Q1. Who was considered a "foreigner" in the past?
- According to the medieval period, any stranger who did not belong to a certain society or culture and was not a part of that particular village was regarded as a foreigner.
- For example, a city dweller, therefore, might have regarded a forest-dweller as a foreigner but if two persons are belonging to the same village they not foreigners in spite of their different religious or caste backgrounds.
Q2. State whether true or false
(a) We do not find inscriptions for the period after 700.
(b) The Marathas asserted their political importance during this period.
(c) Forest-dwellers were pushed out of their lands with the spread of agricultural settlements.
(d) Sultan Ghiyasuddin Balban controlled Assam, Manipur, and Kashmir.
Ans: (a) False
Q3. Fill in the blanks
(a) Archives are places where ______ are kept.
(b) ______was a fourteenth-century chronicler.
(c) ______, ______, ______, ______ and ______ were some of the new crops introduced into the subcontinent during this period.
(a) Archives are places where manuscripts are kept.
India's Palm Leaves Manuscripts(b) Ziyauddin Barani was a fourteenth-century chronicler.
(c) Potatoes, corn, chillies, tea, and coffee were some of the new crops introduced into the subcontinent during this period.
Q4. List some of the technological changes associated with this period.
Ans: The technological changes associated with this period are:
- The Persian wheel for irrigation.
The Persian Wheel
- The spinning wheel in weaving.
- Firearms in combat.
Q5. What were some of the major religious developments period of 700 to 1750?
Ans: The major religious developments during this period:
- Important changes occurred in the Hinduism religion which included the worship of new deities.
- Hindus started the construction of temples by royalty.
- The growing importance of Brahmanas, the priests, as dominant groups in society.
- There was also the emergence of the idea of bhakti i.e. of a loving, personal deity.
- One of the major developments was the emergence of the idea of bhakti- of a loving, personal deity that devotees could reach without the aid of priests or elaborate rituals.
- The merchants and migrants brought with them the teachings of the Quran, the holy book of Muslims.
Q6. In what ways has the meaning of the term “Hindustan” changed over the centuries?
- The meaning of the term ‘Hindustan’ has eventually changed over the past centuries.
- Today, the term ‘Hindustan’ is referred to denote India. But during the 13th century, the term was used by Minhaj-i-Siraj – a chronicler (in a political sense) of lands that belonged to the Delhi Sultan.
- During the 14th century, the term ‘Hind’ was used by Amir Khusrau to refer to the culture and people of the Indus river.
- Whereas, during the early 16th century, Babar used the term ‘Hindustan’ to describe the culture, geography and fauna of the inhabitants of the sub-continent.
Q7. How were the affairs of jatis regulated?
- The affairs of jatis were regulated by an assembly of elders which is also known as jati panchayat in some areas.
- Jatis framed their own rules and regulations to manage the conduct of their members.
- Jatis were also required to follow the rules of their villages governed by a chieftain.
Q8. What does the term pan-regional empire mean?
Ans: The term pan-regional empire means the empires which were spanning diverse regions which were expanded to a larger area or regions like dynasties of Cholas, Khaljis, Tughluqs, and Mughals.
Q9. What are the difficulties that historians face in using manuscripts?
Ans: Difficulties faced by historians in using manuscripts:
- There was no printing press in those days so scribes copied manuscripts by hand which was difficult to read and understand.
- During copying, scribes also introduced small changes in a word or sentence which grew over centuries of copying.
- The original manuscript of the author is rarely found today so they are totally dependent upon the copies made by later scribes.
- Historians have to read different manuscript versions of the same text to guess what the author had originally written.
A painting of a scribe making a copy of a manuscript.
Q10. How do historians divide the past into periods? Do they face any problems in doing so?
Ans: Historians divide the past into periods on the basis of economic and social factors to characterize the major elements of different moments of the past:
- The historians faced a lot of problems because time itself reflects changes in the social and economic, organisation, in the persistence and transformation of ideas and beliefs.
- Therefore, describing the entire period as one historical unit is not without its problems.
- "Modernity” also carries a sense of material progress and intellectual advancement.
- The study of time is made somewhat easier by dividing the past into large segments periods which possess shared characteristics.