Page No: 22
Q 1. Notice these expressions in the text. Infer their meaning from the context.
Forensic reconstruction- It refers to the process of creating a face on the skull and seeing how the owner of the skull looked like. Here, it refers to the construction of the bust of King Tut based on the data received from CT scan.
Scudded across- It refers to moving quickly. The phrase is used with reference to the
movement of the ‘dark-bellied clouds’.
Casket grey- The words point out to the covering of the stars by the dark-bellied clouds’, the way jewels are kept in a casket (a jewel box).
Resurrection- It refers to a new beginning for something which is old and long forgotten. Here, it refers to the new life after death.
Funerary treasures- The valuable things with which the king was buried were no less than treasures as most of the items were made of pure gold. They are, thus, referred to as
Circumvented- The thieves would easily bypass the guards with artfulness and rip the
mummy apart to remove the gold.
Computed tomography- Also known as CT scan, it provides X-ray image of a body in cross section. It is used for diagnostic purposes.
Eerie detail- Uncanny description of the resulting image of the head of Tut visible through the CT scan.
Page No: 28
Understanding the Text
Q 1. Give reasons for the following.
(i) King Tut’s body has been subjected to repeated scrutiny.
Answer: King tut's body has been subjected to to repeated scrutiny for the riches it was buried with. There has also been a lot of speculation about the manner of his death and the time of his death.
(ii) Howard Carter’s investigation was resented.
Answer: Howard Carter’s investigation was resented because he used unscientific methods to cut the body away from the wooden base. He also focused more on the discovery of gold than on the fascinating details of Tut's life and the mysteries of his death.
(iii) Carter had to chisel away the solidified resins to raise the king’s remains.
Answer: Carter found that the ritual resin that was used as a polish has hardened. The result was that the mummy was cemented to the bottom of the solid gold coffin. Neither the strongest force could move the mummy nor the burning sun could loosen the remains of the king.
(iv) Tut’s body was buried along with gilded treasures.
Answer: The ancient royals of Egypt were fabulously wealthy. They believed in afterlife. They also believed that they could take their wealth with them. So gilded treasures were buried with them.
(v) The boy king changed his name from Tutankhaten to Tutankhamun.
Answer: Tutankhamun means ‘Living image of Amun. He was a major god in ancient Egypt. King Amennotep smashed the images of Amun and closed his temples. Tut oversaw a restoration of the old ways. He also changed his name to express his belief on Amun.
(i) List the deeds that led Ray Johnson to describe Akhenaten as “wacky”.
According to Ray Johnson Akhenten was wacky because:
► He promoted the worship of Aten instead of Amun.
► He moved the religious capital from Thebes to the new city of Akhetaten.
► He smashed Amun's images.
► He closed Amun's temples.
► He changed his name to Akhenaten or servant of Aten.
(ii) List the advances in technology that have improved forensic analysis.
Answer: Today C.T. technology helps us to take hundreds of X-ray images in cross-sections. They can be put together like slices of bread tp create three dimensional virtual body. This provides precise data for an accurate forensic reconstruction.
(iii) Explain the statement, “King Tut is one of the first mummies to be scanned — in death, as in life ...”
Answer: The above statement refers that there are hundreds of mummies in Egypt. But Tut's is the first to be scanned. He remains the first even in death, as he was the first among his countrymen when he lived. He was a ruler, an emperor.
Talking about the Text
Q 2. Scientific intervention is necessary to unearth buried mysteries.
Answer: If you think history has any relevance in our life, we must get at the truth. There are so many mysteries which remain unsolved. For example, we know very little about the Indus civilisation. The seals remain un-deciphered. This needs scientific investigation. Without scientific intervention they will remain in the dark.
Against No doubt we need to know the past. History has relevance in our life. But sometimes we take it too far. King Tut's mummy has been repeatedly investigated. Inspite of spending millions of dollars, nothing new has been revealed. We must utilise our resources to help the living rather than investigating the dead.
Q 3. Advanced technology gives us conclusive evidence of past events.
