NCERT Solutions - Challenges to and Restoration of Congress System Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Political Science Class 12

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The document NCERT Solutions - Challenges to and Restoration of Congress System Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev is a part of the UPSC Course Political Science Class 12.
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TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVED

1. Which of these statements about the 1967 elections is/are correct?
(a) Congress won the Lok Sabha elections but lost the Assembly elections in many states.
(b) Congress lost both Lok Sabha and Assembly elections.
(c) Congress lost majority in the Lok Sabha but formed a coalition government with the s upport of some other parties.
(d) Congress retained power at the Centre with an increased majority. Ans. (a) Congress won the Lok Sabha elections but lost the Assembly elections in many states.
Answer: (a) Congress won the Lok Sabha elections but lost the Assembly elections in many states.
 (c) Congress lost majority in the Lok Sabha but formed a coalition government with the support of some other parties.

2. Match the following:
NCERT Solutions - Challenges to and Restoration of Congress System Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev
Answer: (a)-(ii), (b)-(i), (c)-(iv), (d)-(iii).

3. Whom would you identify with the following slogans/phrases?
(a) Jai Jawan, Jai Kisan
(b) Indira Hatao!
(c) Garibi Hatao!
Answer: (a) Lai Bahadur Shastri: Jai Jawan, Jai Kisan
 (b) Syndicate: Indira Hatao!
 (c) Indira Gandhi: Garibi Hatao!

4. Which of the following statement about the Grand Alliance of 1971 is correct? The Grand Alliance …
(а) was formed by non-Communist, non-Congress parties.
(b) had a clear political and ideological programme.
(c) was formed by all non-Congress parties.
Answer: (a) was formed by non-Communist, non-Congress parties.

5. How should a political party resolve its internal differences? Here are some suggestions. Think of each and list out their advantages and shortcomings?
(a) Follow the footsteps of the party president
(b) Listen to the majority group
(c) Secret ballot voting on every issue
(d) Consult the senior and experienced leaders of the party
Answer: (a) Advantage: If the party follows the footsteps of the party president, there will be discipline and unity within the party.

Shortcoming: The party president can take its decision without taking into consideration the views of its party members. So, the inner democracy may get weakened.

(b) Advantage: If the party listens to the majority group, there will be more confidence among the party members and inner democracy will be strengthened.

Shortcoming: If the party listens to the majority group, factionalism may increase in the party. One faction may try to back another faction to gather support.

(c) Advantage: Secret ballot voting is an appropriate system. It is more democratic. Through it, any member can express his views.

Shortcoming: Sometimes, the party members may vote through secret ballot by ignoring the whip of the party issued by the party president. It may prove fatal to the party.

(d) Advantage: The novice and less experienced candidates will be benefited if they consult the senior and experienced leaders of the party and also follow their guidelines. Shortcoming: If the party members only consult the senior and experienced leaders and follow their guidelines, their hold will get strengthened in the party.

6. State which of these were reasons for the defeat of the Congress in 1967. Give reasons for your answer?
(a) The absence of a charismatic leader in the Congress party.
(b) Split within the Congress party.
(c) Increased mobilisation of regional, ethnic and communal groups.
(d) Increasing unity among non¬Congress parties.
(e) Internal differences within the Congress party.
Answer: (a) It may not be the reason of the defeat of Congress party. Because there were so many experienced and charismatic leaders in the party.

(b) It was one of the main reasons of the defeat of Congress party. Now party was split into two groups. Syndicate had strong hold over the Congress party while Indira supporters were more inclined to their leader. One group was in support of capitalism and liberalisation while others opposed it.

(c) Due to the emergence of the Akali Dal in Punjab, D.M.K. in Tamil Nadu got and other regional parties, Congress setback. The party could not get majority at the centre and had to be deprived of power in various states.

(d) There was no unity among non¬Congress parties. So the non¬Congress parties got benefit in other provinces.

(e) Internal differences within the party were one of the major causes of its defeat.

7. What were the factors which led to the popularity of Indira Gandhi’s Government in the early 1970s?

Answer: Because:
1. Socialist credentials became main projects during this period.

