Look at picture 1 and recall the opening lines of the original song in Hindi. Who is the singer? Who else do you see in this picture?
The original song is “Ae mere watan ke logon….” The singer is Lata Mangeshkar. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, Lal Bahadur Shastri, Indira Gandhi, Bahadur Shah Zafar, Rani Laxmi Bai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Lala Lajpat Rai, Bhagat Singh, Subhash Chandra Bose and Mahatma Gandhi are also seen in the picture.
In Picture 2 what do you understand by the Company’s “superior weapons”?
Technologically, the East India Company was far superior to the Indian princes, who were constantly at war with each other. The Englishmen had access to better quality weapons. This prompted the Indian princes to seek their help in their fights. These internal rivalries helped the East India Company subdue the Indian princes one by one, and finally gain control over the whole of India.
Who is an artisan? Why do you think the artisans suffered? (picture 3)
An artisan is a skilled manual worker who crafts items that may be functional or strictly decorative. The artisans suffered because the British were extracting very high taxes from them, which ruined them economically. Moreover, machine-manufactured goods imported from Britain were sold extensively, which ruined the business of the artisans’ hand-made goods.
Which picture, according to you, reveals the first sparks of the fire of revolt?
Picture 7 ‘The Sparks’ reveals the first sparks of the fire of revolt.
Do you think the Indian princes were short-sighted in their approach to the events of 1757?
Yes, the Indian princes were short-sighted in their approach to the events of 1757.
How did the East India Company subdue the Indian princes?
The Indian princes were constantly at war with each other. They called the English merchants to help them in their fights. The people had no peace due to such constant fights. The rivalries helped the East India Company subdue the Indian princes one by one.
Quote the words used by Ram Mohan Roy to say that every religion teaches the same principles.
According to Ram Mohan Roy, “Cows are of different colours, but the colour of their milk is the same. Different teachers have different opinions, but the essence of every religion is the same.”
In what ways did the British officers exploit Indians?
To earn quick profits, the British imposed heavy taxes, thereby forcing the Indian farmers to abandon their fields. They decided to do away with import duty for goods manufactured in England. This crippled the Indian industries. In 1818, they passed Regulation III. Under it, an Indian could be jailed without trial in a court. All the time British officers in India drew big salaries and also made fortunes in private business. By 1829, Britain was exporting British goods worth seven crore rupees to India. The British prospered on the Company’s loot, while the Indian industries began to die.
Name these people
(i) The ruler who fought pitched battles against the British and died fighting.
(ii) The person who wanted to reform society.
(iii) The person who recommended the introduction of English education in India.
(iv) Two popular leaders who led the revolt (Choices may vary.)
(i) Kunwar Singh
(ii) Ram Mohan Roy
(iv) Maulvi Ahmedulla of Faizabad and Peshwa Nana Saheb
Mention the following.
(i) Two examples of social practices prevailing then.
(ii) Two oppressive policies of the British.
(iii) Two ways in which common people suffered.
(iv) Four reasons for the discontent that led to the 1857 War of Independence.
(i) Untouchability and child marriage
(ii) The British decided to do away with import duty on goods manufactured in England. This severely affected Indian industries. In 1818, they passed Regulation III. Under it, an Indian could be jailed without trial in a court.
(iii) They lost their old jobs and lands. They were being converted by the British.
(iv) Discontent was brewing amongst the Indians. They felt that their kings who were supposed to be their protectors were mere puppets in the hands of the British. They lost their old jobs and lands. Taxes continued to ruin the peasants. There was discontent in the East India Company’s army too. The white soldier got huge pay, mansions to live in and servants, while the Indian soldiers got a pittance and slow promotions. Few Englishmen had cared to understand Indian customs or the people's mind. The religious sentiments of both Hindus and Muslims were also hurt. The grease on the bullets they had to bite was made from the fat of cows and pigs.
Change the following sentences into indirect speech.
(i) First man: We must educate our brothers.
Second man: And try to improve their material conditions.
Third man: For that, we must convey our grievances to the British Parliament
The first man said that ______________
The second man added that ____________
The third man suggested that _______
(ii) First soldier: The white soldier gets huge pay, mansions, and servants. Second soldier: We get a pittance and slow promotions.
Third soldier: Who are the British to abolish our customs?
The first man said that _____
The second soldier remarked that ---------
The third soldier asked_______
The first man said that they must educate their brothers.
The second man added that they must try to improve their material conditions.
The third man suggested that they must convey their grievances to the British Parliament.
The first soldier said that the white soldier got huge pay, mansions and servants.
The second soldier remarked that they got a pittance and slow promotions.
The third soldier asked who the British were to abolish their customs.