Today technology is so advanced that we can reconstruct the past. For example, we know how Pompeii was destroyed. But now we have reconstructed the whole city. We know
precisely how the people lived.
It is an empty boast that advanced technology gives us conclusive evidence of past events. Let us take the case of King Tut. It has been C.T. scanned. What can it tell us how he died. If he was murdered who murdered him and why ? C.T. scan might give some idea how he died. But it cannot give conclusive evidence.
Q 4. Traditions, rituals and funerary practices must be respected.
People who buried their dead with rituals and funerary practices did so with reverence for their dead. They wanted to lie in peace, undisturbed. We must respect their sentiments.
People in ancient times had some beliefs and funerary rituals. By investigating into them we can know much about them. It adds to our knowledge about the progress of human
civilisation in different parts of the world.
Page No: 29
Talking about Language
Q 1. What do you think are the reasons for the extinction of languages?
Answer: A language becomes extinct when its use is restricted to specific classes or categories of people. Secondly, the harshness of rules and lack of flexibility in usage also contribute in extinction of languages.
Q 2. Do you think it is important to preserve languages?
Answer: Yes, it is important to preserve languages as they are responsible for the development of culture of the community. It helps in preservation of one’s heritage and traditions. Language preservation ensures contact with one’s history and literature.
Q 3. In what ways do you think we could help prevent the extinction of languages and dialects?
Answer: Extinction of languages and dialects can be prevented through the following reasons.
► Transferring the vocabulary and dialects of the language to the next generation.
► Teaching the languages in colleges and universities and encouraging students to
specialise in the same.
► Teaching children to use mother-tongue.
► Remaining connected to one’s cultural roots.
► Respecting one’s language which will help in taking it forward to the coming generations.
Working with Words
Q 4. Given below are some interesting combinations of words. Explain why they have been used together.
(i) ghostly dust devils
(ii) desert sky
(iii) stunning artefacts
(iv) funerary treasures
(v) scientific detachment
(vi) dark-bellied clouds
(vii) casket grey
(viii) eternal brilliance
(ix) ritual resins
(x) virtual body
(i) ghostly dust devils- it points out to the devilish or frightful movement of the dusty winds. It reflects the anger of the winds for disturbing the king from his resting place.
(ii) desert sky- it refers to the dusty sky of the desert. The barren sky spread over the vast
desert region portrays a sad and dry picture.
(iii) stunning artefacts- items found in the tomb were extremely beautiful. Usage of both the words together explains the ‘eternal brilliance’ of the objects.
(iv) funerary treasures- reference is to the fact that king was buried with numerous things
which were no less than treasures as most of the items were made of pure gold.
(v) scientific detachment- it refers to an indifference towards science.
(vi) dark-bellied clouds- it refers to the dark clouds containing rain.
(vii) casket grey- the words point out to the stars being covered by the ‘dark-bellied clouds’, the way jewels are kept in a casket (a jewel box).
(viii) eternal brilliance- eternal refers to something that is timeless. Thus, eternal brilliance refers to timeless lustre and shine of the jewels and valuables of the king.
(ix) ritual resins- resins are used as a customary duty in the process of burying a body.
(x) virtual body- a body created through electronic images or CT scan. It resembles a real
body and provides a very clear view.
Q 5. Here are some commonly used medical terms. Find out their meanings.
Answer: CT scan- It refers to Computed Tomography. It provides X-ray image of a body in cross section. It is used for diagnostic purposes. MRI- MRI is the short form of magnetic resonance imaging. It is a diagnostic tool. Tomography- It refers to taking pictures of various sections of a human body in a three dimensional view.
Autopsy- It refers to the post-mortem examination.
Dialysis- It is the process of filtration of bloodstream usually during kidney failure.
ECG- The electrocardiogram is a diagnostic tool that measures and records the electrical
activity of the heart in exquisite detail.
Post mortem- It refers to the medical examination and dissection of a dead body to
determine the cause of death
Angiography- Angiography is the examination of the blood vessels using x-rays and
injecting of a radiopaque substance.
Biopsy- The removal and examination of a sample of tissue from a living body for diagnostic purposes is known as biopsy.