2. Indira Gandhi campaigned to implement land reform legislations and land ceiling legislations.

3. She ended her dependence on other political parties by strengthening her party’s position and recommended the dissolution of Lok Sabha in December’ 1970.

4. The crisis in East Pakistan and Indo- Pak war to establish Bangladesh as an independent one, also enhanced the popularity of Indira Gandhi.

5. Indira Gandhi’s government was not accepted only as a protector of the poor and underprivileged but as a strong government also.

6. Congress became popular among different social sections and restored dominance again.

8. What does the term ‘syndicate’ mean in the context of the Congress party of the . sixties? What role did the Syndicate play in the Congress party?
Answer: Syndicate was a group of powerful and influential leaders from within the Congress:

1. Syndicate was led by K. Kamraj, former chief minister of Tamilnadu and the then president of Congress party. It also includes some powerful leaders like S.K. Patil, S. Nijalingappa, N. Sanjeeva Reddy and Atulya Ghosh.

2. In the sixties, Syndicate played a decisive role by installing both Lai Bahadur Shastri and Indira Gandhi as a Prime Minister.

3. Syndicate played decisive say in Indira Gandhi’s first council of Ministers and formation and implementation of policies.

4. After a split, two groups in Congress were created i.e. Congress (O), led by Syndicate and Congress (R), led by Indira Gandhi.

5. Congress (R), won popularity after 1971 and Syndicate lost power and prestige.

9. Discuss the major issue which led to the formal split of the Congress Party in 1969.

Answer: The formal split in Congress took place in 1969 on the issue of nomination of the candidate during presidential elections:
1. Despite, Indira Gandhi’s reservations, the Syndicate nominated Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy, as the official Congress candidate for ensuing Presidential elections.

2. Indira Gandhi retaliated the situation by encouraging Mr. V.V. Giri, the then Vice-President, to be nominated as an independent candidate.

3. During election, the then Congress President S. Nijalingappa issued a whip asking all Congress MPs. MLAs to vote for N. Sanjeeva Reddy.

4. On the other hand, after silently supporting V.V. Giri, the Prime Minister Mrs Indira Gandhi openly called for a conscience vote to vote the way they want.

5. Elections went in favour of V.V. Giri due to this diplomatic effort and N. Sanjeeva Reddy was defeated.

6. The defeat of N. Sanjeeva Reddy, the formal Congress candidate, formalised the split of party into two:

(a) Congress (O), i.e. organisation led by syndicate, known as Old Congress.

(b) Congress (R) i.e. requisitionists led by Indira Gandhi, known as New Congress.

10. Read the passage and answer the questions below:
“… Indira Gandhi changed the Congress into highly centralised and undemocratic party organisation, from the earlier federal, democratic and ideological formation that Nehru had led. … But this … could not have happened had not Indira Gandhi changed the entire nature of politics. This new, populist politics turned political ideology … into a mere electoral discourse, use of various slogans not meant to be translated into government policies…. During its great electoral victories in early 1970s, amidst the celebration, the Congress party as a political organisation died
—Sudipta Kaviraj
(a) What according to the author is the difference between the strategies of Nehru and Indira Gandhi?
(b) Why does the author say that the Congress party ‘died’ in the seventies?
(c) In what way, did the change in the Congress party affect other political parties also?
Answer: (a) According to author, main difference between the strategies of Nehru and Indira Gandhi is that Jawahar Lai Nehru led the Congress into federal, democratic and ideological nature whereas Indira Gandhi converted it into highly centralised and undemocratic party.

(b) Congress party died in the seventies due to changed nature of Congress, the new populist politics turned political ideology into a mere electoral discourage and the use of various slogans never meant to be translated into government policies
 i. e. electoral victories of 1970s.

(c) The change in the Congress party affected other political parties also as they formed SVD (Samyukt Vidhayak Dal) in the form of coalitions and grand alliance.


