NCERT Solutions - The Making of the National Movement : 1870s-1947 Class 8 Notes | EduRev

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LET'S RECALL

Q.1. Why were people dissatisfied with British rule in the 1870s and 1880s?
Ans. There was great dissatisfaction with British rule in the 1870s and 1880s. Some of the reasons for this dissatisfaction are as follows:

  • The Arms Act- Passed in 1878, this Act disallowed Indians from possessing arms.
  • The Vernacular Press Act in 1878, this Act was aimed at silencing those who were critical of the government. Under this Act, the government could confiscate the assets of newspapers if they published anything that was found “objectionable”.
  • The Ilbert Bill controversy- in 1883, the government tried introducing the Ilbert Bill. This bill provided for the trial of British or European individuals by Indians, and sought equality between British and Indian judges in the country. However, the white opposition forced the government to withdraw the bill. This enraged the Indians further.


Q.2. Who did the Indian National Congress wish to speak for?
Ans. Indian National Congress wished to speak for all the people of India, irrespective of class, colour caste, creed, language, or gender. It stated that India, its resources and systems were not of any one class or community of India, but of all the different communities of India.

NCERT Solutions - The Making of the National Movement : 1870s-1947 Class 8 Notes | EduRevFig: Indian National Congress.


Q.3. What economic impact did the First World War have on India?
Ans.
(i) The First World War led to a huge rise in the defence expenditure of the Government of India. The government in turn increased taxes on individual incomes and business profits.
(ii) Increased military expenditure and the demands for war supplies led to a sharp rise in prices which created great difficulties for the common people. They found it difficult to fulfill even their essential needs.
(iii) On the other hand, business groups reaped fabulous profits from the war. The war created a demand for industrial goods such as jute bags, cloth and rails, and caused a decline in the imports from other countries into India. As a result, Indian industries expanded during the war.

Q.4. What did the Muslim League resolution of 1940 ask for?
Ans. The Muslim League resolution of 1940 asked for "Independent States" for Muslims in the North-Western and Eastern areas of the country.

NCERT Solutions - The Making of the National Movement : 1870s-1947 Class 8 Notes | EduRevFig: Muslim League.


Q.5. Who were the Moderates? How did they propose to struggle against British rule?
Ans. In the first twenty years of its existence, the Congress was “moderate” in its objectives and methods or we can say that “Moderates” were the leaders of the Congress who presented their demands to the British in a moderate way and they wanted gradual reforms. They aimed at better and friendly association with the British. They proposed to struggle against British rule in a non-violent manner which the radicals called “politics of petitions”. The moderates included leaders like Surendranath Banerjee, Pherozeshah Mehta and Gopal Krishna Gokhale.

Proposed methods to struggle against the British government:

  • The demands were presented to the British through petitions, meetings, speeches and resolutions.
  • They published newspapers, wrote articles and showed how the British rule was leading to the economic ruin of the country.
  • Their whole attitude was of reconciliation and not confrontation.
  • They would do nothing which would offend the British rulers.


Q.6. How was the politics of the Radicals within the Congress different from that of the Moderates?
Ans. To fight for swaraj, the radicals advocated mass mobilisation and boycott of British institutions and goods. Some individuals also began to suggest that “revolutionary violence” would be necessary to overthrow British rule. Moderates, on the other hand, wanted to follow the rules and law and order posed by the British. They followed the ‘practice of prayers’ which radicals totally opposed.

Q.7. Discuss the various forms that the Non-Cooperation Movement took in different parts of India. How did the people understand Gandhiji?
Ans. During 1921 and 1922 the Non-Cooperation Movement gained momentum. Students left their schools. Lawyers gave up their practices, British titles were surrendered and people lit public bonfires of foreign cloths.

(i) The Non-Cooperation movement gained momentum differently in different parts of India:

  • In Kheda, Gujarat, Patidar peasants organized non-violent campaigns against the high land revenue demand of the British.
  • In coastal Andhra and interior Tamil Nadu, liquor shops were picketed.
  • In the Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh, tribals and poor peasants staged a number of “Forest Satyagrahas”, sometimes sending their cattle into forest without paying grazing fee.
  • In Bengal, the Khilafat-Non-Cooperation movement alliance gave enormous communal unity and strength to the national movement.
  • In Punjab, the Akali agitation of the Sikhs sought to remove corrupt mahants supported by the British from their gurudwaras.
  • In Assam, tea gardens labourers demanded in a big increase in their wages.

(ii) The way in which the people understood Mahatma Gandhi:
Gandhi Ji was thought of by people as a messiah, someone who could help them overcome their misery and poverty. Peasants were hopeful that Gandhiji wished to build their fight against Zamindars. For instance, at the end of a powerful movement, peasants of Pratapgarh in the United Provinces managed to stop illegal eviction of tenants but they felt it was Gandhiji who had won this demand for them. Agricultural labour felt that he provide them with the land.

NCERT Solutions - The Making of the National Movement : 1870s-1947 Class 8 Notes | EduRevFig: Non-Cooperation Movement


Q.8. Why did Gandhiji choose to break the salt law?
Ans. Gandhiji choosed to break the salt law as British government had a monopoly on the manufacture and sale of salt. It also imposed a tax on the sale of salt. Gandhiji believed that it was sinful to tax salt as it was an essential part of food. He led a march to the coastal town of Dandi, where he broke the salt law by gathering natural salt found on the seashore, and boiling sea water to produce salt. 

NCERT Solutions - The Making of the National Movement : 1870s-1947 Class 8 Notes | EduRevFig: Dandi March.

This march related the general desire of freedom to a specific grievance shared by everybody, and thus, did not divide the rich and the poor.

Q.9. Discuss those developments of the 1937-47 period that led to the creation of Pakistan.
Ans. The developments leading to the creation of Pakistan are given below:

  • A two-nation theory: Initially the Muslim league never mentioned Pakistan to be the nation of Muslims. However, since the 1930s, it started demanding a separate country for Muslims.
  • Provincial elections of 1937: The elections were a decisive factor for Muslim league to decide that Muslims are a minority in India and they have to have a separate nation for them for their just representation in the politics.
  • Tiff between congress and Muslim league: When congress rejected the Muslim league’s offer for a joint congress-league government in united provinces, the league decided to part ways forever.
  • Failed talks: No discussion could turn out to be successful where both Congress and Muslim league come to a conclusion of only one nation. British too at the end of 2nd world war opened negotiation talks with both congress and league however it turned futile.
  • Provincial elections of 1946: Muslim league’s spectacular victory on the seats reserved for Muslims gave the confidence to create a separate nation.
  • Mass agitation: The failure of cabinet mission 1946 led to the mass agitation led by the Muslim league. Partition was finalised and Pakistan was born.NCERT Solutions - The Making of the National Movement : 1870s-1947 Class 8 Notes | EduRevFig: Creation of Pakistan.
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