western Ghats mark the western edge of the Deccan Plateau.
(a) Eastern Ghats mark the eastern edge of the Deccan Plateau.
(b) They are continuous and can only be crossed through passes only, eg., Pal Ghat, Bhor Ghat etc.
(b) They are discontinuous and irregular and have been dissected by the rivers draining into the Bay of Bengal.
(c) They lie parallel to the Western coast along the Arabian Sea.
(c) They lie along the eastern coast along the Bay of Bengal.
(d) They are higher in south and the height increases towards the south.
(d) They are higher in the north and the height increases towards the north.
(e) Average height is between 900 m to 1600 m.
(e) Average height is 600 m.
Ques.4. Which are the major physiographic divisions of India? Contrast the relief of the Himalayan region with that of the Peninsular plateau.
Ans: The major physiographic divisions of India are:
(i) The Himalayan Mountains
(ii) The Northern Plains
(iii) The Peninsular Plateau
(iv) The Indian Desert
(v) The Coastal Plains
(vi) The Islands
Relief of Himalayan Region
Relief of Peninsular Plateau
(a) Himalayas are young fold and loftiest mountains of the world comprising of several parallel ranges.
(a) It is a high tableland made up of old crystalline igneous and metamorphic rocks.
(b) They were formed due to folding of sedimentary rock strata in the bed of the Tethys Sea.
(b) The Peninsular Plateau was bom by breaking up of the Gondwana land.
(c) This region consists of the highest peaks in the world. Many of these peaks are above 6000 metres and snow covered throughout the year. eg., Mt. Everest, Mt. K2 etc.
(c) The hills of the Peninsular Plateau are rounded due to large scale erosion over a long period of time eg., Aravallis and the Nilgiris etc.
(d) The Himalayas represent a youthful topography with high peaks, gorges, deep valleys and waterfalls.
(d) The Peninsular Plateau represents a relief of rounded hills, broad and shallow valleys.
Ques.5. Give an account of the Northern Plains of India.
(i) The Northern Plains have been formed from the alluvium that the mountain rivers deposited here.
(ii) It led to the soil turning into fertile on the surface for growing a rich harvest of variety of crops. This also resulted in the development of the Indus River Valley Civilisation.
(iii) The rich soil was further aided by favourable climate and constant water supply from the rivers. Between the mouths of the Indus and the Ganga-Brahmaputra, the North Indian Plain covers a distance of 3200 km.
(iv) It is 300 to 150 km wide in some places.
(v) The North Indian Plains have the Indus river system in the west and the Ganga- Brahmaputra river system in the east.
(vi) The first includes Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas, Satluj. The Indus flows into the Arabian Sea.
(vii) The second includes Ganga, its tributaries and the Brahmaputra which combine as Meghna as they drain into the Bay of Bengal.
(viii) They form the world’s largest and fastest growing delta.
(ix) The difference in relief has led the North Indian Plains to be divided into four zones: (i) Bhabhar, (ii) Tarai, (iii) Bangar and (iv) Khadar.
Ques.6. Write short notes on the following.
(i) The Indian Desert
Ans. (a) The Indian desert lies to the west of the Aravali hills. It is an uneven sandy plains covered with sand dunes.
(b) Barchans (crescent-shaped sand dunes) cover larger part of the desert. Near Indo-Pakistan border longitudinal sand dunes are more common.
(c) It has arid climate with scarce vegetation and rainfall below 150 mm per year.
(d) Rivers/streams appear only during the rainy season and soon afterwards disappear in the sand. They do not have enough water to reach the sea. River Luni is the only large river in this area.
(ii) The Central Highlands
Ans. (a) The Part of the Peninsular plateau lying north of Narmada river is called Central Highlands. These highlands are made up of hard igneous and metamorphic rocks.
(b) It is bordered by Aravali range to the north-west. The Central Highlands include Malwa plateau to the west and Chotanagpur plateau to the east.
(c) The Central Highlands are wider in the west and become narrow eastwards. The eastward extension of the Malwa plateau is locally called Bundelkhand and Baghelkhand. Chotanagpur plateau in the east is drained by Damodar river, a southern tributary of Ganga river.
(iii) The Island groups of India
Ans: India has two groups of islands namely:
(a) Lakshadweep Islands
(b) Andaman and Nicobar islands group
(a) These island groups are located in the Arabian Sea Le., west of Malabar coast of Kerala,
(b) These islands are of coral origin formed by deposition of the dead remains.
(c) The total area of islands is 32 sq km. In Lakshadweep, administrative headquarters is in Kavaratti islands.
(d) They have a wide diversity of flora and fauna. The Pitti Island, an uninhabited island has a bird sanctuary.
Andaman and Nicobar Island:
(a) These islands are located in the Bay of Bengal are the raised portion of the submerged mountain ranges projecting out of the seawater.
(b) Large in size and are more numerous. Some of them are of volcanic origin eg. Barren island the only active volcano.
(c) These islands are of strategic importance as it lies very close to south-east Asia.
(d) The capital city is Port Blair.
(e) Experience equatorial climate and has thick forest cover.
Q.7. On an outline map of India show the following.
(i) Mountain and hill ranges — the Karakoram, the Zaskar, the Patkai Bum, the Jaintia, the Vindhya range, the Aravali and the Cardamom hills.
(ii) Peaks— K2, Kanchenjunga, Nanga Parbat and Anai Mudi.
(iii) Plateaus— Chotanagpur and Malwa
(iv) The Indian Desert, Western Ghats, Lakshadweep Islands.