MORE QUESTIONS SOLVED
Very Short Answer Type Questions[1 Mark]

1. Which major factor was responsible for the dramatic victory of Indira Gandhi in 1971 elections? 

Answer: Although the Congress’s position was very weak in the electroal contest of 1971, it had something that its big opponents lacked—it had an issue, an agenda and a positive slogan: Garibi Hatao in contrast to opposition’s Indira Hatao. This proved to be a major factor responsible for the dramatic victory of Indira Gandhi.

2. Who represented Congress (O) and Congress (R) after the split of Congress Party? 

Answer: Congress (O) was represented by K. Kamraj, former Chief Minister of Tamilnadu and the then President of Congress Party whereas Congress (R) was led by Indira Gandhi.

3. What is meant by term ‘Congress Syndicate?

Answer: ‘Congress Syndicate’, implied a group of powerful and influential leaders within Congress to be known as Old Congress.

4. In 1966, who contested against Indira Gandhi for the post of Prime Minister from among Congress MPs?

Answer: Morarji Desai, earlier Chief Minister of Bombay State.

5. What was the Slogan of Indira Gandhi during the elections of 1971?

Answer: ‘Garibi Hatao’.

6. After the death of Lai Bahadur Shastri which two leaders of Congress Party contested against each other to become leader of Congress parliamentary party?

Answer: Morarji Desai and Indira Gandhi.

7. Name the leaders who gave the following slogans.
1. Jai Jawan, Jai Kisan
2. Garibi Hatao
Answer: 1. Lai Bahadur Shastri
 2. Indira Gandhi

8. Which theoretical argument did Ram j Manohar Lohia give in defence on non- Congressism?

Answer: “Congress rule was undemocratic and opposed to the interest of ordinary poor people, therefore, the coming together of the non-Congress parties was necessary for reclaiming democracy for the people”.

9. The results of which, elections were called j “Political Earthquake”?
Answer. February 1967, Fourth General Elections to the Lok Sabha and State Assemblies.

10. When and where was the first non- j Congress state government formed after India’s independence?
Answer: Haryana, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh in 1967.

ll. Why are the results of 1967 elections in India called Political Earthquake?
Answer: Because it jolted the Congress at both the central and state levels as Congress did not get majority in Congress ruled states.

12. What challenges were faced by India between 1964 to 1966 during Prime- ministership of Lai Bahadur Shastri?
Answer: 1. Economic crisis due to Indo-China War 1962 and Indo-Pak War 1965.
 2. Failed Monsoons, drought, serious food crisis presented a grave challenge.

13. What do you mean by SVD?
Answer: SVD stands for Samyukt Vidhayak Dal
 i. e. Joint Legislative Parties formed by various non-Congress parties called as coalitions after fourth general elections.

14. Why were 1960s, called as the dangerous decade?
Answer: Due to some unresolved problems like poverty, inequality, communal and regional divisions led a failure of democratic projects or disintegration of country.


Very Short Answer Type Questions [2 Marks]

1. What does ‘Aaya Ram, Gaya Ram’ stand for in Indian politics?
Answer: 1. The phrase ‘Aaya Ram, Gaya Ram’ implied frequent floor crossing by legislators in the party which was developed by Haryana MLA Gaya Lai in 1967.
 2. He changed his party thrice in fortnight from Congress to United Front back to Congress and then within nine hours to United Front again.
 3. This incident later became a political joke and develop the culture of defection in Indian politics to create instability among the political parties.
 4. Now, the Constitution has been amended to prevent this practice under ‘Anti Defection Law’.

2. Why did senior Congress leader support Indira Gandhi as Prime Minister after the death of Lai Bahadur Shastri?
Answer: Because:
 1. Indira Gandhi was the daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru and she had been Congress president in the past and had also been Union Minister for Information in Shastri Cabinet.
 2. The senior leaders presumed that her administrative and political inexperience would compel her to dependent on them for support and guidance.

3. What is meant by Grand Alliance?
Answer: Grand Alliance was an electoral alliance of all the major Non-communist, non¬Congress opposition parties. The SSP, PSP, Bharatiya Jana Sangh, Swatantra Party and the Bharatiya Kranti Dal came together under this Umbrella.

