RESOURCES AND DEVELOPMENT
NCERT Textbook Exercise Questions
Q.1: Multiple choice questions:
(i) Which one of the following types of resources is iron ore?
(ii) Under which of the following type of resource can tidal energy be put?
(iii) Which one of the following is the main cause of land degradation in Punjab?
a. Intense cultivation
c. Over irrigation
(iv) In which one of the following states is the terrace cultivation practiced?
c. Plains of Uttar Pradesh
(v) In which one of the following states is the black soil found?
a. J & K
Ans: (i)-d (ii)-a (iii)-c (iv)-d (v)-b.
Q.2: answer the following questions in about 30 words:
(i) Name three states having black soil and the crop which is mainly grown in it.
(ii) What type of soil is found in the river deltas of the Eastern Coast? Give three main features of this type of soil.
(iii) What steps can be taken to control soil erosion in the hilly areas?
(iv) What are biotic and abiotic resources? Give some examples.
(i) The states of Maharashtra, Gujarat and Karnataka have black soil. The crop which is grown in this soil is cotton. This soil is called ‘Regur’ regionally in this region.
(ii) The deltas made by east flowing rivers on Eastern Coastal plain have alluvial soil. Main features of this soil are:
(a) It is a most fertile soil having chemicals like lime, potash and phosphoric acid.
(b) The region of this densely populated.
(c) This soil is ideal for growing sugarcane, paddy and other cereals.
(iii) In hilly areas, soil erosion can be controlled by ploughing across contour-lines, making use of terrace farming techniques and using strips of grasses to check soil erosion by wind and water.
Biotic Resources: The resources which are obtained from the biosphere and have life are called Biotic Resources. For example, animals and plants including human beings.
Abiotic Resources: The resources which are composed of non-living things are called Abiotic Resources. For example, water, minerals, metals, wind, solar energy etc.
Q.3: Answer the following questions in about 120 words.
(i) Explain land use pattern in India and why has the land under forest not increased much from 1960-61?
(ii) How have technical and economic development led to more consumption of resources?
(i) Land-use pattern in India is a dynamic concept. It changes over space and time. Land-use pattern in India is as follows:
1. About 46% area is the net sown area in the country.
2. Forests occupy about 22% of the reporting area.
3. The cultivable waste land accounts for nearly 5% of the area.
4. The fallow land covers about 8% of the total area.
5. Permanent pastures and tree crops cover only 5%.
6. The land not available for cultivation is nearly 14% of the total area.
The factors which determine land use are two fold:
(a) Physical - climate, soil and relief.
(b) Human - culture, tradition and technology.
The main causes for the change in Land-use pattern are -
1. Growing human population
This then varies from state to state also. The above mentioned factors are also responsible for the decrease in land under forest which is around 19% i.e. 14% away from 33% norm of UNO body on environment protection but a slight improvement after 1960-61 i.e. of 22% of the total geographical area.
(ii) Technical and economic development have led to more consumption of resources on account of various factors such as:
1. Technological development provides sophisticated equipments. As a result, production increases ultimately leading to consumption of more resources.
2. Technological development also leads to economic development. When the economic condition of a country rises, the needs of people also rise. It again results into more consumption of resources.
3. Economic development provides favourable environment for the development of latest technologies. It helps to make or convert various materials found around us into resources. Finally, it results into the consumption of new available resources too.