1. Which elements of Greek and Roman culture were revived in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries?
The religious, artistic and literary elements of Greek and roman culture were revived in 14th and 15th centuries.
2. Compare details of Italian architecture of this period with Islamic architecture.
Comparison is given below:
(i) Both styles took care of decoration.
(ii) Beautiful buildings were constructed under the patronage of both styles.
(iii) Arch and pillars were the key features of both the styles.
(iv) Under the patronage of Italian architecture style beautiful catherdrals and monasteries were constructed while large and magnificent mosques were constructed under the Islamic style of architecture.
3. Why were Italian towns the first to experience the ideas of humanism?
The towns of Italy were the first to experience the ideas of humanism because of the following reasons:
(i) Education spread in Italy by 13th and 14th centuries.
(ii) A number of classical books were composed by roman and Greek scholars.
(iii) Universities were first of all developed here to spread education.
(iv) Humanism as a subject was first taught in Italian schools, colleges and universities. Italian people were made aware of humanist views and ideas.
4. What was the function of medieval monasteries?
Venice was free from the influence of the church and feudal lords. Here i.e, in Venice, bankers and rich merchants played a significant role in governing the city while there was absolute monarchy in France. The common people were deprived of rights.
Answer in Short Essay
5. Imagine and describe a day in the life of a craftsman in a medieval French town.
Main features of humanist thought are given below:
(i) Ideal life for human beings.
(ii) Encouraging dignity of human beings.
(iii) Proclamation of freedom of the individual.
(iv) Stress on physical pleasure or material pleasure for human.
(v) The humanist thought laid stress on freedom of human life from control of religion.
6. Compare the conditions of life for a French serf and a Roman slave.
(i) In cities and towns many artists , scholars and writers were patronized by aristocrates.
(ii) Towns become the centre of art and learning activities.
(iii) Towns begin to enjoy the status of autonomy from the kings.
(iv) Urban culture developed with the beginning of cities.
(v) Towns and cities begin to flourish on European landscape.