4. Why did Indira Gandhi government devalue the Indian Rupee in 1967?
Answer: Indira Gandhi government devalued Indian rupee to check economic crisis of 1967. Consequently, one US dollar could be purchased for less than ? 5 after devaluation, it cost more than ? 7.
 1. The economic situation triggered a price rise.
 2. People started protest against increase in prices of essential commodities and unemployment etc.
 3. The Communist and Socialist parties launched struggle to avail greater equality.

5. How did Congress face challenge of political succession second time?
Answer: The Congress party faced the challenge of succession for second time in 1966 after the death of Lai Bahadur Shastri:
 1. This challenge started with an intense competition between Morarji Desai and Indira Gandhi to be resolved through a secret ballot.
 2. Indira Gandhi defeated Morarji Desai by securing support of more than two-third of the party’s MPs.
 3. Thus, a peaceful transition of power despite intense competition for leadership was seen as a sign of maturity of India’s democracy.

6. What was the status of SVD in the new era of coalition?
Answer: The elections of 1967 brought the coalitions when no single party got the majority and joint legislator parties called ‘Samyukt Vidhayak Dal’ came together to form government to support non-Congress government:
 1. The SVD government in Bihar included two socialist parties—SSP and PSP along-with CPS on left and Jana Sangh on right.
 2. In Punjab, it was called the popular United Front and comprised the two rival Akali Parties at that time.

7. ‘1960s were labelled as the dangerous decade’. Explain.
Answer: Due to some unresolved problems like poverty, inequality, communal and regional divisions and the was speculations that all these could lead to a failure of the democratic project or even disintegration of country.


Short Answer Type Questions [4 Marks]

l. Explain any two reasons for the popularity of Indira Gandhi during 1971 elections.
Or
Analyse any three factors which enhanced popularity of Indira Gandhi in the early 1970s.
Answer: Because:
 1. Indira Gandhi campaigned to implement land reforms legislations and land ceiling legislation during elections.
 2. She ended her dependence on other political parties by strengthening her party’s position and recommended the dissolution of Lok Sabha in December 1970.
 3. The crisis in East Pakistan and Indo- Pak war to establish Bangladesh as an independent one, also enhanced the popularity of Indira Gandhi.

2. What does ‘defection’ stand for in Indian politics? Highlight any two demerits of this practice?
Answer: Defection refers to an elected representative leaves the party on whose symbol he/she is elected and joins another party. This culture developed in Indian Politics after 1967 elections.
 Its two demerits were as follows:
 1. It played an important role in making and unmaking of government frequently.
 2. The constant realignments and shifting political loyalties in this period gave rise to the expression “Aaya Ram, Gaya Ram”.

3. Why was the year 1967 considered a landmark year in India’s political and electoral history? Explain.
Answer: The fourth general election was held in 1967 for the first time without Nehru:
 1. The election verdict was not in favour of Congress and results jolted the Congress both at the national and state levels.
 2. Half the ministers in Indira Gandhi’s cabinet were defeated including K. Kamraj in Tamilnadu, S.K. Patil in Maharashtra, Atulya Ghosh in West Bengal, K.B. Sahay in Bihar.
 3. Congress did not lose majority in seven states only but two other states also prevented it to form government due to defections.
 4. For the first time any non-Congress party secured majority in any state and in other eight states different non-Congress parties formed the coalitions.

4. These election results were called as a ‘Political Earthquake’.4. How can we see re-emergence of Indira Gandhi to power in 1971?
Answer: Congress (R) under Indira Gandhi had an issue, an agenda and a positive slogan which was lacked by its opponents. The ‘Grand Alliance’ had only one common i programme ‘Indira Hatao’:
 1. In contrast to this, Indira Gandhi put forward a positive slogan ‘Garibi Hatao’.
 2. By this, she generated a support base among poor, minorities, landless labourers, dalit, women and unemployed youth.
 3. Except it, she focused on the growth of public sector, imposition of ceiling on rural land holdings and urban property, removal of disparity etc.
 4. Thus, the slogan of Garibi Hatao and programmes became the part of Indira Gandhi’s political strategy of building an independent nationwide political support base during the electoral contest of 1971.

