NCERT TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVED
Q.1. Answer the following questions.
(i) What is agriculture?
(ii) Name the factors influencing agriculture.
(iii) What is shifting cultivation? What are its disadvantages?
(iv) What is plantation agriculture?
(v) Name the fibre crops and name the climatic conditions required for their growth.
Ans. (i) Agriculture is the primary activity that involves cultivation of crops, fruits, vegetables, flowers and rearing of livestock.
(ii) Factors influencing agriculture include topography of soil and climate.
(iii) Shifting cultivation is the form of agriculture in which a plot of land is cleared by felling the trees and burning them. The ashes are then mixed with soil and crops are grown. After some time, the land is abandoned and the farmers move to a different place. It is disadvantageous because it involves deforestation and burning of trees. Thus it is not good for environment.
(iv) Plantation agriculture is a type of commercial farming where only a single crop (like tea, coffee, sugarcane, cashew, rubber, banana or cotton) is grown. Large amount of labour and capital are required. The produce is processed in the farm itself or nearby factories.
(v) Two major fibre crops are jute and cotton. Jute grows well on alluvial soil and requires high temperature, heavy rainfall and humid climate for its growth. Cotton needs high temperature, light rainfall and bright sunshine for its proper growth.
Q.2. Tick the correct answer.
(i) Horticulture means
(a) growing of fruits and vegetables
(b) primitive farming
(c) growing of wheat
Ans. (i) (a)
(ii) Golden fibre refers to
Ans. (ii) (c)
iii) Leading producers of coffee
Ans. (iii) (a).
Q.3. Give reasons.
(i) In India agriculture is a primary activity.
(ii) Different crops are grown in different regions.
Ans. (i) Agriculture is an activity of growing crops, fruits, vegetables, flowers and rearing of livestock. It is a primary activity since it directly involves in natural resources. In India, a huge number of people derive the activity from their ancestors. Due to lack of literacy in general, farmers prefer agriculture since they acquire the required skills from their ancestors, and so feel comfortable with it.
(ii) The growing of crops depends on a lot of factors. Climate, rainfall, humidity, etc are important factors. In absence of certain conditions, it may not be possible to grow a certain crop. So, different crops are grown in different regions.
Q.4. Distinguish between the followings. (i) Primary activities and secondary activities. (ii) Subsistence farming and intensive farming.
|Primary Activities||Secondary Activities|
|1. Activities which involve direct extraction and production of natural resources are called primary activities.|
2. Examples: agriculture, fishing and gathering.
|1. Activities which are concerned with the processing of natural resources are called secondary activities.|
2. Examples: manufacturing activities in industry, baking bread.
|Subsistence Farming||Intensive Farming|
|1. Subsistence farming uses low levels of technology and household labour. The output produced is small.||1. In intensive farming a farmer uses simple tools and more labour to cultivate a small plot of land.|