5. What is meant by ‘Privy Purses’? Why did Indira Gandhi insist on abolishing them in 1970?
Answer:‘Privy Purses’ was the form of grant in heredity given to the rulers and their families:
 1. The grant or ‘Privy Purse’ was measured on the basis of extent revenue and potential of the merging state in the assurance given at the time of integration of princely states.
 2. Privy purses were criticised, the privileges given to princely states at the time of accession, integration and consolidation were protested.
 3. Hence, some leaders like Indira Gandhi insisted on abolishing the privy purses because hereditary privileges were not constant with the principle of equality, social and economic justice laid down in the constitution.
 4. Hence in the elections of 1971, Indira Gandhi made this a major election issue and got a lot of public support
 and alongwith massive victory in 1971 election, the constitution was amended to remove legal obstacles for abolition of privy purses.

6. How did the outcome of 1971 elections help in restoration of Congress?
Answer: Congress (R) under Indira Gandhi had an issue an agenda and a positive slogan which was lacked by its opponents. The ‘Grand Alliance’ had only one common programme ‘Indira Hatao’:
 1. In contrast to this, Indira Gandhi put forward a positive slogan ‘Garibi Hatoa’.
 2. By this, she generated a support base among poors, minorities, landlors labourers, dalits, women and unemployed bye youth.
 3. Except it, she focused on the growth of public sector, imposition of ceiling on rural land holdings and urban property, removal of disparity etc.
 4. Thus, the slogan of Garibi Hatao and programmes became the part of Indira Gandhi’s political strategy of building an independent nationwide political support base during the electoral contest of 1971.

7. Write a short note on:
(a) Jai Jawan, Jai Kisan
(b) Garibi Hatao
(c) Indira Hatao
(d) Grand Alliance
Answer: (a) Jai Jawan, Jai Kisan
 (i) A slogan given by Lai Bahadur Shastri in 1965.
 (ii) To symbolise to resolve country’s challenge of food crisis and external threat.
 (b) Garibi Hatao
 (i) A slogan given by the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi in 1970 to symbolise removal of poverty.
 (ii) Through this slogan, Indira Gandhi generated a support base among women, unemployed youth, minorities, landless labourers, dalits, etc.
 (c) Indira Hatao
 A slogan given by Grand Alliance alongwith one programme of‘Indira Hatao’ only i.e. remove Indira Gandhi from Political arena.
 (d) Grand Alliance
 (i) An alliance formed by non-communist and non-Congress parties to be formed against Congress (R).
 (ii) It did not focus on multiple strategies of development rather included only ‘Indira Hatao’.


Passage Based Questions |5 Marks]

1. Read carefully the passage given below and answer the following questions:
The New Congress had something that its big opponents lacked—it had an issue, an agenda and a positive slogan. The Grand Alliance did not have a coherent political programme. Indira Gandhi said that the opposition alliance had only one common programme ‘Indira Hatao’. In contrast to this, she put forward a positive programme captured in the famous slogan ‘Garibi Hatao’.
Questions
1. Which Congress is being referred to as ‘the New Congress’?
2. Highlight any two steps taken by Indira Gandhi to remove poverty.
3. How far is it justified to call the ‘opposition alliance’ as the ‘Grand Alliance’?
Answer:
 1. Congress (O) is being referred to as the ‘New Congress’.
 2. • She focused on the growth of the public sector.
 • She focused on the removal of dis-parities in income and opportunity.
 3. It is justified to call the ‘opposition alliance’ as the ‘Grand Alliance’ because it came into existence to make matters worse for Indira Gandhi.

2. Read the passage given below carefully and answer the questions:
The defeat of the official Congress candidate formalised the split in the party. The Congress President expelled the Prime Minister from the party; she claimed that her group was the real Congress. By November 1969, the Congress group led by the ‘syndicate’ came to be referred to as the Congress (Organisation) and the group led by Indira Gandhi came to be called the Congress (Requisitionists). These two parties were also described as Old Congress and New Congress. Indira Gandhi projected the split as an ideological divide between socialists and conservatives, between the pro-poor and the pro-rich.
Questions
1. What formalised the split of Congress?
2. Mention two groups created after the split.
3. How did Indira Gandhi project the split?
Answer:
 1. The defeat of official candidate during presidential elections in 1969.
 2. Congress (O) i.e. Organisation led by syndicate known as old Congress, Congress (R) i.e. requisitionists led by Indira Gandhi known as new Congress.
 3. Indira Gandhi projected the split as an ideological divide between socialists and conservatives, between pro-rich and pro-poor.

3. Read the passage given below carefully and answer the questions:
But does it mean that the Congress system was restored? What Indira Gandhi had done was not a revival of the old Congress party. In many ways she had re-invented the party. The party occupied a similar position in terms of its popularity as in the past. But it was a different kind of a party. It relied entirely on the popularity of the supreme leader. It had a somewhat weak organisational structure. This
Congress party now did not have many fanctions ,Thus it could not accommodate all kind of options and interests .While it won elections,it depends more on some social groups: the poor, the women,Dalits, Adivasis and the minorities.It was a new congress system by changing the nature of the congress system itself.
Questions
1. Had Indira Gandhi revived Congress?
2. How did Indira Gandhi restore the Congress system?
3. Why did Congress not have all kinds of opinions and interests?
Answer:
 1. No, whatever had been done by Indira Gandhi, was not a revival of old Congress system but it was a re¬invention of party.
 2. Indira Gandhi restored the Congress system changing the nature of Congress system itself, to be dependent more on poor, women, dalits, adivasis and minorities.
 3. It had a somewhat weak organisational structure and it did not have many factions also to accommodate all kinds of opinions and interests.


Long Answer Type Questions [6 Marks]

l. Analyse any three major factors which led the popularity of Indira Gandhi’s Government in the early 1970s.
Answer: (i) The fifth general elections to Lok Sabha were held in February 1971. The electoral contest appeared to be loaded against Congress (R). After all, the new Congress was just one faction of an already weak party. Everyone believed that the real organizational strength of the Congress Party was under the command of Congress (O). To make i matters worse for Indira Gandhi, all the major non-Communist, non Congress opposition parties formed an electoral alliance known as the Grand Alliance. Yet the new Congress had something that its big opponents lacked — it had an issue, an agenda and a positive slogan. The Grand Alliance did not have a coherent political programme. Indira Gandhi said that the opposition alliance had only one common programme Indira Hatao (Remove Indira). In contrast to this, she put forward a positive programme captured in the famous slogan: Garibi Hatao (Remove poverty).
 (ii) Indira Gandhi focussed on the growth of the public sector, imposition of ceiling on rural land holdings and urban poverty, removal of disparities in income and opportunity, and abolition of princely privileges. Thus, the slogan Garibi Hatao and the programmes that followed it were part of Indira Gandhi’s political strategy of building an Independent nationwide political support base. As a result, she won 352 seats with about 44 per cent of the popular votes on its own in the Lok Sabha elections of 1971.
 (iii) Soon after the 1971 Lok Sabha election, a major political and military crises broke out in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh). The 1971 elections were followed by the crisis in East Pakistan and the Indo- Pak war leading to the establishment of Bangladesh. These events added to the popularity of Indira Gandhi. Even the opposition leaders admired her statesmanship.

2. Examine the three main reasons responsible for the split in Congress during 1969.
Or
Describe the various aspects of presidential election of 1969.
Answer: The formal split in Congress took place in 1969 on the issue of nomination of the candidate during presidential elections:
 1. Despite, Indira Gandhi’s representatives, the syndicate nominated Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy, as the official Congress candidate for ensuring presidential elections.
 2. Indira Gandhi retaliated the situation by encouraging Mr. V.V. Giri, the then Vice President, to be nominated as an independent candidate.
 3. During election, the then Congress president S. Nijalingappa issue a ‘Whip’ asking all Congress MPs, MLAs to vote for N. Sanjeeva Reddy.
 4. On the other hand, after silently supporting V.V. Giri, the Prime Minister Indira Gandhi openly called for a conscience vote to vote the way they want.
 5. Elections went in favour of V.V. Giri due to this diplomatic effort and N. Sanjeeva Reddy was defeated.
 6. The defeat of N. Sanjeeva Reddy, the formal Congress candidate, formalised the split of party into two:
 (a) Congress (0) i.e organisation led by Syndicate, known as Old Congress.
 (b) Congress (R) i.e. requisitionists led by Indira Gandhi, known as New Congress.

3. Which six factors contributed to the popularity of Indira Gandhi’s government in the decade of 1970s?
Answer: Because:
 1. Socialist credentials became main projects during this period.
 2. Indira Gandhi campaigned to implement land reform legislation and land ceiling legislations.
 3. She ended her dependence on other political parties by strengthening her party’s position and recommended the dissolution of Lok Sabha in December 1970.
 4. The crisis in East Pakistan and Indo- Pak war to establish Bangladesh as an independent one, also enhanced the popularity of Indira Gandhi.
 5. Indira Gandhi and her government was not accepted only as a protector of the poor and under privileged but as a strong government also.
 6. Congress became popular among different social sections and restored dominance again.

4. Examine the grave economic crisis prior to fourth general election of 1967. Assess the electoral verdict also.
Answer: Indira Gandhi government devalued Indian rupee to check economic crisis of 1967. Consequently, one US dollar could be purchased for less than ? 5 after devaluation, it cost more than ? 7.

1. The economic situation triggered a price rise.

2. People started protest against increase in prices of essential commodities and unemployment etc.

3. The Communist and Socialist parties launched struggle to avail greater equality.

The fourth general election was held in 1967 for the first time without Nehru:

1. The election verdict was not in favour of Congress and results jolted the Congress both at the national and state levels.

2. Half the ministers in Indira Gandhi’s cabinet were defeated including K. Kamraj in Tamilnadu, S.K. Patil in Maharashtra, Atulya Ghosh in West Bengal, K.B. Sahay in Bihar.

3. Congress did not lose only majority in seven states but two other states also prevented it to form government due to defections.

4. For the first time any non-Congress party secured majority in any state and in other eight states different non-Congress parties formed the coalitions.

5. These election results were called as a ‘Political Earthquake’.


Picture/Map Based Questions [5 Marks]
1. Study the picture given below and answer the questions that follow:
NCERT Solutions - Challenges to and Restoration of Congress System Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev
Questions
1. What is meant by ‘Keep Right, No Left Turn”?
2. In the picture what does the following stand for:
(а) LD (b) BKS
(c) SSP (d) BKD

3. What is a hung assembly?
Answer:
 1. United Front Party was formed on the basis of non-Communist ideology and supposed to follow the ‘rightist’ only.
 2. (a) Lok Dal
 (b) Bihar Kranti Sabha
 (c) Samyukt Socialist Party (d) Bharatiya Kranti Dal
 3. It is dominated by coalition government where no single party gets majority and this is very uncertain also.

2. Study the picture given below and answer the questions that follow:
NCERT Solutions - Challenges to and Restoration of Congress System Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Questions
1. Which year is being referred by cartoon?
2. Who is being commented by the phrase ‘Aya Ram Gaya Ram’?
Answer:
 1. 1967
 2. Haryana’s MLA ‘Gaya LaP who changed the party thrice in a fortnight from Congress to United Front, back to Congress and then within nine hours to United Front again.

3. Study the picture given below and answer the questions
NCERT Solutions - Challenges to and Restoration of Congress System Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev   
Questions
1. What does the cartoon represent?
2. Identify the lady in the cartoon and give reason for her pleasure.
3. Identify the person wearing garland in winning position.
4. Who is lying on the ground?
Answer:
 1. Presidential elections of 1969.
 2. Indira Gandhi on winning of her candidate V.V. Giri in presidential elections.
 3. V.V. Giri.
 4. N. Sanjeeva Reddy

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